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Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

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Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture Adrian Campbell
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Page 1: Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

Enterprise ArchitectureStrategy driven Enterprise Architecture

Adrian Campbell

Page 2: Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

Slide 2

Enterprise Architecture

What is Enterprise Architecture?

Page 3: Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

Slide 3

IT responding to Business needs

Traditionally, IT's response to business requirements has been to give each user what they wanted, if possible when they wanted it.

Applications were built according to the specifications of a particular constituency of users without much thought for the impact on the rest of the enterprise.

And as long as the business operated as a collection of discrete business processes, that was okay.

Unfortunately, this approach spawned a collection of discrete applications, with discrete and individual data formats.

When the business needed to integrate those ‘silo’ applications to support changing business processes or to integrate application and off the shelf products, chaos ensued.

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Slide 4

IT response to Chaos

The response of IT was to become more precise, creating technology standards that appeared arbitrary to the business, requiring elaborate time consuming development processes and detailed documentation for new systems and changes to existing systems.

While IT believed that they were imposing a formal discipline on a chaotic system, the business could only see that these stringent requirements stifled innovation and made it difficult for the business to be agile in response to sometimes rapidly changing market requirements.

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Slide 5

Business response to IT

Faced with seemingly arbitrary standards, it was not uncommon for the business to go its own way and develop applications in isolation from IT

This led to further chaos and complexities within the enterprise that interfered with the ability of the business to get services from the IT organisation.

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Slide 6

Business Strategy

What is the Business Strategy?

What is the target operating model ?

How do you link the Business Strategy to IT execution?

New technologies such as SOA are not enough

Business agility and flexibility are important

Increasing costs need to be controlled

Silo Applications need to be consolidation

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Slide 7

Trends

The current trend in organisations is a renewed focus on business process management (BPM).

This is now allowing business users to make immediate changes to their business process models (BPMN), combined with the technology to implement these changes in near real time, to a process orchestration and execution environment (BPEL).

This trend drives better business and IT alignment and the ability to trace the business strategy straight through to the business execution.

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Slide 8

Business Trends

Improving business processes

Controlling increasing operating costs

Supporting competitive advantage

Improving profits

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Slide 9

Strategic Priorities

Delivery projects that enable business growth

Linking Business and IT strategies and plans

Building business skills in the IT organisation

Building IT skills in the business

Demonstrating the business value of IT

Measuring service levels and performance

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Slide 10

Technology Investments

Business Intelligence applications

Security Architecture

Mobile workforce applications

Collaboration technologies

Customer sales and self service applications

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Slide 11

Strategy & EA

Leading organizations use a business strategy driven architecture approach that focuses on translating the key components of the business strategy into a future state vision and an architecture road map they can implement.

Enterprise architecture is integrated with other strategic planning disciplines, such as programme/project and application portfolio and management

The Enterprise Architecture ensures that the long-term vision of the business is preserved as the enterprise builds new business capabilities and improves on old ones.

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Slide 12

Current to Target

Enterprise Architecture is an iterative process that produces four major deliverables:

– A future-state Enterprise Architecture reference model that realises the business strategy

– Current-state Enterprise Architecture model (just enough)– A gap analysis that identifies the shortfalls of the current state in

terms of its ability to support the strategies of the enterprise– An Architecture Roadmap that defines the initiatives required to

migrate from the current state into the future state

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Slide 13

Enterprise Architecture as Strategy

An Enterprise Architecture driven out of the business strategy provides the enterprise with the highest degree of alignment between the business and IT.

The concept of Enterprise Architecture has expanded well beyond the traditional notion of technology architecture.

It is now the architecture of the whole enterprise.

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Slide 14

Definition of Enterprise Architecture

A definition of Enterprise Architecture is addressed in 2 constituent parts – enterprise and architecture.

The Open Group defines ‘enterprise’ as follows:

An ‘enterprise’ is any collection of organisations that has a common set of goals and/or a single bottom line. In that sense, an enterprise can be a government agency, a whole corporation, a division of a corporation, a single department, or a chain of geographically distant organisations linked together by common ownership.

Gartner define ‘architecture’ as follows;

The grand design or overall concept employed in creating a system, as in the architecture of a city or a customer information system; also "an abstraction or design of a system, its structure, components and how they interrelate"

A family of guidelines (concepts, policies, principles, rules, patterns, interfaces and standards) to use when building a new IT capability.

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Slide 15

Purpose of Enterprise Architecture

Enterprise Architecture is designed to ensures alignment between the business and IT strategies, operating model, guiding principles, and the software development projects and service delivery.

By taking a global, enterprise-wide, perspective across all the business services, business processes, information, applications and technology, Enterprise Architecture ensures the enterprise goals and objectives are addressed in a holistic way across all the application development projects and their deployment into production.

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Slide 16

EA Process

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Slide 17

Gartner EA Process

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Slide 18

Architecture Domains

Architecture Domains– Strategy, Vision & Principles– Business Services– Business Process Architecture– Organisation Architecture– Information Architecture– Application Architecture– Technology Architecture– Performance

These architecture domains are interdependent and are developed simultaneously to ensure that the architecture reflects the optimal alignment of IT and the execution environment in support of the business strategy and target operating model.

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Slide 19

Archimate Framework

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Slide 20

Strategy, Vision & Principles

Concerns the motivation behind the Enterprise Architecture answering the ‘Why’ questions.

Addresses these in terms of the Business and IT Strategies, Target Operating Model, Vision, Principles, Goals and Objectives.

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Slide 21

Business Services

Concerns the Products and Services that are offered and sold to customers and partners.

Addresses these in terms of Business Services, Contracts and Value provided.

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Slide 22

Process Architecture

Concerns the transformations that are performed in the Enterprise answering the ‘How’ questions.

Addresses these in terms of the Business Processes, Activities, Workflows (Value Streams), Scenarios and Business Events.

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Slide 23

Organisation Architecture

Concerns the people perspective in the Enterprise answering the ‘Who’ question.

Addresses these in terms of the Locations, Business Actors (people and organisation units), Business Roles and Business Functions (responsibilities), from both an internal (staff, partners) and external (customers, agents) perspective.

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Slide 24

Information Architecture

Information Architecture includes the knowledge, information and data that flows through the business processes and the data that is accessed and stored by applications.

Answers the ‘What’ question in the Enterprise Architecture.

The ‘What’ refers to the ‘things’ or ‘assets’ which the enterprise needs to know about, use or create.

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Slide 25

Application Architecture

Addresses the ‘When’ question in the enterprise, in terms of interaction and dialogue.

Answering the ‘How’ question in terms of the calculations and algorithms needed to implement the transformations in the enterprise.

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Slide 26

Technology Architecture

Technology Architecture defines the technologies and infrastructure that support the applications

Addresses the ‘Where’ questions in the enterprise in terms of nodes, networks, devices, system software, communication infrastructure and persistent data storage.

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Slide 27

Performance

Whereas the Strategy, Vision & Principles provides the future direction for the Enterprise, the Performance Architecture is concerned with whether the goals and objectives have been achieved.

These are addressed in terms of status, business results, performance metrics and measurements.

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Slide 28

Traceability View

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Slide 29

Levels of Concern

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Slide 30

Traceability

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Slide 31

Cube View

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Slide 32

The Enterprise Architecture is

An analysis tool to provide abstraction and modelling capabilities at all levels and perspective of the enterprise architecture

A planning tool to translate strategic thinking into architecture roadmap of future development and integration

An analysis tool to clearly plot the key relationships and dependencies between the business services, business processes, applications and technology

A decision-making tool to provide a framework for evaluating-, selecting and justifying strategic development options and architecture decisions

A design tool to provide the required support, in the form of industry best practice design approaches, patterns, guidelines, and reference models

A change management tool to provide a framework for synchronising and coordinating development activities across multiple development projects and initiatives

A governance tool to provide a sole architecture design authority and a master repository for the target enterprise architecture, and a single architectural blueprint of principles, standards, patterns, policies, guidelines, reference models, reusable assets and templates

An alignment tool to provide an essential bridge between business strategy and IT delivery, and to furnish business managers with a non-technical over view of the enterprise architecture and how it supports the operating model

Page 33: Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

Slide 33

Benefits of Enterprise Architecture

Enterprise Architecture will deliver significant improvements in the following areas:

– The ability to rapidly adjust and adapt to new business circumstances– The efficient and strategic use of applications & technology across the

merged legal entities, and realisation of the Target Enterprise Architecture

– The management of information/data and knowledge as a corporate asset

– The alignment between IT and business for planning and execution purposes

– The transparency, impartiality, quality and objectivity of architecture decision making

– The management of change based on a clear understanding of its impact– The optimisation, cost effectiveness, efficiency of the IT solutions– The reduction of application complexity, and increased reuse of existing

IT assets– The reporting of performance results, and auditing of changes

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Slide 34

Risks of no Enterprise Architecture

Failure to implement an Enterprise Architecture will present the following risks:

– Inability to rapidly respond to challenges driven by business changes– Lack of focus on enterprise requirements– Lack of common direction and synergies– Incomplete visibility of the current and future target enterprise

architecture vision– Inability to predict impacts of future changes– Increased gaps and architecture conflicts– Lack of commonality and consistency due to the absence of

standards– Dilution and dissipation of critical information and knowledge of the

deployed solutions– Rigidity, redundancy and lack of scalability and flexibility in the

deployed solutions– Lack of integration, compatibility and interoperability between

applications– Complex, fragile and costly interfaces between incongruent

applications– Decision-making gridlock – Piece-meal and ad hoc software development driven by a tactical

and reactive approach

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Slide 35

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Slide 36

The ArchiMate project

2½ years, July 2002 - December 2004

approx. 35 man-years, 4 million euro

Consortium of companies and knowledge institutes, directed by the Telematica Instituut

ABN AMRO, Dutch Tax Administration, ABP Pension Fund, Ordina

University of Nijmegen, University of Leiden,Center for Mathematics & Computer Science

Page 37: Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

Slide 37

Results in Practice

Applications at numerous organisations– various cases at e.g. ABN AMRO, ABP, Dutch Tax

Administration, and approximately 25 other companies

Implementation by tool vendors– BiZZdesign Architect, Troux Metis (certified)– IDS Scheer (ARIS), Adaptive (currently implementing)– Casewise, ASG (considering implementation)

Education– ArchiMate basic training– Various universities and polytechnics use it

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Slide 38

Goal: support for architects

support for architects is insufficient– Overview and dependencies– PowerPoint, Word and Excel are the most important tools…

Communication over architectures with others is difficult– “fuzzy pictures”-image– Hidden knowledge in architectures– PowerPoint is not suitable for analysis

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Slide 39

ArchiMate Goals

To describe architectures and their relations

Communicate architectures with all stakeholders

Judge the impact of changes

Realize architecture by relating to existing standards, techniques and tools

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Slide 40

Analysis

ArchiMate Focus

Integration

Visualization

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Slide 41

ArchiMate Forum

Open cooperation between ArchiMate stakeholders

Long term objective: – An independent standard for describing

Enterprise Architectures

Required: – Creating critical mass– Contributing to international standards– Supporting organizations in applying ArchiMate

To this end, the Forum:– actively brings in members to increase critical mass– facilitates working groups for knowledge exchange– supports members in applying ArchiMate

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Slide 42

Members ArchiMate Forum

Page 43: Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

BiZZdesign Architect

Tool for Enterprise Architecture

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Slide 44

BiZZdesign Architect

Tool to model, visualize, analyze and communicate enterprise architectures

Based on meta model of open standard ArchiMate

Based on IEEE1471-definition: stakeholders, viewpoints and views

Covers all EA-domains and relations: business goals and principles, business services, products, processes, business functions, business objects, application services, applications, application data, interfaces, infrastructure services, software, hardware,…

Supports many architecture frameworks, like IAF, Zachman, DYA, Tapscott, Nolan-Norton, TOGAF

Page 45: Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

Slide 45

Concepts Archimate / Architect

Business

Application

Technology

Information Behaviour Structure

Goals, principles, guidelinesGoals, principles, guidelines

Go

als,

pri

nci

ple

s, g

uid

elin

esG

oal

s, p

rin

cip

les,

gu

idel

ines

Business product

Business actor

Business role

Business process

Business function

Business service

Business event

Business object

Representation

Contract

Data object

Application service

Application function

Application interaction

Application component

Application interface

Application collaboration

Artifact

Infrastructure service

System software

Network

Communication path

Node

Infrastructureinterface

Device

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Slide 46

Main functionality Architect - 1

Modeling business and IT-architecture– Based on ArchiMate®– Extensible meta model, especially properties of objects

Import/export of already existing architecture overviews (harvesting)– Tables to and from e.g. Word and Excel– Process models to and from BiZZdesigner (process tool)– Other imports and exports on the basis of XMI (in preparation)

Generating views from a model– Based on viewpoint definitions– Resulting in graphical scheme’s, lists, matrices, landscape maps– Both total views as well as selections

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Slide 47

Main functionality Architect - 2

Visualization of properties– Color view, label view, tool tip view

Impact-of-change analyses– Graphical or in tables

Documenting, reporting, and publishing architectures– Adding documentation and hyperlinks to all objects– Publication to Word or HTML (intranet), readable with Office tools

Team support via repository– Locking (check in and checkout) en version management– Role based authorization– Several repository solutions allowing growth

(shared file, Oracle or SQL Server, Adaptive)

Page 48: Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

Slide 48

Modelling

RegistrerenAccepteren Beoordelen UitbetalenRegistrerenAccepteren Beoordelen Uitbetalen

Page 49: Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

Slide 49

Examples

OvereenkomstAfsluiten

Overeenkomst

In te kopenZorg

VerzoekZorgaanbieder

Vraag & AanbodAfstemmenZorgvraag

OvereenkomstMonitoren

KlachtVerzekerde

Declaratie

OvereenkomstBeheren

OvereenkomstAfsluiten

Overeenkomst

In te kopenZorg

VerzoekZorgaanbieder

Vraag & AanbodAfstemmenZorgvraag

OvereenkomstMonitoren

KlachtVerzekerde

Declaratie

OvereenkomstBeheren

KlantContacten

MarketingEn

Communicatie

CommercieleZaken

Front Office

VerzekerdenAdministratie

ZorgAdministratie

Back Office

FinancieleAdministratie

RveVgz

Bank van de Klant

Klantphone

email

KlantContacten

MarketingEn

Communicatie

CommercieleZaken

Front Office

VerzekerdenAdministratie

ZorgAdministratie

Back Office

FinancieleAdministratie

RveVgz

Bank van de Klant

Klantphone

email

DatabaseService

ApplicatieService

Klantbeheerapplicatie

Klantgegevensmodule

Beoordelingssysteem

Registratiesysteem

Acceptatiesysteem

Betalingssysteem

Tussenpersoonbeheer

applicatie

Tussenpersoonbeheermodule

SQL Server

Oracle

Tussen-persoon

bestand.sql

Klantbestand.ocl

Database

Firewall

Load Balancer

Open OS J2EE CORBA

financien.java

risicoprofielEJB

acceptatieprofiel

Openoffice

Applicaties

Internet

RegistratieService

Klantbeheerservice

AcceptatieService

Tussenpersoonbeheer service

Page 50: Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

Slide 50

Impact analysis

Mainframe

Mainframe

ClaimFiles Service

LANMainframe

ClaimFiles Service

LAN

Registratiesysteem

Beoordelingssysteem

Acceptatiesysteem

Mainframe

ClaimFiles Service

LAN

Registratiesysteem

Beoordelingssysteem

Acceptatiesysteem

Beoordelingsservice

Document InformatieSysteem

Klantbeheerapplicatie

Mainframe

ClaimFiles Service

LAN

Registratiesysteem

Beoordelingssysteem

Acceptatiesysteem

Beoordelingsservice

Document InformatieSysteem

Klantbeheerapplicatie

Beoordelen

Page 51: Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

Slide 51

Principles

A_C 04

A_A 39

A_C 01

A_A 51

A_B 18

A_T 07

A_B 13

A_B 11

A_A 30

A_I 24A_I 30

A_I 33

A_A 00

A_I 26

A_I 09

A_T 01

A_T 08

Page 52: Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

Slide 52

Relation principles and models

OvereenkomstAfsluiten

Overeenkomst

In te kopenZorg

VerzoekZorgaanbieder

Vraag & AanbodAfstemmenZorgvraag

OvereenkomstMonitorenKlacht

Verzekerde

Declaratie

OvereenkomstBeheren

VoorlichtingPreventie

VoorlichtingPreventie

Legendabijbehorende doelstellingen

Integratie in de keten

Gids in zorgaanbiedersland

Verbeteren service naar interne en externe klanten

Eff icient/lage kosten

Zorg op maat

Zorgkostenbeheersing (schadelastbeheersing)

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Slide 53

Landscape maps

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Slide 54

Multi user support

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Slide 55

Authorisation

Role based

Any level of granularity

Page 56: Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

Enterprise Architecture

Adrian Campbell

www.Ingenia.Biz

[email protected]

+44 (0) 777 555 6878


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