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Materials in machine tool structures Hans-Christian Mo ¨ hring (2) a, *, Christian Brecher (1) b , Eberhard Abele (1) c , Ju ¨ rgen Fleischer (1) d , Friedrich Bleicher (3) e a Institute of Manufacturing Technology and Quality Management (IFQ), Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany b Machine Tool Laboratory (WZL), University of Aachen, Aachen, Germany c Institute of Production Management, Technology and Machine Tools (PTW), Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany d Institute of Production Science (WBK), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany e Institute for Production Engineering and Laser Technology (IFT), Technical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria 1. Introduction The frame structure of a machine tool is an essential functional component inside the machining system. Main tasks of machine structures are the assurance of the geometric configuration of the machine elements even under static, dynamic and thermal loads, as well as the absorption and guiding of forces and torques. Regarding the accuracy of a machined workpiece, the machine frame also should absorb any disturbing effects. Fig. 1 shows modern structures of machining centers including beds, columns, slides, tables, main spindles, joining guides and bearings. The mechanical and thermal behavior of a machine frame depends on the elementary material properties (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, bending and tensile strength, material damping, density, heat conductivity and capacity, thermal expansion coefficient), the dimensions and cross sections of the structural components, their joining and integration into the force flow of the machining system, the foundation of the whole frame, and the applied loads. 1.1. Retrospection The general importance of materials was discussed in Ref. [70]. Fig. 2 summarizes the use of materials in history. A historical review about the application of materials in early machine tools can be found in Refs. [54,170]. The improvements and diffusion of machine tools had a major impact on the productivity in industry since the Industrial Revolution 1775–1830. Prior to that time, almost all machinery was made of wood. By the use of coke rather than charcoal in 1784, iron became cheap enough to be a major industrial raw material. With the use of iron and steel also metalworking machinery and machine tools appeared. In 1750, iron was used in machines only where wood or another cheaper and more easily wrought material would fail. By 1830, iron was the mostly preferred material. The delivery of iron was increased with the introduction and exploitation of the steam engine (1775). The rapidly increasing use of steam engines in turn increased the demand for cast iron. The use of metal instead of wood was a ‘‘breakthrough’’ in machine tool technology in terms of machine performance. Famous examples are the lathes of Henry Maudslay (Fig. 3). CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748 Fig. 1. Modern structures of machining centers [DMG Mori Seiki]. A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: Machine tool Material Structure A B S T R A C T A broad variety of materials can be found in modern machine tool structures ranging from steel and cast iron to fiber reinforced composite materials. In addition, material combinations and hybrid structures are available. Furthermore, innovative intelligent and smart materials which incorporate sensor and actuator functionality enable the realization of function integrated structures. Consequently, material design and application discloses manifold degrees of freedom regarding a sophisticated layout and optimization of machine frames and components. This keynote paper presents the current state-of-the-art with respect to materials applied in machine tool structures and reviews the correspondent scientific literature. Thus, it gives an overview and insight regarding material selection and exploitation for high performance, high precision and high efficiency machine tools. ß 2015 CIRP. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +0049 3916718552; fax: +0049 3916712370. E-mail address: [email protected] (H.-C. Mo ¨ hring (2)). Contents lists available at ScienceDirect CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology journal homepage: http://ees.elsevier.com/cirp/default.asp http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2015.05.005 0007-8506/ß 2015 CIRP.
Transcript
Page 1: Entire review of the machine tool materials.pdf

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Materials in machine tool structures

Hans-Christian Mohring (2)a,*, Christian Brecher (1)b, Eberhard Abele (1)c, Jurgen Fleischer (1)d,Friedrich Bleicher (3)e

a Institute of Manufacturing Technology and Quality Management (IFQ), Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germanyb Machine Tool Laboratory (WZL), University of Aachen, Aachen, Germanyc Institute of Production Management, Technology and Machine Tools (PTW), Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germanyd Institute of Production Science (WBK), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germanye Institute for Production Engineering and Laser Technology (IFT), Technical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

1. Introduction

The frame structure of a machine tool is an essential functionalcomponent inside the machining system. Main tasks of machinestructures are the assurance of the geometric configuration of themachine elements even under static, dynamic and thermal loads,as well as the absorption and guiding of forces and torques.Regarding the accuracy of a machined workpiece, the machineframe also should absorb any disturbing effects. Fig. 1 showsmodern structures of machining centers including beds, columns,slides, tables, main spindles, joining guides and bearings.

The mechanical and thermal behavior of a machine fradepends on the elementary material properties (Young’s modushear modulus, bending and tensile strength, material dampdensity, heat conductivity and capacity, thermal expanscoefficient), the dimensions and cross sections of the structcomponents, their joining and integration into the force flow ofmachining system, the foundation of the whole frame, and

applied loads.

1.1. Retrospection

The general importance of materials was discussed in Ref. [Fig. 2 summarizes the use of materials in history. A historreview about the application of materials in early machine tcan be found in Refs. [54,170]. The improvements and diffusiomachine tools had a major impact on the productivity in indusince the Industrial Revolution 1775–1830.

Prior to that time, almost all machinery was made of woodthe use of coke rather than charcoal in 1784, iron became chenough to be a major industrial raw material. With the use of

and steel also metalworking machinery and machine tappeared. In 1750, iron was used in machines only where wor another cheaper and more easily wrought material would

A R T I C L E I N F O

Keywords:

Machine tool

Material

Structure

A B S T R A C T

A broad variety of materials can be found in modern machine tool structures ranging from steel and

iron to fiber reinforced composite materials. In addition, material combinations and hybrid structures

available. Furthermore, innovative intelligent and smart materials which incorporate sensor and actu

functionality enable the realization of function integrated structures. Consequently, material design

application discloses manifold degrees of freedom regarding a sophisticated layout and optimizatio

machine frames and components. This keynote paper presents the current state-of-the-art with res

to materials applied in machine tool structures and reviews the correspondent scientific literature. T

it gives an overview and insight regarding material selection and exploitation for high performance,

precision and high efficiency machine tools.

� 2015 C

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology

journal homepage: http: / /ees.elsevier.com/cirp/default .asp

y of theineseadrmsnry

Fig. 1. Modern structures of machining centers [DMG Mori Seiki].

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +0049 3916718552; fax: +0049 3916712370.

E-mail address: [email protected] (H.-C. Mohring (2)).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2015.05.005

0007-8506/� 2015 CIRP.

By 1830, iron was the mostly preferred material. The deliveriron was increased with the introduction and exploitation ofsteam engine (1775). The rapidly increasing use of steam engin turn increased the demand for cast iron. The use of metal instof wood was a ‘‘breakthrough’’ in machine tool technology in teof machine performance. Famous examples are the lathes of HeMaudslay (Fig. 3).

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748726

arly design rules were presented in Ref. [267], which alreadyhasized the target to use the material (cast iron) effectively andonsider the process and force flow sensitively. The structuralut was depending on the experience of the designer rather thanalculations [222]. In 1961, Koenigsberger mentioned that aise calculation of deformations of complex shaped structuralponents under load is very difficult or even impossible]. This situation changed significantly with the availabilityusability of Finite Element (FE) software packages [58,286].t was early understood that closed box cross sections, weldedasted, lead to advantages with respect to stiffness andnances (Fig. 4). The so-called ‘‘Peters’’ ribbing was found todvantageous with respect to bending but box cross sections

to the highest torsional stiffness. Koenigsberger listed someor design aspects including material properties (tensile,pression and impact strength, stiffness, damping, operating

characteristics of sliding guideways), production limits (wallthickness accuracy, residual stresses in cast iron and heattreatment), cost effectiveness and mass reduction [153].

Regarding the use of welded or casted structures, material costswere weighed up against labor costs of a welding worker. This ledto different building techniques in Germany and the US. Afundamental comparison of steel and cast iron regarding therelationship between material volume, free length of a cantileverbeam and bending height under load can be found in Ref. [240]. In1917, Schlesinger tried to substitute cast iron for machine framesand slideways by cement concrete because of the lack of metalmaterial due to the First World War [241]. The wear of the concreteslideways prohibited the success of this technology at that time.Fig. 5 shows different generations of base plates for a column standdrilling machine including stepwise improved ribbings. Weldedalternatives led to a weight reduction of 32% compared to cast iron[240]. Benjamin [33] and Fischer [83] showed further examples forcasted and welded machine tool structures. Besides the stiffnessimprovement by supporting ribs the consideration of the chip flowaffects the machine design. Haas presented a variety of weldedconstructions in Ref. [102].

1.2. General aspects regarding materials in machine structures

The aspired structural characteristics (static/dynamic stiffness,fatigue strength, damping, thermal and long term stability, lowweight) of a machine tool depend on the physical properties ofthe used materials as well as on the layout and shape of thecomponents. Regarding the variety of available materials, basicallymetal, stone, ceramic, polymer concrete, porous, and reinforcedcomposite materials can be seen in machine tools and components[191]. In addition, material combinations and hybrid materialstructures are often applied.

Research approaches also incorporate intelligent or smartmaterials providing inherent sensor and/or actuator capability.Fig. 6 summarizes the major classes of materials with respect todensity (specific weight) and stiffness (Young’s modulus). Regard-

Fig. 2. Material development and importance in history [70].

. Picture of a lathe from 1750 (left) [170] and drawing from 1841 by James

yth of a lathe with slide rest by Henry Maudslay (right) [Science Museum/SSPL].

Fig. 5. Different generations of the base plate of a column stand drilling machine

(Raboma-Maschinenfabrik, Berlin Borsigwalde) [240].

. Cellular structure of a grinding machine (Diskus Werke, Frankfurt a.M. (a) M.,

any) and different types of ribbing of a lathe bed ((a) vertical cross walls, (b)

ontal cross walls with chip holes (s), (c) Peters ribbing) [153,240].

ing lightweight design, density-specific mechanical values (such asYoung’s modulus divided by density) become more important.Fig. 7 shows a trade-off plot by Ashby for a performance metricsregarding specific stiffness and damping characteristics of variousmaterials which can be used for optimum material selection [15].

The material selection and structural layout strongly depend onthe targeted application of the machine tool. The characteristics ofthe processes which have to be conducted by the machine have tobe considered [18,39,66,106]. Uriarte et al. mentioned relevantaspects with respect to large machine tools [274]. High stiffnessand damping as well as low thermal expansion are particularly

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748 727

important. For precision applications, thermal and long termstability of structures is essential [185,239]. Schulz discussed therequirements on machine structures and components for high speedmachining [245]. Lightweight construction is desired for movingcomponents and high damping and stability should be providedby the machine base [270,285]. Tlusty pointed out that even withthe best strategies and most powerful drives a high corneringaccuracy cannot be achieved when moving large masses [269]. Theimportance of structural optimization and lightweight design isevident. As mentioned by Schellekens, DeBra equalized ‘‘design for ahigh stiffness’’ with ‘‘designing for a minimum potential energy’’[239]. This means to correctly place material in the right shape whileusing as little material as possible (i.e. light stiff design). A gooddesign leads to a uniformly distributed loading. Ideally, the stresslevel under load should be the same for all material used.

A structural approach to exploit materials most effectively withrespect to stiffness/mass-ratio concerns parallel kinematicmachines (PKM) [291]. However, only few PKM machine toolscan be found in industry mainly due to cost, complexity and themostly disadvantageous size to workspace ratio.

Regarding process dynamics and chatter stability, structuralstiffness and damping are relevant [8]. Material damping isdifficult to quantify and the machine tool designer must generallyrely on empirical results [239]. Material damping highly depends

impact, and technological competition, all of which demmaterial saving, low-cost and high-performance structu[121,159]. Regarding the carbon efficiency of machinery,

energy consumption due to the mining, provision and processof the materials has to be considered [53,70,77,261] (Fig. 8).

The following chapters first introduce the materials whichmostly used in machine tool structures, their basic physproperties and exemplary applications. Subsequently, methodsstructure layout and optimization are discussed. Finally, intelligmaterials and structures are presented.

2. Materials, characteristics and applications

2.1. Steel, cast iron and metal materials

Steel, cast iron and metal materials are still the mostly appmaterials in machine tools. Metallic structures are also used fvariety of hybrid and combined material and structural solutiMetal components are at least required for mechanical interfajoints, guides and bearings. In conventional structural design,competition between welded steel structures, steel casting and

iron components continues. The general design rule which asscastings to high volume production and welded structures to smbatch or single piece production is often neglected by machine

builders due to technical reasons. Whereas cast iron provbeneficial material damping characteristics, welded steel allmaterial and mass savings due to the higher Young’s modulus.castings, expensive molds and casting cores have to be produwhich can be avoided by welded constructions. On the other hacomplex ribbings and integral structures can be casted more ea

Fig. 6. Double logarithmic material selection diagram [113].

Fig. 7. Performance metrics for stiffness and damping [15].

Fig. 8. Strength and specific energy consumption of materials [70].

Fig. 9. Classification of iron materials [238].

on alloy composition, frequency, stress level and type (tension orshear), temperature, and joint preload. Due to mechanisms offriction and micro-slip, structural joints significantly contribute tothe structural damping [47,99,285].

Obviously, the thermal properties (thermal conductivity,specific heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficients) ofmaterials and structures have a significant influence on theaccuracy and performance of the machines [98,289]. Thermalproperties also affect the mechanical machine behavior [182].

Optimal structural design becomes increasingly important dueto limited material availability, energy efficiency, environmental

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748728

he variety of steel alloys and cast iron materials still developsdly. Fig. 9 depicts a rough classification of iron materials.ending on the alloying components and heat treatment,rent physical properties (ductile, high-strength, hardened)be achieved (Tables 1 and 2).teel grades are classified by national and internationaldards (e.g., DIN EN 10020, DIN EN 10027, SAE steel grades,4948). In general, steel sheet metal parts are assembled bying. Due to the welding heat, residual stresses, bending andrtion of the component can occur. This must be compensated

ubsequent production steps (e.g. milling and grinding). Sheetal parts are also assembled using bolts and screws. In this case,resulting structural stiffness and damping depends on theaces and stresses of the bolted joints. Regarding the principles inside a steel structure, a maximum geometrical moment of

ultra-precision diamond turning machine with a honeycomb-likebonded and sandwiched steel bed was introduced, which provideda low mass and a high dynamic rigidity (1st eigenmode above1.2 kHz) with directional orientation.

A welded honeycomb steel structure (Fig. 12) was applied fora gantry slide of a high speed milling machine in Ref. [63]. Thehoneycomb tubes were welded together only with a top andbottom plate in order to exploit friction between the metal sheetsfor damping improvement.

1anical properties of different types of steel [238].

Tensile

strength

Rm [MPa]

Yield

strength

Re [MPa]

Breaking

strain [%]

Typical

application

lloyed low-carbon

teel

10E 640–780 �390 �13 Sheet metal

20D 380 205 25 Structural steel

h strength low

lloyed steel

420NL 500–680 320–420 �19 Constr. for

low temperatures

500N 560–740 �400 16 Truck frames

nched and tempered

nalloyed steel

40 (1.0511) �580 �320 �16 Cranks, bolts

10800 (UNS) 800–1310 480–980 24–13 Bits, hammer

100S (1.1274) 1470–1670 �1275 �6 Knifes, saw blades

nched and tempered

w-alloyed steel

40630 (UNS) 786–2380 710–1770 24–4 Springs, tools

0CrNiMo8 (1.6580) 1250–1450 �1050 �9 Bearing bushings

1CrV4 (1.8159) 1100–1300 �900 �9 Shafts, pistons,

gears

tenitic stainless steel

2CrNiMo18-14-13

.4435)

500–700 �200 �40 Welded

structures

2anical properties of different types of cast iron [238].

Tensile

strength

Rm [MPa]

Yield

strength

Re [MPa]

Breaking

strain

[%] min

t iron with lamellar graphite

N-GJL-150 (0.6015) 110–135 – –

N-GJL-200 (0.6020) 145–180 – –

N-GJL-300 (0.6030) 220–270 – –

t iron with spheroidal graphite

N-GJS-450-10 (0.7040) 450 310 10

N-GJS-700-2 (0.7070) 600–680 370–410 1.0–2.0

N-GJS-600-3 (0.7060) 500–580 320–360 1.0–3.0

ealed cast iron

N-GJMBW-350-10 350 200 10

N-GJMBW-450-6 450 270 6

t iron with vermicular graphite

N-GJV-300 250–300 175–210 2.0

N-GJV-500 400–500 280–350 0.5

Fig. 10. Different wall constructions for a slide [196].

Fig. 11. Welded steel slide construction [196].

Fig. 12. Honeycomb slide structure [63].

tia in the force flux shall be achieved by the sheet metalngement [270,285]. This leads to box type or ribbed structures. The sheet metal parts can be breached in order to reduce theht of the component and to improve accessibility. In Ref. [196]

ciple ribbing geometries for a lightweight welded steel slidee analyzed. Fig. 10 shows different ribbings and displacementsmed by the minimum value) which occur if a theoreticaling load is applied. As a result of these analyses, a slide was

mbled which is presented in Fig. 11.everal approaches used thin-walled sheet metal structuresrder to achieve light, but stiff components. In Ref. [250] an

A machine for laser cutting and high speed milling consistingof lightweight sheet metal structures was introduced in Ref.[110]. Sandwich designs with various core structures (honeycomb,tube, grid) were applied (Fig. 13). For the same bending stiffness,weight savings up to 40% could be achieved compared to analuminum design. Welded steel structures are often used as shellsfor concrete and mineral casting, or filled with sand, oil or foams inorder to increase structural damping. In Ref. [296] a base of a highprecision turning machine applying a lightweight steel weldmentfilled with synthetic granite was built. Cast iron rails for guidewayswere bonded onto this structure by epoxy based bonding material.

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748 729

A similar approach was used in Ref. [297] for a large mirrorgrinding machine.

Cast iron compared to steel is characterized by a higherpercentage of carbon. Depending on the composition and heattreatment, different types of graphite (lamellar, spheroidal,vermicular) are built inside the material (Fig. 14) leading todifferent material properties [3]. Lamellar graphite leads to highmaterial damping values and compressive strength but low tensilestrength due to internal notch effects. Spheroidal graphite providesa lower material damping but higher tensile strength and a higherbreaking strain. Basically the strength depends on the carboncontent and the matrix type. Whilst for steel, the Young’s moduluscan be indicated precisely, for cast iron areas of dispersal appeardue to wall thickness and load scenarios. Cast iron with lamellargraphite shows a nonlinear relation between stress and strain. Awell-known method to enhance structural damping of cast ironcomponents is to keep sand cores from the casting process insidethe structure [270]. Sun et al. presented an approach to predict theloss factors of sand-filled structures in Ref. [266]. Wakasawa et al.obtained an improved damping by the packing of machinestructures with glass balls [282]. The damping capacity dependedon the ball size, packing arrangement and packing ratio.

A classification of cast iron can be found in DIN EN 1560-1564whereas cast steel for general purposes is classified in DIN EN10293. Exemplary cast iron grades for machine tool structures areGJL-300 (lamellar) and EN-GJS-400-18 (spheroidal). Cast ironmaterials also allow welding and hardening. Even complex shapedand ribbed structural parts can be produced by casting (Fig. 15).Some design rules have to be considered to avoid materialaccumulation, to create nodal points without stresses, and to

room temperature but can be melted to liquid state by slheating. High damping metals (HIDAMETS) are investigatedsome decades [22] (Fig. 16). Exemplary materials (‘‘ProteCuZnAl, ‘‘Gentalloy’’: FeCrMo, ‘‘Sonoston’’: MnCu, ‘‘Nitinol’’: T‘‘Vacrosil’’: Fe-alloy) were studied in Ref. [277]. The dynaproperties, elastic modulus and loss factor depend on

temperature, frequency, static and dynamic stress.In addition to mechanical properties, thermal issues have to

considered in machine design [98]. Most important characterivalues of materials are the heat conductivity, specific heat capaand coefficient of thermal expansion.

In Ref. [192] the layout of ribbings, casings and structure wwith respect to thermal deformations of a lathe headstock

investigated. Fig. 17 depicts the structural features for desoptimization. By Taguchi method and Finite Element Anal(FEA), the critical thermal displacement in X-direction

minimized. The displacements of design variants nos. 9

11 are compared to the basic design in the diagramFig. 17. Influences of wall thicknesses on the thermal beha

Fig. 13. Lightweight sheet metal structures [110].

Fig. 14. Lamellar (left), vermicular (middle) and spheroidal graphite (right) in cast

iron [27].

Fig. 15. Machine frame (EN-GJS-400-18) by company SHW [27].

Fig. 16. Properties of damping alloys [22].

ereion

iron

sedum

castced.r to

18any

achieve a good form filling and, thus, accurate geometry. Blowholes which can occur during the casting process and whichdegrade the structural properties up to the initiation of breakageare a critical issue.

Due to the casting heat and subsequent cooling, residualstresses appear inside casted components. Sensitive annealing,‘‘aging’’ or vibration are applied to lower these residual stressesand to achieve better long term stability [270].

New alloys can have advantageous properties for machineapplications. Low melting alloys can be used for clamping ofcomplex workpieces [13]. These materials possess a solid state at

of structural components of a large portal milling machine wdiscussed in Ref. [289]. Inasaki et al. presented an ultra-precispolishing machine which applies low thermal expansion cast

[127]. This material was also discussed in Ref. [106].Besides steel and cast iron, also other metal materials are u

in machine tool structures. Light metal alloys such as aluminalloys have a significantly lower density compared to steel and

iron. Thus, masses of moving machine components can be reduOn the other hand, wall thicknesses can be increased in ordereduce local strain maintaining the component weight. Fig.shows a cross slide of a high speed machining center by comp

Page 6: Entire review of the machine tool materials.pdf

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748730

made of light metal alloy. Even in tool bodies, light metals have been applied as can be seen in Fig. 18 [113]. Reducingass and inertia of fast rotating tools allows for shorter run-up

s and energy saving.n Ref. [278] aluminum was applied for the structure of a highision coordinate measuring machine (CMM). This material

selected because of the thermal sensitivity for gradients a/l,ch is very low due to the high thermal conductivity l and the

thermal diffusivity l/rcp. The influence of thermal expansion minimized by a short distance between the probe and thesuring system and mechanical thermal length compensation.n ultra-precision machines and metrology frames materials

minimum thermal expansion are required. The frequentlyied Invar (Fe–Ni alloys with typically about 64% Fe and 36% Ni,o 1% Mn, Si, or carbon, and up to 5% Co) provides a very low or

negative thermal expansion coefficient. In Ref. [19] a framecture of a miniature 4-axis machine tool applying Invar-36

combined with a granite base was introduced. Machining showed deviations between 0.1 and 0.52 mm. In Ref. [223] a

rology frame for a compact high-accuracy CMM was made ofr. A volumetric standard uncertainty of 19 nm could beeved. Inovco (63% Fe, 32% Ni, 5% Co), also called ‘‘Super Invar’’ides an even lower thermal expansion coefficient of

� 10�6 K�1 compared to Invar-36 with 1.6 � 10�6 K�1

[238]. The thermal expansion of a tool holder was minimizedwith Super Invar by Moriwaki et al. [193] leading to significantlyhigher straightness in turning long workpieces.

2.2. Natural stone and ceramics

Industrially mined hard stone is used since decades in measuringplates, standards and etalons as well as structural parts of measuringand high precision production machines. Commonly used naturalstone grades are Gabbro Impala, Tarn, Fine Black, Black Galaxy orJi Nan Black (Table 3) [130]. Granite can favorably be used as a basefor prototype machines due to its high and fast availability.

Natural stone materials follow Hook’s law and can be analyzedby linear finite element calculations. They are antimagnetic, non-conductive, stainless and they do not generate burrs. Granite framesprovide high damping, low thermal conductivity (3.2 W/m K), lowthermal expansion (0.005–0.006 mm/m K) and high long termstability due to the absence of residual stresses [100]. Granite is acrystalline hard stone consisting of quartz, mica and feldspar. Itsproperties differ depending on the origin of the material. Withsmaller grain size, the mechanical properties increase. Fine graingranite achieves Young’s moduli of 65–113 N/mm2 and a pressurestrength above 180 N/mm2. Being a natural product, these values ofgranite scatter. Due to the high hardness (850–900 HV), abrasionresistance and homogeneous surface, granite is suitable for aerostaticand hydrostatic bearings and guides [81]. Wegener realized anaerostatic planar guide using a granite base [292] (Fig. 19).

In designing with granite, knowledge about stone processing isessential. Processing predominantly includes sawing, drilling andgrinding. By grinding, a straightness and planarity of 5 mm/m can beachieved. Granite is often combined with glued steel inserts(bushings, T-slots) which provide mechanical interfaces. Thus acombined processing of both materials is necessary. By lapping,dimensional allowance of IT1 can be achieved. Due to the processingtechnology, granite frames consist of prismatic blocks. Because of itsmicrostructure, hard stone should be loaded by pressure. Thematerial properties regarding tensile and bending loads are muchlower. The force flow inside the structure has to be consideredcarefully in the design process. For machines with high accelerations,a ratio of 1:10 between moved and fixed masses should be respected.

Mostly a combination of granite with steel is applied. Thethermal properties of both materials have to be taken into accountin order to avoid bending and stresses in interfaces. For theassembly of multiple granite components, screwing and congluti-nation are mostly applied [100] (Fig. 20). Since granite can absorbmoisture, it is often sealed with very thin epoxy resin.

7. Features for thermal design optimization and thermal displacement of lathe

stock in X-axis after 10 h spindle rotation [192].

8. Aluminum alloy cross slide (left) by company MAP and magnesium alloy

g head (right) by company W. Fette [113].

Fig. 19. Planar guide with granite base [292].

3nical values of natural stone materials [130].

Fig. 20. Grinding of granite frame (left) and linear guides and bushings in a granite

frame (right) [100].

Impala

(South Africa)

Black Galaxy

(India)

Ji Nan Black

(China)

Tarn

(France)

sity [kg/dm3] 2.90 2.90 3.00 2.90

pressive strength

/mm2]

300 190 250 180

ding tensile

trength [N/mm2]

20 19 26 24

ng’s modulus

N/mm2]

90 44 70 46

rmal expansion

oefficient [10�6 K�1]

6.5 6.0 5.0 6.0

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748 731

Granite is often used for high-precision and metrologyapplications because of its form stability. Abdin et al. and deBruinstudied the dimensional stability of cast iron, granite, polymerconcrete and graphite composites [1,61]. It was pointed out thatthe long term stability even of granite is limited. There is asignificant sensitivity with respect to the influence of moisture.However, also due to its thermal and damping characteristics,granite is the dominant material for CMMs and ultra-precisionmachines [41,43,72,123,272,278]. In Fig. 21 a compact five axesgrinding machine based on a granite structure is shown.

Since thermal stability, high stiffness and low masses are keyissues in high and ultra-precision machine tools, also ceramicswere used [184,185,283]. Table 4 gives an overview aboutcharacteristic values of some selected ceramic materials.

Ceramics are inorganic materials mostly consisting of metalsand metalloids with ionic but also covalent bonding and variouscomplex crystal structures [175,238]. Ceramics possess ratherbrittle characteristics. Due to micro cracks the tensile strength ismuch lower than the compressive strength. The tensile strengthstrongly depends on the amount of internal failures and variesamong samples of the same material. The desired properties ofceramics are achieved by high temperature treatment (baking).Generally, ceramics possess low thermal expansion. A lot ofceramics exhibit a remaining porosity due to the manufacturingbased on powder. For aluminum oxide (Al2O3) there is a non-linear

[239]. Vibration damping of ceramics is poor. A laminated buildof thin ceramic tiles is preferable. A factor of 3 in mass reductiopossible compared to an aluminum or steel plate frame structwith the same stiffness. Furukawa summarized the benefits

drawbacks of using aluminum ceramics in machine structu[90]. Shinno et al. applied alumina ceramics (Al2O3) for a numbehigh precision machine components [250–256,302]. Low therdeformation and a lightweight but stiff construction couldachieved. In Ref. [255] an Al-ceramics table was combined wigranite frame structure in order to achieve high thermal

dynamic stability of a 3D profile scanner. A spatial nanomresolution was obtained with the assembled system. Yoshioka

Shinno presented an aluminum ceramics structure for a napattern generator in Ref. [302] where the bed, columns, top beaand positioning systems consist of Al2O3 (Fig. 22). A radial eduring circular motion in the X–Y-plane of less than 4.5appeared.

Vermeulen et al. introduced a single point diamond turn(SPDT) machine with ceramic slides having sub-mm accuracy

mirror surface quality [279] (Fig. 23). The spindle was held

triangular frame providing a vertical symmetry axis for therexpansion. This frame was attached to a flat granite base plathorizontal granite beam served as guideway for the cross slideoptimization of stiffness per mass for the slides was conductedstructural design and material selection. Multi-layer alumceramic laminate led to an increase in specific stiffness by fa3 compared to steel. The structural loss coefficient of the ep

Fig. 21. Compact five-axes grinding machine [41,43].Fig. 22. Advanced nano-pattern generator ‘‘ANGEL’’ [302].

Table 4Bending strength and Young’s modulus of ceramics [238].

Bending

strength

[MPa]

Young’s

modulus

[GPa]

Vickers

hardness

[GPa]

Diamond – – 130.0

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) 250–1000 304 16.0

Zirconium oxidea (ZrO2) 800–1500 205 11.7

Silicon carbide (SiC) 100–820 345 25.4

Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) 275–700 393 26.5

Glass ceramics 247 120

Mullite (3 Al2O3–2 SiO2) 185 145

Spinel (MgAl2O4) 110–245 260

Magnesium oxide (MgO) 105b 225

Quartz glass (SiO2) 110 73a Partially stabilized by 3% Y2O3.b Sintered and with approx. 5% porosity.

Fig. 23. Schematic representation of SPDT machine [279].

decrease of Young’s modulus and bending strength with highervolume share of porosity.

Technical ceramics are used when high resistance is required[239]. Due to the low density (3.16 g/cm3), high Young’s modulusand high hardness compared to bearing steel, silicon nitride (Si3N4)is used in hybrid bearings for high frequency spindles [2].

Ceramics like B4C, SiC, Si3N4, Al2O3 possess high resistanceagainst wear, corrosion and erosion. Ceramic parts may showconsiderable non-uniform shrinkage deformation. Therefore,uniform sheet thickness, relatively simple structures and theabsence of sharp edges and point of line forces are essential

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748732

adhesive amounted to about 6% giving an overall structural factor of 3–4%. Ceramic laminate material offers extensiveibilities in design as compared to structural design in solidolithic ceramics.riyotha et al. applied aluminum ceramics for the entirecture of a super precision machine and achieved a motionracy of 1 nm [259]. Company ZEISS applies an innovative

on carbide ceramics for the new XENOS CMM [307] whichides around 50% lower thermal expansion, 30% higher rigidity20% less weight than white standard ceramics.

fine-grain ceramics material, called NEXCERA, was introducedef. [212]. The poly-crystalline oxide ceramics provides nearly

thermal expansion by its anisotropic structure. Fig. 24 depictsmparison of NEXCERA with other materials.

n Ref. [296] a calibrated Zerodur reflective straight edge was as optical reference for a plane mirror interferometer type

r transducer inside a large high precision diamond turninghine. Zerodur is a nonporous Li–Al–silicon oxide glass ceramicerial with very low thermal expansion and high materialogeneity. The low expansion is achieved by a combination of a

s phase with positive and a crystal phase with negativension coefficient. Besides measuring devices, Zerodur isied in metrology frames [107]. Optical industry uses lownsion materials such as Invar, super Invar, fused silica,ium silicate glass, and glass–ceramics. Zerodur is the most

ous low expansion glass–ceramics in optical use. In Ref. [187]dur was used for the guideways of a high precision linear slide.ba et al. introduced a spindle made of glass–ceramicsceram) for an ultra-precision surface grinder in order to

eve zero thermal expansion [197].

Polymer concrete/mineral casting

comprehensive introduction of polymer concrete, mineraling or reactive resin concrete was given in Refs.30,68,128,129,157,244]. DIN 51290-3 provides a standardesting of polymer concrete for use in mechanical engineering.n 1944 company BOEHRINGER built a first lathe bed withent concrete. Up to now cement concrete bottom parts with

epoxy polymer coating can be applied. In 1983, company EMILPRINZIG filled steel frames with hydraulic bonded concrete andimproved the static, dynamic and thermal behavior of weldedsteel constructions. New nano-structures nowadays allow thedevelopment of ultra-high strength concrete materials (UHPC).This material is used in machine frames without metal casing[235]. Compared to normal concrete made of cement, water andaggregates, UHPC contains additives such as microsilica and/or flyash, as well as admixtures such as superplasticizers.

Since 1970s, cold-curing reaction resins are available whichenable the production of polymer bonded mineral casting orpolymer concrete for high precision machine frames. Polymerconcrete or mineral casting describes a composite material that isobtained by mixing a filler material such as sand, marble, quartz,pearlite, glass, fiber, dolomite, steel, or carbon fibers with a resinsuch as unsaturated polyester, poly-methylmethacrylate [209], orepoxy, and by adding a catalyst or accelerant at room temperaturethat allows toughening through polymerization [17]. Sometimesalso hydraulic bonded concrete is called mineral casting. The typeand percentage of filler material and binding agent differsignificantly with respect to the application. In machine toolstructures predominantly epoxy resin bonded mineral casting isused for bed components, frames, columns and supports. Thecasting process takes place at room temperature and requiressometimes complex and expensive molds made of wood or metals.Since no external heating is necessary, the production of mineralcast components requires 20–40% less primary energy comparedto cast iron or steel [128].

Beside high Young’s modulus, damping values and low thermalexpansion, low residual stresses, minimal shrinkage and highreproducibility can be achieved. A long processing time anddischarge of heat of reaction are essential. Hardening is mostlydone with a curing agent. As filler materials in machine buildingmostly inorganic mineral fillers (quartz) and stones (granite andbasalt) are used. In some cases also aluminum hydroxide, siliconcarbide, iron powder or glass balls were applied [128]. The optimalmatching of filler materials with different grain sizes to a grain-size-distribution curve with high packing density allows to reducethe interspace to a minimum and to guide the loads at the finalstructure over the carrying grain matrix. Theoretical grain-size-distribution curves can only be approximately achieved in practice.Grain sizes reach from below 0.1 mm (rock meal) to 0.1–2 mm(sand) and up to 16 mm (flint). For achieving reproducible materialproperties, dosing of resin and curing agent as well as of the fillermixture (with up to ten grain fractions) is essential. The masspercentage of filler material is approx. 90–93%. Optimal bondingstrongly depends on the wetting of the filler material by the epoxyresin. By rocking motion of the casted mixture, de-aeration and adecrease of porosity is achieved. The exothermic epoxy reactionleads to temperatures of up to 50 8C. Curing takes usually 12–14 h.The effect of moisture on the thermal and mechanical propertiesand curing process of polymer concrete was investigated in Ref.[104]. A significant influence could be recognized when changingthe moisture content between 0% and 5%.

Regarding natural frequencies and modes, mineral casting canbe modeled as an isotropic, homogeneous material following theHooke’s law. Sahm identified slightly higher Young’s moduli incompressive compared to tensile tests [236]. With high grain size(16 mm) a Young’s modulus of up to 50 kN/mm2 can be reached.

Fig. 24. Comparison of NEXCERA with other materials [212].

iron upper components are combined to achieve improvedem damping. In this case, the concrete part has no influence onmachine accuracy. Sugishita et al. introduced a machininger with Portland concrete bed and column combined with cast

plates [262]. The static stiffness was made comparable to a iron structure. The dynamic stiffness could be increasedther with a reduction of natural frequencies. The thermalacteristics were improved by the integration of a heat pipe.concrete structure showed a higher thermal inertia than cast. For this material erosion due to cutting fluid and shrinkageto the drying process must be overcome. To avoid erosion an

Compared to steel and cast iron, mineral casting provides alower thermal expansion coefficient, much lower heat conductivi-ty (1–3 W/m K compared to 50 W/m K) but higher specific heatcapacity. Thus, thermally more stable machine frames can beproduced. Due to the low heat conductivity, inhomogeneoustemperature fields can occur by influence of internal heat sources.On the other hand, mineral casting allows the direct integration ofcooling circuits during casting [243]. In order to enable hybridstructures avoiding stresses at interfaces, the development ofmineral castings with thermal expansion coefficients adapted tocast iron or steel was necessary. In contrast, mineral casting with

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748 733

very low thermal expansion coefficients (7 � 10�6 K�1) is avail-able. The thermal deformation of mineral cast/metal compositestructures was analyzed in Ref. [73].

The application of mineral casting or polymer concrete reachesfrom high performance and high speed machine tools to ultra-precision machines and metrology applications. The success ofmineral casting is predominantly caused by the excellent dynamicproperties. In Ref. [216] it was observed that the critical dampingratio of polymer concrete can be four to seven times higher thanthat of cast iron. Kim analyzed the influence of compaction ratio,sizes and contents of ingredients on compressive and flexuralstrength, thermal expansion, specific heat, thermal conductivity,Young’s modulus and damping factor of epoxy resin concrete[146]. Regarding precision machine applications a significantinfluence of the resin content could be observed.

Haddad investigated the influence of aggregates (basalt,spodumene, fly ash, river gravel, sand and chalk) in Ref.[103]. An optimum composition, with the highest flexural strengthand lowest thermal expansion coefficient, was found to be basalt,spodumene and fly ash. The resin volume fraction also showed asignificant effect on the thermal expansion coefficient and flexuralstrength. The final optimized composition was basalt, sand and flyash (filler 87% and resin 13%). In Ref. [177] the influence of resin,sand and fly ash contents on the compressive and flexural strengthas well as split tensile strength was investigated. It has been foundthat polymer concrete mortar can achieve compressive strengthsin a range of 90–100 MPa. Tensile strengths were as high as 15 MPafor vinylester based polymer concrete. The results showed that thepolymer based filler materials are suitable for both, compressionand tensile loading situations. In Refs. [227,228] pure, fibrous andpolymer impregnated ferrocement were investigated in prototypiclathe beds by modal analysis. Ferrocement showed higher dynamicstability than cast iron. Discrete fibers with a length of 5 and10 mm and up to 2% by volume of the matrix already improved theperformance. The best results were obtained with polymerimpregnation especially regarding shear loss modulus, flexuralloss modulus, first resonance and damping ratio. Thus, improvedprocess stability was calculated using the measured structuralproperties. In Ref. [298] polymer casting was used for wearresistant deep drawing tools. Neugebauer et al. presented anapproach of inherent thermal error compensation of machine bedstructures with layers of different thermal expansion made bymineral casting [205]. Simulations showed a significantly reducedthermal deformation. Company IFT (Magdeburg, Germany) devel-oped sealed porous mineral cast, which enables a flow of coolingfluid (Fig. 25).

material has a significant influence. Sahm studied the crphenomenon and other mechanical properties of polyconcrete. Maximum values for compressive, tensile, and flexstrength were obtained using 10% epoxy resin and 8 mm partsize [236]. In Ref. [17] the rotational flexural fatigue of polyconcrete was analyzed. A much lower fatigue strength comparemetals was observed which appears to be limited to 1–1.6 N/mcorresponding to 107 loading cycles. Because of its sensitivity wrespect to tensile stresses, polymer concrete is nearly not usemoved machine components so far. The cross slide shown in Figby company EMAG constitutes an exception. The casted Minergreen body possesses a dimensional accuracy of �0.1 mm so

finish machining is reduced by 80% compared to cast iron [1Company STEINEL applied mineral casting for a complete machstructure including slides.

Mineral casting construction types are ‘‘massive constructiof monolithic structures, ‘‘composite construction’’ of hybstructures and ‘‘complete construction’’ (with integrated scstays, steel rails and plates, cooling systems, service pipes, cachannels, etc.) [208]. The cost of mineral casted componepredominantly depend on the level of integration, levelcompleteness, manufacturing principle, and weight.

Besides the use of polymer concrete and mineral castingentire machine frame structures, there are specific applicationdiscrete components. Klaeger investigated the use of mincasting in fixtures for cutting machine tools exploiting

favorable damping properties and the ability to directly integmechanical interfaces [151]. Rahman et al. introduced a polyimpregnated concrete damping carriage for guideways [230]. Ldensity cellular concrete impregnated with MMA polyexhibited higher strength, elastic modulus and damping capacompared to a steel damping carriage up to 650 Hz. Panzera estudied porous composites (high purity SiO2 silica mixed wPortland cement) for aerostatic bearings [219]. The effects of sisize and geometry as well as compaction pressure were analy

The variety of polymer concrete and mineral casting materled to a specific naming by the providing companies, e.g. NBasaldur containing basalt and crystal quartz, UHPC-mateNanodur by company DURCRETE, UHPC-material Epudur, mincast Epument and ray absorbing Epuram of company EPUCRBaerlit of company IZM Polycast, Mineralit by company EMDuropol by company MAP-Prinzing, Hydropol by compFRAMAG and many others. Jackisch concluded three major fiof development of mineral casting: the improvement of availa

Fig. 26. Polymer concrete cross slide by company EMAG [108].

Fig. 25. Porous mineral casting for active cooling [Company IFT].

e ofnics

tionefs.

s iselt

CO,

Some mineral casting materials including granite as filler arecalled epoxy granite or synthetic granite [183]. Company STUDERcreates the mineral cast GRANITAN. Guideways can directly bemolded as part of machine frames in this material. Especiallybecause of its damping properties, synthetic granite (GRANITAN S-100) was used for major structural parts of a large high precisiondiamond turning machine in Ref. [296].

Krausse and Dey developed calculation approaches for strengthapproximation [68,157]. The cracking mechanism can be charac-terized by initial cracks between matrix and grains and subsequentbrittle cracking of the grains at higher loads. The porosity of the

and development of new mineral casting materials, the increascompletion, and the combination of mineral casting, adaptroand micro technology [128].

2.4. Metal foams, porous and cellular materials

An extensive overview of the manufacturing, characterizaand application of cellular metals and metal foams is given in R[25,62,95,116,211,260,284]. The production of metal foamknown in patent literature since the 1950s. Basically, mmetallurgic (e.g. GASARE), deposition techniques (e.g. IN

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748734

IMET/CELMET) and powder metallurgic methods were devel-. The foam creating process can further be distinguished by

discrete or prefabricated building of the pores. For powderallurgic production, mostly aluminum melt is used as initialerial (e.g. ALPORAS method) whereupon viscosity increasingtives (Na, Ca) and afterwards foaming agent (TiH2) are added.ing of the closed-cell foam takes place in a closed die. Byng stabilizing ceramic particles (SiC or Al2O3) the foam can bemed (CYMAT or ALCAN process). Open-cell foam can beuced by ERG DUOCEL method in which open-cell plastic foamed as a pattern. The method of Baumeister [28] is based oning of a compacted metal powder/foaming agent mixture by

ing above the liquidus temperature of the metal. After cooling,ed-cell metal foam with 60–85% porosity is built. Ozan studiednfluence of manufacturing parameters (NaCl ratio and particle, compacting pressure) on the pore concentration of powderd Al-foam [217]. The manufacturing of tailor-made closed-cellallic foams by titanium hydride decomposition was investi-d in Ref. [79]. Syntactic foams were produced by embeddingfilled hollow spheres (1–5 mm diameter Al2O3, mullite or TiO2

res) in a matrix (e.g. magnesium, aluminum or rare-earths) using infiltration technique. The mechanical properties

e higher compared to aluminum foam but also the achievedity was higher [105,226].ince two decades, aluminum foam (Al-foam) is used inhine tools [198–200]. Hipke investigated characteristic designmeters such as pull out strength of joints and thermalnsion [115]. Advantages of aluminum foams in machine toolications are the low mass and high energy absorptionbility [117,118]. Sandwiches with Al-foam core and steel

ngs achieve an up to 40 times higher bending stiffnesspared to mass equivalent steel sheets due to a higher

etrical moment of inertia. Al-foam (density approx. 0.5 g/) allows a decrease of vibration energy by its cellular structuresmall deformations of internal thin walls as well as friction inks of pore walls. The slide of the high performance millinghine shown in Fig. 27 was realized by the use of Al-foamwiches with different cover sheet thicknesses. The mass of the was reduced by 28% compared to a pure steel construction.

amic stiffness and damping were improved.

specific ratio of cover sheet to foam core thickness should be

lattice steel walls with Al-foam [155]. The application of foam ledto a significant damping improvement of the structure.

Zhao reviewed the thermal transport in high porosity cellularmetal foams [310]. In Ref. [60] the influence of cutting methods onthe thermal contact resistance of open-cell Al-foam was discussed.Aggogeri et al. investigated sandwich structures filled with opencell metal foam which was impregnated by phase change materials[4]. The resulting structures provided a high stiffness to weightratio, good damping properties and high thermal stability.

The widespread use of Al-foam is hindered by the highproduction costs resulting from the expensive production processand raw materials. The idea of using aluminum chips instead ofatomized powder avoiding negative influences on the macroscopicfoam structure was studied in Ref. [119] (Fig. 28). Good foamingrates could be achieved by calcium carbonate as foaming agent foraluminum. Since the cost of recycled sorted aluminum chips arerather low and calcium carbonate is much cheaper than titaniumoxide, a distinct price reduction for Al-foam seems to be possible.

Since the foam structure influences the mechanical and thermalproperties of a component, appropriate metrology for characteri-zation and quality inspection is needed. In Ref. [173] the use ofcomputed tomography (CT) for obtaining statistical characteristicsof open cell foam geometries and the derivation of 3D volumeelements for computational purposes were presented.

Kashihara et al. analyzed lotus-type porous carbon steel withrespect to machine tool applications [140,141] (Fig. 29). Thematerial was produced in a continuous casting process. Theresulting porosity depends on the casting velocity in transferdirection (T.D.). Compared to cast iron, a weight reduction of 41%,up to 50% smaller residual vibration time constants, up to 30%improved vibration suppression performance and a reduction of

7. MIKRON HPM 1850U with universal slide applying metal foam construction

118].

Fig. 28. Al-foam based on chips (left) and powder (right) [119].

Fig. 29. Cross sections parallel and perpendicular to the transfer direction (T.D.) of

lotus carbon steel slabs fabricated in nitrogen and nitrogen/argon gas atmosphere

(t: thickness, w: width) [140].

ntained in order to effectively exploit lightweight engineeringntial. In Ref. [201] it was shown that by the special foaming

tegy using foamable pre-material a higher peeling strength canachieved compared to aluminum bonding to steel by an

sive layer. Smolik et al. presented a hybrid approach for ahine tool column consisting of a basic steel frame, foam coresacing the internal ribbing in the column sides, and outer steels [257,258]. The hybrid column provided 64% of weight, 169%/

of static stiffness in X-/Z-direction, and higher first naturaluencies compared to the original component within thehine assembly. Kolar et al. discussed the filling of welded

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748 735

power consumption by up to 20% could be achieved. However, thestatic stiffness is reduced by up to 27%.

Another approach for light weight cellular structures applieshollow sphere composites (HSCs) [26,29,31,125,188,280]. HSCsconsist of small hollow spheres (filled with air, gas or metalpowder) with a volume fraction of up to 80% and a reactive resinsystem. HSC materials are made from ceramics, silicates, plastics ormetals. Waag et al. and Andersen et al. described a spray coatingprocess for creating metallic hollow spheres [10,281]. Themechanical properties of sintered hollow sphere steel foam wereanalyzed in Ref. [268]. They depend on the spherical hollow bodies(material, grain size distribution, wall thickness), the character-istics of the resin, additives, and the volume fracture anddistribution of these ingredients. The thermal behavior is mainlygoverned by the used epoxy resin. In Ref. [30] a combination ofcorundum based (0.5–1 mm) macro hollow spheres and aluminumsilicate Fillite (5–300 mm) micro hollow spheres was regarded(Fig. 30). Also different types of hollow spheres (10–2000 mmdiameter, wall thickness of 10% of diameter) in combination withcold and warm curing epoxy resin with and without fiberreinforcement were investigated. For a comparison of mechanicalproperties of HSC with steel, glass fiber reinforced composite(GFRP) and carbon fiber reinforced composite (CFRP) the ratio ofstiffness (Young’s modulus) to density is useful [29]. HSC materialsshowed a higher ratio than either steel or GFRP (Table 5). HSCsshow isotropic mechanical and thermal properties. Beneficialdamping can be achieved. In Ref. [30] applications in a robot armand machine tool component were presented.

2.5. Fiber reinforced and composite materials

Fiber reinforced and composite materials provide a very gratio of mechanical strength to density [144,167,224] (Fig.

Liebetrau gave an overview of carbon fiber reinforced plamaterials with respect to its use in spindle casings [172]. A dinsight into the material engineering of reinforced compositegiven by Refs. [87,88,135,247]. Fiber reinforced materials consisthe fiber (short or long) or particle reinforcement and a bindmatrix system. Reinforcements can be whisker (graphite, silicarbide, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, thin mono-crystals wvery high aspect ratio), fibers (polymers, ceramics or glass, aramglass, carbon, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, polycrystallinamorphous) or filaments (steel, molybdenum, tungsten). Thereso-called E-glass fibers (electric isolator), S-glass fibers (whigher strength), C-glass fibers (with higher boron content

chemical resistance), and boron-free ECR-glass fibers [113]. Wrespect to carbon fibers, standard high tenacity (HT), super tena(ST), intermediate modulus (IM), high modulus (HM),

ultrahigh modulus (UHM) fibers can be differentiated.

mechanical properties of fibers are depicted in Fig. 32. Mcommonly used are glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) with fidiameter 3–20 mm and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) wfiber diameter of 4–10 mm. Other fiber materials are AFRP (arafiber reinforced plastics, e.g. Kevlar). The matrix consists eithepolymer resin (for GFRP, polyester, vinyl ester), Epoxy (caushigher cost but providing better mechanical properties tpolyester and vinyl ester and less sensitivity to moisture)

Polyimide (for high temperature applications, e.g. polyetherethketone PEEK). In addition, there are thermoplastic resin

Fig. 30. Hollow sphere composite (HSC); (a) corundum, (b) interior of Fillite, (c)

borosilicate, (d) Fillite and corundum [29,30].

Table 5Comparison of HSC [29].

ffiffiffi

3p

1/3 3

Fig. 31. Comparison of mechanical and thermal properties of structural materials

[Fraunhofer IWU, Chemnitz, Germany].

Density r[g/cm3]

Young’s

modulus E [GPa]

E=r [MPa cm /g]

Epoxy resin 1.15 3.5 13.2

HSC (1) 0.95 7.8 21.4

HSC (2) 0.9 6.8 21

HSC (3) 0.65 4.1 24.6

HSC (4) 1.16 8.7 18.7

Steel 7.8 210 7.6

GFRP 2.6 73 16

CFRP 1.78 235 34.5

HSC (1): 65 vol.% Fillite + corundum; HSC (2): 78 vol.% Fillite + corundum; HSC (3):

78 vol.% Fillite; HSC (4): 78 vol.% corundum (0–2 mm).

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748736

mosetting resin. Matrix materials in machinery applicationspredominantly epoxy resins.esponsible for the mechanical properties are the fiber

ngth, volumetric content of fibers and matrix, fiber orientationlayer build-up sequence, bounding surface connection with

rix as well as critical fiber length. Unidirectional (UD) fiberforced composites possess the highest mechanical perfor-ce in fiber direction. The fiber direction relative to thecture internal force flows has to be considered carefully duringctural design [16]. In Ref. [180] the influence of the fiberntation on a smart composite structure was analyzed. Inrid’’ composites multiple different fiber types are embedded

matrix (e.g. carbon and glass fibers in one polymer matrix). By anisotropic properties can be achieved. With respect to themal resistance of the reinforced materials, the glass transitionperature has to be taken into account at which the solid state ofmatrix dissolves. In sandwich structures, covering layersosing a core (e.g. aluminum honeycomb core) are built.wich cores can also be used to improve damping [161,214].

ness comparable to that of steel structures can be achieved by depending on the used fiber, combined with a mass reductionp to 80%. With an appropriate orientation arrangement offibers, a thermal expansion close to zero can be provided.producing the fiber reinforced structural materials, severalication techniques are available such as draping of pre-regnated material (known as ‘‘prepreg’’) to build laminates,

ent winding techniques, pultrusion, placement of dry fibers orics and injection or resin transfer molding (RTM) [88]. Today,variety of machine tool applications of CFRP and GFRP is

ady huge and a tremendous amount of research work can bed in literature of which only a few examples can be mentioned. Abele analyzed a vertical CFRP axis and achieved a massction to 60% and decreased energy consumption of 70% of

conventional design (Fig. 33).n 2011 a CFRP ram was presented at the EMO fair by companyhiwal + Partner [234]. Kulisek et al. compared a thick-walledposite spindle ram with a hybrid structure composed of fiber

should be similar in order to prevent thermally induced stresses[301]. A design methodology for joints in laminated compositeswas presented in Ref. [51]. In Ref. [126] the influence of clampingeffects on the dynamic characteristics of composite machine toolstructures was studied and a new clamping approach using a metalcore or sleeve was introduced. Peklenik studied design variationsof composite plate structures with trapezoid, rectangular andcircular supporting profiles for an exemplary application in aspindle box [224]. The trapezoidal showed the highest bendingand torsional stiffness. Heimbs et al. studied sandwich structureswith single and multiple textile-reinforced composite foldcorespossessing very high weight-specific stiffness and strength [109].Fleischer et al. designed a CFRP slide with internal chambers whichcan be filled with liquids in order to control the dynamiccharacteristics [86,152]. Liebetrau investigated the influence oflaminate build-up and fiber type on thermal deformations inspindle casing front and back plates considering bearing powerloss, heat conductivity, bearing hole diameter and position [172].

HT-CFRP appeared to be inapplicable because of inacceptablehigh temperatures in the bearing casing wall which depend on thelaminate build-up and thermal conductivity. Displacements couldbe reduced to 30% compared to a steel wall. HM fibers in an evenlydistributed 08/908/�458 multi-axial laminate showed significantlybetter results. The vertical spindle bearing displacement could bereduced by 96% and temperatures were slightly lower compared tosteel. With a dynamic stiffness comparable to the steel wall, the first

Fig. 32. Properties of different fibers [113].

Fig. 33. Substitution of conventional by CFRP structure [PTW, Darmstadt, Germany].

Fig. 34. Machine slide made of CFRP [source: MAP].

posites with cork layers and bonded steel reinforcements]. For an assembly with connection interfaces, the damping

was increased by 70% compared to the conventional steelgn. A high speed machining center with vertical CFRP z-slide

presented by company MAP (Magdeburg, Germany) at the fair in 2013 (Fig. 34). The same stiffness as with a comparable

iron slide could be achieved.he integration of joints and mechanical interfaces in CFRPctures is challenging. Mechanical stability has to be achievedding annihilation of the achieved mass reduction by heavyal parts [149]. The thermal expansion of connected elements

natural frequency raised by 77% with the HM fiber and damping washigher by a factor of 3. Based on these results, prototypic headstocksfor a lathe were realized by Uhlmann at the IWF (Berlin, Germany)(Fig. 35). The potentials of low thermal expansion were also exploitedfor the design of modular desktop machine tools [299].

Lee et al. introduced a composite spindle [163] and observedan improved process stability in terms of 23% higher stable widthof cut compared to a steel spindle. In order to optimize therelationship of rotational inertia, damping and natural frequenciesin Ref. [24] the combination of a CFRP shaft with steel flanges forhigh speed air spindles was analyzed. The stacking angle of the

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748 737

carbon composite as well as the adherend length and thicknesswere taken as design variables. Centrifugal forces have to beconsidered in the layout of fast rotating CRFP spindle shafts. In Ref.[56] the rotor of an AC induction motor was manufactured usingmagnetic powder containing epoxy composite whose density ishalf of the conventional metal rotor. The motor shaft was made ofHM carbon fiber epoxy composite. To enhance the magnetic flux ofthe composite rotor, a steel core was inserted. Brecher et al.presented a carbon fiber rotor for an aerostatic spindle in Ref.[36]. The moment of inertia was reduced to one third compared toa steel rotor. The axial and radial bearing gap shrinkage wasminimized since the negative thermal expansion of the CFRPoffsets the positive thermal expansion of the steel nose. Thematerial expansion due to centrifugal forces was reducedsignificantly.

Composite materials were also used in tooling equipment,mostly to increase damping and decrease the moment of inertia[164,166,271]. Lee et al. achieved 5 times larger depth of cut with agraphite epoxy composite boring bar compared to a steel barbefore the onset of chatter [164,166]. Companies XPERION [300]and EMUGE recently presented CFRP tool extensions. The exampleof EMUGE has 20% of the mass of the steel component but samestiffness and strength [80]. The reduced inertia leads to energysavings. Heisel presented a modular CFRP reamer [111] (Fig. 36).The weight of the tool was reduced to approx. 37% whereas thestiffness was slightly increased.

A kind of tentativeness regarding the use of composite

development of hybrid structures exploiting the different matepotentials, a fiber related functional integration, sensor

actuator integration, self-healing composites, and the usenatural fiber composites for low stressed components.

2.6. Material combinations/hybrid structures

A lot of material applications in machine tool structuactually employ material combinations leading to hybrid strtures. As mentioned before, polymer concrete is combined wmetallic inserts, interfaces and joints but also with mstructures to build hybrid machine beds and columns [154]. Splates for guides and interfaces are connected to the concmaterial by anchors and metal reinforcements. By filling mcasings (with or without internal ribbing) with concrete matehybrid structures are built. Compared to pure mineral casthigher forces can be handled by thinner profiles. Since casmolds and demolding chamfers are not necessary, a higflexibility regarding part shape and design changes is given,

shorter delivery times are possible. The casings provide a hresistance against abrasion and moisture. During castingpolymer concrete, functional elements (high pressure pipes, fltanks, active cooling systems, chip removal channels, etc.) canintegrated into the components. By use of lost cores, intestructures, material savings and light components can be realiHybrid steel/concrete structures (Hydropol) are provided e.gcompany FRAMAG. The beneficial design and damping characistics of Hydropol were exploited for prototypic high spmachines by Denkena et al. [63,65,101]. Even the effect of a

decoupling of the linear motor axes was diminished due to

already high damping of the hybrid structure [101].A lot of research work was carried out with respect to hyb

metal-composite structures. Lee et al. manufactured a hybcolumn for a precision grinding machine by adhesively bondGFRP plates to a cast iron structure [165]. The damping capawas increased by 35% compared to the cast iron column. In Ref. [a hybrid headstock for a precision grinding machine

manufactured by adhesively bonding GFRP laminate to a sstructure. The stiffness increased by 12% and the loss factor212% compared to the steel headstock. Suh presented slides

large CNC machine with HM-CFRP sandwiches joint with welsteel structures using adhesives and bolts [264] (Fig. 37).

Fig. 35. CFRP headstock [IWF, Berlin].

Fig. 36. Modular design of CFRP reamer [111].Fig. 37. Section views of vertical columns of the X-slide [264].

g byesseen

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materials in industrial machinery concerns the long term stabilityof mechanical and thermal properties under the influence of chipsand coolant. The complexity of internal failure mechanisms whichcan hardly be recognized externally but which could affectmachining performance also lead to a certain doubt. Therefore,covering and sealing approaches as well as damage identificationtechniques are currently investigated. However, these materialshave very high potential, especially against the backgroundof developments in aerospace and automotive industries leadingto higher cost effectiveness. Future aspects are the further

A weight reduction of 26% to 34% and an increase of dampinfactors of 1.5 to 5.7 were achieved maintaining the stiffn[168]. In Ref. [265] the reliability of the adhesive joints betwthe composite sandwich and the steel structure was studiedterms of strength and thermal stress induced by the hgeneration of linear motors. The adhesive bonding showacceptable performance.

In Ref. [136] a composite/aluminum hybrid beam structwith HM carbon–epoxy composites was developed for

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748738

ecting machine of LCD glass panels. The cross-section shape,king sequence and thickness of composite were optimizedrding dynamic stiffness and damping. Carbon epoxy compos-luminum hybrid structures with friction layers were used in[150] to increase structural damping. Two types of hybridmns were proposed. The static deflection due to deadweightthe first natural frequency as a function of the stacking anglethickness of the composites were analyzed by FEA. Neuge-r presented a hybrid composite/steel ball screw, statingtimes lower thermal expansion in comparison with aentional metal ball screw [206]. In Ref. [263] a steel spindler was reinforced with CFRP in order to improve the vibrationacteristics. The relationship between the loss factor and theking sequence was investigated. Compared to a traditionalgn 3–5 times higher loss factors were achieved.

hybrid steel/composite cutting tool body was analyzed withect to material types (composite and foam), stacking angles ofcomposite, adhesive bonding thickness, and dimensions of theing tool in Ref. [147]. Heisel et al. investigated a functionallyed aluminum matrix composite (consisting of coherentinum matrix and ceramic reinforcement such as SiC or

3 fibers or particles) regarding large aluminum milling cutters]. Machining tests revealed the improved performance of the

rid tools regarding workpiece roughness.atarain et al. analyzed bonded structures [306]. By bonding ad variety of materials including metals, reinforced compositeshoneycomb structures can be combined (Fig. 38). The

hanical properties of the used glue at the relevant temperaturel have to be considered. Structural improvements could beeved with respect to shapes, wall thicknesses and materials. As reduction of 40–50% was reached leading to increasedral frequencies. In some cases damping was increased by ar of 10.

ombinations of fiber reinforced composites and concreteerials have also been investigated [21]. Sandwich structures foro-EDM machines are optimized by varying compositeetries, stacking sequence, thickness and rib geometry in[148]. The structures are composed of fiber reinforced

posites for skin material and resin concrete and PVC foamore materials. The sensitivity of design parameters like rib andposite skin thickness was examined and an optimal conditionrding structural stiffness was suggested. In Ref. [57] carbon–y composite and resin concrete were combined in a table-top

hine. Several components were realized and assembled byhanical joining and adhesive bonding. The re-designedcture provided 37% less weight, 16% increased stiffness and

Salje et al. compared grinding machine elements with polymerconcrete, combined polymer concrete and cast iron, and cast ironunder the influence of forces and thermal load [237]. With thepolymer concrete frame, the first natural frequency raised by 50–150 Hz, the dynamic compliance decreased to 30%, and thedamping was 2–6 times higher than that of the cast iron frame.Fig. 39 compares the thermal activity of polymer and cast iron.

Brecher et al. studied the dynamics of differently filled test-components in Ref. [37,38,42]. The best static stiffness wasachieved with a welded steel component filled with mineralcasting. Advantageous dynamic stiffness is given by welded andcasted components filled with cement concrete, furan resin bondedquartz sand, or sand depending on the bending or torsional mode(Fig. 40). Cast iron with sand showed the shortest decay time.

Rahman et al. compared the chatter stability of the ferrocementbed of a lathe with a cast iron bed and observed a 50% deeper cutbefore chatter vibration occurs [229]. In Ref. [231] the related toolwear behavior was compared. Lower flank wear appeared at theferrocement bed lathe.

A comparison of structures applying cast iron, cast iron filledwith conventional concrete, hybrid steel-concrete (Hydropol), andepoxy polymer concrete can be found in Ref. [221] (Fig. 41). The

Fig. 38. Bonded machine structures [306].

Fig. 39. Thermal deformations of cast iron and polymer concrete [237].

Fig. 40. Comparison of filled test-components [37].

Fig. 41. Comparison of lathe bed variants [221].

o 3.64% higher loss factor. The strength in concrete can beroved by reinforcement with recycled CFRP pieces [213].

Comparative studies

ost of the developed structures and components arepared to the respective conventional ones. Systematicparative analyses about material solutions can rarely bed in literature. Only few studies assessed the influences causedhe different structures and material approaches, which arevant for the process performance and machining results.

lathe bed made of Hydropol showed the shortest decay time but

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748 739

the average tool life in cutting tests was the highest with the castiron bed. The variation of the observed values with the cast ironand Hydropol bed was significantly higher than with the cementconcrete bed. With the Hydropol bed the workpiece surfaceroughness was slightly improved. The advantageous decay time ofHydropol was also verified in Ref. [190].

Munirathnam designed, optimized and compared various slidestructures and material applications regarding the dynamicpositioning behavior of machines [196]. An aluminum structure,a welded steel design and the application of Al-foam wereconsidered (Fig. 42). Improved dynamic path accuracy wasachieved by the lightweight ram structures. The structural stiffnesshad a significantly lower influence regarding the optimization ofthe speed gain value compared to the mass. An increase of thespeed gain by an optimized structural damping could not beverified.

Bruni et al. studied the influences of lubrication, inserttechnology and machine bed material in turning of AISI 420Bstainless-steel and hardened 39NiCrMo3 alloy steel [48,49]. Theuse of the polymer concrete bed led to an improved behavior interms of tool wear and surface roughness compared to a similarcast iron bed (Fig. 43).

3. Methods for structure layout and optimization

For an optimized design, not only the material selection but alsothe assessment and modification of the structural performance areimportant [290]. Nowadays machine tool development can be

levels of detail regarding the mechatronic system can

considered [295] (Fig. 44).Multi-objective optimization techniques for material selec

considering partly contradictory targets and evolutionary comtation in structural design can be applied [15,145]. In Ref. [7framework for intelligent decision support for structural desanalysis using a finite element method was discussed.

3.1. Simulation approaches

The basic simulation approaches in machine tool desincluding the material characteristics in order to calculate

structural behavior apply the Finite Element Analysis (F[285,286]. An extensive overview of different simulaapproaches and FEA types (linear/non-linear static, dynamthermal) is given by Altintas et al. [9]. Several approaches descthe elastic behavior of machine structures by mass-spring-dammodels [35,52], (flexible) multi-body models [32,156,178], trafer functions or state-space representations [34,204], which canderived by modal reduction from numerical calculationsobtained from experiments in order to increase computatioefficiency. Jedrzejewski et al. presented a hybrid model includthe finite element method (FEM) and the finite difference metfor analyzing the thermal, stiffness and durability aspectsmachines [134]. Neugebauer et al. introduced an advanced stspace modeling approach to describe non-proportional mateand structural damping such as given by fiber reinforced mater[204]. The computation of composite or hybrid and combimaterials requires material models at the micro level and structmodels at the macro level. For homogenization of compomaterials, representative volumetric elements (RVE) candeveloped considering material properties and enabling paraterization of FE models [138,139] (Fig. 45).

For spherical particles, a ratio of L/D � 10/3 (L: edge lengtthe RVE, D: diameter of the particles) allows an approprprediction of effective material properties [138]. For laminacomposites, layer-wise shell theory can be applied [142].

In order to allow a comprehensive assessment of the structcharacteristics, various kinematic positions of a machine have tconsidered. Zatarain et al. proposed a method using pre-calcula

Fig. 42. Systematic comparison of slide structures [196].

Fig. 43. Influence of bed material on tool wear and surface quality in turning of

hardened (58 HRC) 39NiCrMo3 alloy steel using PCBN inserts (vc = 130 m/min,

vf = 0.08 mm/rev, ap = 0.3 mm) [49].

Fig. 44. Structural optimization [295].

Fig. 45. RVE model of randomly distributed spherical particle reinforced

composites; (a) geometry, (b) meshed particles, (c) complete meshed RVE [138].

significantly improved and shortened by the use of virtualprototypes and simulation methods [9,89,137]. A number ofdesign optimization methods were introduced in literature[96,122,133,155,311]. These methods mainly contain the stepsof CAD-based design, modeling and parameterization, firststructural optimization including topology and parameter opti-mization, first prototype realization and experimental analysis,model updating by real parameter values, second structuraloptimization applying the real parameter values, and secondrealization in which the final structure is built. Multiple iterationscan be carried out and for model-based optimization different

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748740

ctures to obtain entire machine models at any position]. Brecher and Witt developed a FEM-based model reductioncomponent extraction strategy [40]. By inter- and extrapola-

methods, simulation results can be derived within thekspace of the machine tool in real time. Litwinski et al.ented a node swap extension for the well-known Craig–pton method for model reduction and compared this to FEAflexible multi body simulation [176]. Linear axis motion withinmodel representation is allowed by an interpolation betweenndary nodes and an exchange of these nodes to avoidontinuities.aw et al. introduced a position-dependent multi-bodyamic model of a machine tool based on a reduced modelstructural synthesis and used it for structure optimization]. A method which allows to combine component dynamicsels to entire structures is the receptance coupling substructureysis (RCSA) [6,120,242]. In RCSA, experimental or analyticuency response functions of individual components are used toict the dynamic response of the final assembly.lthough sophisticated modeling approaches are available,e uncertainties have to be taken into account, predominantlyinated in the unknown real stiffness and damping character-s of joints and interfaces but also resulting from uncertaintiesrding the real material properties. In Refs. [210,248] thisct was studied with respect to casted machine tool compo-s. Geometric and material uncertainties in modeling can benguished and identified by model updating to enhancelation accuracy. For the identification of material damping

es a simultaneous application of the logarithmic decrementbandwidth method is proposed.

n order to simulate using realistic values, model updatingidering material data is necessary which minimizes therences between calculation and measurement results byifying the values of the mass, stiffness and dampingmeters [194,195]. Neugebauer et al. discussed the use ofitivity-based model updating with respect to machine toolsessing a high number of parameters and introduced aaded-like strategy [207]. Arora et al. presented a comparativey of damped FE model updating methods in Ref. [14]. In Ref.

direct model updating methods are applied regarding a simpleing machine. Esfandiari et al. proposed a FE model updating byof frequency response function data [82]. In Ref. [92] an

ated finite element model was used to derive a state spaceced order model of a centerless grinding machine.

Modal analysis/operational modal analysis

n order to identify the dynamic parameter values andacteristics of machine tool structures, experimental modalysis techniques were developed and used for a long time,275]. Fig. 46 gives an overview about the procedure forponent testing and parameter identification. In Ref. [44] an

inter-laboratory comparison test regarding the use of theexperimental modal analysis for assessing the compliance ofmachine structures under process conditions was presented. It wasshown that the established and commonly applied experimentalmethods can only give an approximate quantification of the realbehavior due to uncertainties in the experimental procedures andmeasuring conditions. Also, non-linear behavior of materials andjoints has to be considered. A survey about non-linear systemidentification in structural dynamics was given in Ref. [143]. Imple-menting experimental modal analysis at complex and largestructures requires a costly procedure. A fast method for structuredynamics analysis using a tracking interferometer was presentedin Ref. [45]. Modal analysis normally applies an impact hammer orcontrolled excitation shaker. Complete machine structures canalso be assessed by the operational modal analysis (OMA), in whichthe excitation of the structure is given by the machining process[171,179,304].

3.3. Structural optimization

The final objective of simulation-based and experimentalassessment methods is to provide characteristic data for structuraloptimization. This aims in design modifications applied to machinecomponents which lead to an efficient material utilization withrespect to mechanical component behavior and performance[287]. Besides enhanced stiffness, damping and strength, materialsavings and lightweight structures can be achieved. The FEA-basednumerical optimization methods which are implemented inmachine tool development were summarized in Ref. [9]. Anaccurate parameterization of material characteristic values is anessential prerequisite regarding the quality of optimization results.

Topology optimization can be used in an early and rough designstage to calculate an optimum material distribution with respect tointernal structural loads. The resulting component topologies mustbe smoothed and transferred to a CAD model. In Ref. [76] topologyoptimization was applied to derive an optimum ribbing structureof large forming tools. Kolar et al. presented an application oftopology optimization in which multiple slide positions weretaken into account when calculating loads [155] (Fig. 47). Fleischeret al. coupled topology optimization with hybrid multi-bodysimulation in order to consider and update component loads andinertia which occur during machine operation [84,85,295].

Dadalau et al. presented an optimality criteria and adaptive

Fig. 47. Topology optimization (left) and parameter optimization (right) of a

machine tool column [155].

46. Test setup for dynamic analysis of material damping on structure

onents [IFT, TU Vienna].

penalization scheme for topology optimization in Ref. [59]. Com-pared to the commonly used SIMP (Solid Isotropic Material withPenalization) method, better results regarding computed interme-diate material densities and applicability with respect to self-weight problems could be achieved. In addition to usuallyconsidered boundary conditions such as stiffness specifications,some topology optimization systems allow the formulation ofreference stress and natural frequencies as target and restrictionfunctions [246]. With the increasing performance of additivelymanufactured structures, combined with topology optimizationnew degrees of freedom in structural design appear [233].

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748 741

Parameter optimization aims in finding the best structuralparameters (wall thicknesses, cross sections, fiber orientation) fora detailed component and machine design. Kolar et al. conducted aparametric optimization of a machine column by use of 10 inputparameters (5 side thicknesses, two dimensions of ground base,variable number of internal ribs, variable section dimensions ofcorner bars) [155] (Fig. 47). The output parameters of thesimulation were the static 3D stiffness at the TCP, the first fournatural frequencies and the weight of the structure. Since thesensitivity of the structural stiffness with respect to inner ribs wasfound to be low (by topology optimization), a welded steel designwas proposed. The column weight could be reduced to 54% (fullsteel construction) or 59% (hybrid construction with aluminumfoam filling), respectively. The machine stiffness was increased to102% (106%) compared to the original structure and the 1st naturalfrequency was raised to 154% (166%).

In structural optimization of fiber reinforced composite orhybrid components, the consideration of the fiber orientation isessential [288]. Depending on the laminate build-up, anisotropicmaterial properties prevail. In order to exploit the materialperformance in fiber direction but to avoid structural weaknessdue to loads in other directions, a differential design with refinedribbing was chosen in Ref. [158].

In recent developments bionic inspired branched structureswere realized, aiming in an improved loading in longitudinaldirection of structural elements [308,309]. In Ref. [308] a massreduction of 2.24% and an increase of the specific stiffness by21.10% could be achieved for a machine tool column (Fig. 48). InRef. [309] a bionic inspired crossbeam design was investigated(Fig. 49). A mass reduction of 3.31% and an increase of specificstiffness of 23.29% compared to the conventional structure couldbe shown with a downscaled model component.

4. Intelligent and smart materials and structures

An innovative research field are the so-called ‘‘intelligent‘‘smart’’ materials and structures, which contain sensor andactuator functionality. Actuator functionality means a changshape, position, frequency or other mechanical properties afunction of a change of temperature, electric or magnetic fi[238]. Most commonly used smart materials for actuators

piezo-electric ceramics, shape-memory alloys, magnetostricmaterials, and electro- or magneto-rheological fluids. For sensoptical fibers and piezo-electric materials (also some polymers)used. Such materials can be applied for process and machcondition monitoring, active influencing of the machine dynaand thermal behavior as well as for improving process states

adaptive process control. An overview of materials and bapplications can be found in Refs. [124,220]. In Ref. [202] a revof mechatronic and adaptronic systems in machine tools

presented which are in many cases based on smart materialdistinction can be made between components which purelypredominantly consist of smart materials, and intelligent strtures which combine conventional structures with smart elemesuch as integrated sensors or actuators.

4.1. Shape memory alloys

Shape memory alloys (SMA) are metal materials, suchnickel–titanium and copper-based alloys (Cu–Zn–Al, Cu–Al–which, after deformation, reassume their initial shape withincrease of temperature [160]. The shape-memory effect is baon a transition between two different crystal structures (austenbody-centered cubic at higher temperatures, martensitic phwhen cooling down) (Fig. 50). An overview about shape memalloy research is given in Ref. [131]. Applications of SMA for

clamping were presented in Refs. [181,249]. SMA actuators walso used for pre-stress control of ball screw drives [50] andlinear actuators for small machine tools [186,218].

4.2. Piezoelectric ceramics

Fig. 48. Bionic inspired structural optimization [308].

Fig. 50. Stress–strain–temperature data exhibiting the shape memory effect

typical NiTi–SMA [160].

ionheyiumateO3)l inAn

vens of] totive

Fig. 49. Bio-inspired lightweight structure design; (a) conventional structure, (b)

optimized structure [309].

Piezo electric ceramics react on electric potential by expansor contraction. Contrary, they generate an electric field when tare deformed. Often used ceramic piezo materials are bartitanate (BaTiO3), lead titanate (PbTiO3), lead zirconate titanalso called PZT (Pb(Zr, Ti)O3), and potassium niobate (KNb[132,238]. Piezo electric ceramics are the mostly used materiamechatronic and adaptronic devices for machine tools.

extensive review of piezo-based mechatronic components is giby Neugebauer et al. [202] and Hesselbach [114]. Applicationpiezo actuators range from precision positioning devices [276active vibration control systems [5] and devices for adap

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748742

ess optimization [7,64]. Piezo ceramics possess a lowgation to size ratio but high power density and stiffness.hermore, piezo ceramics can be applied in a broad dynamicwidth. An important aspect when applying these materials isnsider their long-term durability [91]. Fig. 51 shows charge–

in curves of a piezo patch transducer specimen under cyclicue testing.

Magnetostrictive materials

agnetostrictive materials change their shape under theence of an external magnetic field due to the rotation ofll magnetic domains which causes internal strains in theerial structure [215]. Fig. 52 shows physical effects related to

magnetostrictive effect.he mostly used Joule effect means the expansion of amagnetic rod in relation to a longitudinal magnetic field.elongation ratio (DL/L) can be up to 4000 ppm at resonanceuency. The Villari effect is based on a change of magnetic fluxity when mechanical stress is imposed. This can be detected

a pickup coil and utilized in sensor applications. Furtherificant effects concern the change of Young’s modulus as alt of a magnetic field and the Wiedemann effect leading tor strains and torsional displacements. Table 6 comparesoelectric, magnetostrictive and SMA materials. In Ref. [78] at magnetostrictive actuator (GMA) was manufactured and

for tool positioning in an ultra-precise machine. Yoshiokal. presented a rotary-linear motion platform applying GMA in

4.4. Electro- and magneto-rheological fluids

Electro- and magneto-rheological fluids change their viscositysignificantly when an electric or magnet field is applied. This effectwas used in many systems with the aim to allow a controlled andimproved damping.

Electro-rheological fluids (ERF) are suspensions which buildfibrous structures when an electric field is applied. Thus, the totalshear stress of the ERF is increased. Aoyama and Shinno presentedERF applications for machine tools in Refs. [11,12,251]. Ramkumarused an ERF core inside a composite sandwich box column andobtained an increased stiffness and natural frequency by applyingan electric field [232]. With higher ERF layer thickness on the otherhand the frequencies decrease.

Magneto-rheological fluids (MRF) behave similar to ERF butreact on magnetic instead of electric fields. Exemplary applicationswere presented in Refs. [69,93,273]. Weinert and Biermanndeveloped a damping system for deep-hole drilling using MRF(Fig. 53). An elastic and infinitely variable torsional clamping of thedrilling tool was realized, in order to dissipate the vibration energywithin the damping device. Two coils controlled the magnetic fieldand hence the mechanical transmission behavior of the dampingsystem [293,294].

4.5. Sensor and actuator integrated materials and structures

In order to achieve ‘‘intelligent’’ structures, an integration ofsensor and actuator functionality into the machine components isessential. Besides assemblies of conventional structures and smartdevices, nowadays material and structure inherent approaches areavailable. Brecher et al. studied structure integrated thermallystable CFRP rods and optical fibers for thermal elongationmeasurements [46]. Fiber Bragg gratings were integrated intoCFRP hybrid structures for thermal and mechanical deformationmeasuring in Ref. [189]. Denkena et al. developed a spindle slidewith laser structured micro strain sensors [67] (Fig. 54). In Ref. [94]shape memory polymer composites were presented. Piezointegrated composite structures were developed in Ref.

51. Charge–strain curves of piezo patch transducer specimen under cyclic

e testing at a maximum strain level of 0.3% at room temperature [91].

Fig. 52. Magnetostrictive effects [215].

Fig. 53. Damping of deep-hole drilling tools by use of magneto-rheological fluid

[293,294].

[303].

6arison of smart materials [91,215].

PZT Magnetostrictive material

(Terfenol-D)

SMA

ngation [%] 0.3 0.2 5

rgy density [J/m3] 2500 20 1

dwidth [kHz] 100 10 0.5

teresis [%] 10 2 30Fig. 54. Intelligent spindle slide [67].

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H.-C. Mohring (2) et al. / CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 64 (2015) 725–748 743

[174,203]. Drossel et al. investigated the integration of piezo-ceramic fibers into aluminum sheets by forming processes [74,75](Fig. 55). In Ref. [97] smart structure manufacturing with piezointegration by incremental forming was analyzed. Leibelt intro-duced strain sensors which are integrated in fiber fabrics bystitching [169] (Fig. 56).

A high future potential of intelligent materials and structuresfor machine tools can be recognized. Manufacturing solutions forautomation and cost reduction are currently developed.

5. Conclusion

This paper makes visible, how broad and vast the field ofresearch and technology regarding materials in machine toolsstructures already is. Table 7 summarizes some relevant char-acteristics of materials for machine tool structures. The materialselection, particular material development, material combination,and structural design offer manifold degrees of freedom for themachine tool builder. A lot of experiences have been made withmaterial solutions in the past and some general lessons can belearned with respect to material exploitation in specific machinetool applications. However, un-conventional and un-expectedapproaches can be seen. Furthermore, permanently new materialsare invented and investigated which can provide advantageousproperties for machine tool applications (e.g. carbon nano tubes).Simulation methods and virtual machines can nowadays beincorporated and utilized for structural layout and optimization.

Decision support systems and multi-criteria optimizationtechniques as well as more comprehensive and detailed simulationmodels are developed and will further improve the performance ofcomputer aided machine tool design in the future. More efficient,accurate and reliable measuring and parameter identificationapproaches are necessary in order to provide the requiredparameters for modeling and simulation as well as for prototypeassessment and comparison. The joint analysis of machine andprocess behavior considering material properties and structuralcharacteristics is increasingly important and aspired in various

topic concerns the energy and resource efficiency and envirmental impact which are associated with material applicatConsequently, materials in machine tools are subject to varilimiting factors, but on the other hand offer a very htechnological potential.

Fig. 55. Piezo fibers in Al-sheet [75].

Fig. 56. Stitched strain sensors [169].

Table 7Summary of some selected material characteristics [129].

GCI Steel MC UHPC Granite CFRP

Dispersal in

industry

High High Middle Low Low Low

Application Bed,

column,

slide,

table,

spindle

casing

Bed,

column,

slide,

table

Bed,

column,

(slide),

(table)

Bed,

column,

(slide),

(table)

Bed,

column,

(slide),

(table)

Slide,

table,

spindl

casing

(colum

Develop.

potential

++ + ++ + + ++

Raw

material

Iron Iron Minerals

(quartz,

basalt,

epoxy

resin)

Minerals

(quartz,

basalt,

cement)

Natural

stone

Carbon

fibers,

polym

matrix

Manuf. Casting Welding Casting Casting Cutting Lamin

buildin

Thermal

treatment

Annealing Annealing – Tempering – –

Processing

temp.

1350–

1550 8CUp to

1000 8C45 8C 60 8C 20 8C 20 8C

Rest period

before

finishing

3–5

Days

2–5

Days

2 Weeks 2 Weeks 2 Days 0–7

Days

Finishing

technology

Milling,

grinding,

scraping

Milling,

grinding,

scraping

Milling,

grinding,

casting,

lapping

Milling,

grinding,

casting,

lapping

Grinding,

lapping

Milling

laser

proces

grindin

Exemplary

type

GG25 St52 EPUMENT

145B

Nanodur Gabbro

Impala

EP/CFK

Density

[kg/dm3]

7.15 7.85 2.40 2.45 2.90 1.40

Compr.

Strength

[N/mm2]

840 800 140 125 300 800

Bending

tensile

strength

[N/mm2]

340 240 35 15 20 700

Young’s

modulus

[kN/mm2]

115 210 45 45 90 180

Thermal

expansion

[10�6/K]

9 12 15 11 6.5 0.1

Thermal

conductivity

[W/m K]

47 50 2.9 2.0 3.0 2.0

Spec. heat

capacity

[J/kg K]

535 360 730 750 800 1000

Moisture

absorption

[mass-%]

0 0 0.03 1.0 0.3 0.1

Damping

[log.

decrement]

0.0045 0.0023 0.0352 0.0385 0.015 0.030

GCI: gray cast iron (lamellar), MC: mineral casting, UHPC: ultra high stre

concrete.

ted, B.. V.us,

andper

research initiatives. The integration of (micro) electronic devicesand the design and application of intelligent and smart materialsand structures enables a high degree of functional integration. Thecreation of material and structure inherent sensor and actuatorcapability is a highly topical research field leading to sensitive anddexterous components and machines. Manufacturing solutions areinvestigated which allow for an industrial implementation ofintelligent and smart technologies.

However, industrial machine tool building is always a matter ofcost, delivery time and reliability, and this significantly influencesalso the material selection and structural layout. Another raising

Acknowledgements

The authors sincerely thank all the colleagues who contributo the collection of material and literature, namely D. BiermannDenkena, W.-G. Drossel, S. Ihlenfeldt, P. Groche, T. Hausotte, UJackisch, J. Jedrzejewski, S. Klager, W. Geßler, P. Kolar, D. LehmhH. Sato, H. Shinno, P. Shore, L. Uriarte, M. Zatarain, K. Wegener,

M. Zaeh. We especially thank P. Kersting for reading the paintensively and for the helpful comments.

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