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Env Pollution

Date post: 17-Aug-2015
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Minamata disease Minamata disease is a form of methyl mercury poisoning caused by eating large quantities of fish and shellfish polluted by methyl mercury in factory wastewater. It is not a contagious disease transmitted through air or food, and it is not inherited. Minamata disease was officially discovered in 1956, and in 1968 the national government announced that it was a pollution disease caused by the Chisso Co., Ltd. The methyl mercury that enters the body mainly attacks the central nervous system, including the brain., and causes various symptoms including numbness and unsteadiness in the legs and
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Minamata disease Minamata disease is a form of methyl mercury poisoning caused by eating large quantities of fsh and shellfsh polluted by methyl mercury in factory wastewater. It is not a contagious disease transmitted through air or food, and it is not inherited. Minamata disease was ofcially discovered in 19!, and in 19!" the national government announced that it was a pollution disease caused bythe Chisso Co., Ltd. #he methyl mercury that enters the body mainly attac$s the central nervous system, including the brain., and causes various symptoms including numbness and unsteadiness in the legs and hands, tiredness, ringing in the ears, narrowing of the feld of vision, loss of hearing, slurred speech, and aw$ward movements. %ith regard to Minamata disease occurring in the areas around Minamata &ayin 'umamoto (refecture, the patient was reported for the frst time in May 19!, and it was confrmed at the end of the year that ) patients had had the disease since *ecember 19+ and that 1, of the patients already died. #he disease became called -Minamata disease. from 19, onward. %ith regard to Minamata disease occurring in the reaches of the /gano 0iver in 1iigata (refecture, the patient was reported for the frst time in May 19!. In 2uly 19!, it was confrmed that there were 3! patients and thatof the patients died.&lue baby syndrome/n illness that begins when large amounts of nitrates in water areingestedbyaninfant andconvertedtonitritebythedigestivesystem. #henitritethenreactswitho4yhemoglobin5theo4ygen6carryingbloodprotein7 toformmetheglobin, whichcannot carryo4ygen. If a large enough amount of metheglobin is formed in theblood, body tissues may be deprived of o4ygen, causing the infantto develop a blue coloration of their mucous membranes andpossiblydigestiveandrespiratoryproblems. #hisconditionisalso$nown as methemoglobinemia.#he ma8ority of cases have occurredwhen nitrate levels have been over 199 mg:litre. A sort of "blue baby syndrome" can also be caused by methemoglobinemia.[2][3] It is widely believed to be caused by nitrate contamination in groundwater resulting in decreased oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin in babies leading to death. he groundwater can be contaminated by leaching of nitrate generated from fertili!er used in agricultural lands" waste dumps or pit latrines.[#] $ases of blue baby syndrome have for example been reported in villages in %omania and &ulgaria where the groundwater has been polluted with nitrate leaching from pit latrinesItai ; Itai disease'hat is Itai(itai )isease*Itai(itai diseasewasthefirst documentedoccurrenceof masscadmiumpoisoningintheworld. It occurredin+,-.inoyama/refecturein0apan. 1owever" thefirst timethedisease was reported here was in +,+2. oyama /refecture was at the time the leadingindustrialprefecture on the 0apan sea coast. Itai(itaidisease literally translates to 2ouch(ouch3 disease" named for the painful screams of its victims.$admium /oisoning$admium poisoning is a serious example of the toxicity of some metals in the body.In thebody cadmium has no constructive function" meaning it serves no biological function exceptasatoxin. $admiumishighlytoxicevenat lowdoses. 4omeof theeffectsof acutecadmiumexposure are flu(li5e symptoms" fever" chills" muscle aches. hese flu(li5esymptoms are referred to as 2he $admium &lues3.6ore serious exposure to cadmium hasmuch more detrimental effects. Any significant amount of cadmium ta5en up by the bodyimmediatelypoisonstheliver and5idneys. /roximal %enal ubular )ysfunctionoccurswhen significant amounts of cadmium are ingested" meaning the 5idneys lose their ability toremove acid from the blood.A side effect of this is 7out" most li5ely contributing to much ofthe pain endured by victims of Itai(itai. he 5idney damage caused by cadmiumisirreversible. 4erious damage is alsoinflicted upon thebones in avictimof Itai(itai. $admium poisoning leads to osteomalacia 8softening of the bones9 and osteoporosis 8lossof bone mass and wea5ness9. In extreme cases of this a person with Itai(itai can sustainbone fractures from their body weight alone.$admium is also a carcinogen.'hy )id Itai(itai )isease :ven ;ccur*Mining was prevalent in the oyama /refecture of 0apan starting around the year


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