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Envelope Tracking in Power Amplifiers

Date post:10-Dec-2015
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In the past, a PA was connected directly to the battery of a phone or an APT DC/DC converter. Both methods provide a higher voltage than needed to the PA, which is wasteful.ET replaces these outdated methods by delivering a precisely controlled voltage to the PA, so the PA is always operating at its best efficiency.
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  • PRESENTED BY ANURAG VIJAY AGRAWAL RESEARCH SCHOLAR

    A presentation on

    Envelope Tracking in Power Amplifiers

    under the guidance of Dr. (Mrs.) Meenakshi Rawat Assistant Professor, Department of ECE IIT Roorkee

    DEPARTMENT OF ECE , IITR

  • Outline

    IntroductionWhy Envelope Tracking (ET) ?Envelope TrackingAdvantagesEnergy ConservationEnergy ConsumptionMarket Scenario

  • Introduction

    Mobile device functionality has evolved dramatically over the past decade and continues to expand with applications such as social media, music and video streaming, gaming, cloud storage, and connectivity with other devices.

    The longtime usage of the battery is getting very important.

    The Power amplifier (PA) is the most power-consuming component in the handset so there has been many efforts to improve efficiency of the PA.

  • Introduction continued

  • Why Envelope Tracking ?In the past, a PA was connected directly to the battery of a phone or an APT DC/DC converter. Both methods provide a higher voltage than needed to the PA, which is wasteful.ET replaces these outdated methods by delivering a precisely controlled voltage to the PA, so the PA is always operating at its best efficiency.

  • Envelope Tracking

  • Envelope Tracking Envelopetracking(ET) describes an approach toRF amplifier design in which the power supply voltage applied to the power amplifier is continuously adjusted to ensure that the amplifier is operating at peak efficiency for power required at each instant of transmission.A conventional RF amplifier designed with a fixed supply voltage operates most efficiently only when operating in compression.Amplifiers operating with a constant supply voltage become less efficient as thecrest factor of the signal increases, because the amplifier spends more time operating below peak power and, therefore, spends more time operating below its maximum efficiency.

  • Envelope Trackingcontinued

  • Advantages Increased Battery Life

    Reduced Case Temperature

    Improved Signal Strength

  • Energy Conservation / Carbon creditsWhile the annual electricity requirements of charging a smartphone are negligible, let's see the power of multiplication.

    Global smartphone shipments (which includes people upgrading to newer phones) will reach567 million unitsthis year alone. And by 2016,1 billionpeople worldwide will own smartphones.

    Even if we consider just the 200 million iPhone 6's that are projected to be sold globally in one year, the energy consumption is as The iPhone 6 consumed 10.5 watt-hours to charge, taking 1 hour and 48 minutes. Multiplying 0.0105 kWh/day by 365 days = 3.83 kWh per year. At the average India residential rate ofRs 5/kWh,annual charging cost is projected to be Rs 19.15 per year.

    Annual Power Consumption iPhone6 3.83x200x1000000 = 766,000,000 kWh.

  • Electric power consumption (kWh) 754,612,000,000 kWh as of 2010

  • Market Scenario In 2013,Qualcomm became the first company to ship a chip with such technology, which it claimed to be the industrys first for3Gand4GLTE mobile devices. R2 Semiconductor became the industry's first ET company to ship a phone with ET in theSamsung Galaxy S5 Mini. As of September 2014, at least 16 phones employ ET, including theSamsung Galaxy Note 3,Galaxy S5 Mini,Nexus 5, andiPhone 6.Other component makers evaluating the technology include R2 Semiconductor,Mediatek,RF Micro Devices,Skyworks,Texas Instruments,Analog Devices, Nujira and Eta Devices.Eta Devices, an MIT spinoff based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is preparing a base station module and a chip that it claims decreases battery drain and work well in high-bandwidth applications. The company says the chip helps lower electricity consumption by 20 percent and helps reduce heat generation by up to 30 percent. Eta's approach increases efficiency at the cost of greater signal noise. The company uses advanceddigital signal processingto handle the problem. The Eta basestation, a little smaller than a shoebox, is the first 4G LTE transmitter to achieve average efficiency greater than 70 percent, up from the typical 45 to 55 percent.A limitation of envelope tracking is that the technology cannot support channels wider than 20-40MHz. As a result, envelope tracking is not suitable for ultra wideband applications including LTE Advanced which uses channels up to 100MHz. A new generation of the technology, known as Envelope Tracking Advanced (ETAdvanced), works also for ultra wideband channels.

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PRESENTED BY ANURAG VIJAY AGRAWAL RESEARCH SCHOLAR A presentation on Envelope Tracking in Power Amplifiers under the guidance of Dr. (Mrs.) Meenakshi Rawat Assistant Professor, Department of ECE IIT Roorkee DEPARTMENT OF ECE , IITR
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