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Enviornment Assignment

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Air pollution is the mixture of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that can

harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural

environment or built environment, into the atmosphere.

Air pollution occurs when the air contains gases, dust, fumes or odor in harmful amounts.

That is, amounts which could be harmful to the health or comfort of humans and animals or

which could cause damage to plants and materials.

The substances that cause air pollution are called pollutants. Pollutants that are pumped into

our atmosphere and directly pollute the air are called primary pollutants. Primary pollutant

examples include carbon monoxide from car exhausts and sulfur dioxide from the

combustion of coal.

If these primary pollutants combine together they form compounds which are called

secondary pollutants which can further arise the pollution. Photochemical smog is an


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We spend our maximum time and do our activities in a close environment. For this reason;

some experts feel that more people suffer from the effects of indoor air pollution than outdoor


Tobacco smoke, cooking and heating appliances, and vapors from building materials, paints,

furniture, etc. Are the main sources of indoor air pollution. Pollution exposure at home and

work is often greater than outdoors. The California Air Resources Board estimates that indoor

air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels and can pose serious health



Smog is a type of large-scale outdoor pollution. It is caused by chemical reactions between

pollutants derived from different sources, primarily automobile exhaust and industrial

emissions. Cities are often centers of these types of activities, and many suffer from the

effects of smog, especially during the warm months of the year.

Geographical location, wind, temperature and other factors affect the dispersion of pollutant

differently. However, sometimes this does not happen and the pollution can build up to

dangerous levels. A temperature  inversion occurs when air close to the earth is cooler than

the air above it. Under these conditions the pollution cannot rise and be dispersed. Cities

surrounded by mountains also experience trapping of pollution. Inversion can happen in anyseason. Winter inversions are likely to cause particulate and carbon monoxide pollution.

Summer inversions are more likely to create smog.

Acid rain is another cause of outdoor pollution. When a pollutant, such as sulfuric acid

combines with droplets of water in the air, the water (or snow) can become acidified. The

effects of acid rain on the environment can be very serious. It damages plants by destroying

their leaves, it poisons the soil, and it changes the chemistry of lakes and streams. Damage

due to acid rain kills trees and harms animals, fish, and other wildlife.

The Greenhouse  Effect, another cause of outdoor pollution also

referred to as global warming, is generally believed to come from the

buildup of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. Carbon  dioxide  is

produced when fuels are burned. Plants convert carbon dioxide back to

oxygen, but the release of carbon dioxide from human activities is

higher than the world's plants can process. The situation is made worse

since many of the earth's forests are being removed, and plant life is being damaged by acid

rain. Thus, the amount of carbon dioxide in the air is continuing to increase. This buildup acts

like a blanket and traps heat close to the surface of our earth. Changes of even a few degrees

will affect us all through changes in the climate and even the possibility that the polar ice

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caps may melt. (One of the consequences of polar ice cap melting would be a rise in global

sea level, resulting in widespread coastal flooding

Ozone depletion is another result of outdoor pollution. Chemicals released by our activities

affect the stratosphere , one of the atmospheric layers surrounding earth. The ozone layer in

the stratosphere protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Release of 

chlorofluorocarbons  (CFC's) from aerosol cans, cooling systems and refrigerator equipment

removes some of the ozone, causing "holes"; to open up in this layer and allowing the

radiation to reach the earth. Ultraviolet radiation is known to cause skin cancer and has

damaging effects on plants and wildlife.


Carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, is the main pollutant that is warming Earth. Carbon

dioxide is widely considered to be a pollutant when associated with cars, planes, power

plants, and other human activities that involve the burning of fossil fuels such as gasoline and

natural gas and deforestation. These increase a huge amount of carbon dioxide in the

atmosphere from the last 150 years.

CO2 is a good transmitter of sunlight, but partially restricts infrared radiation going back from

the earth into space. This produces the so-called greenhouse effect that prevents a drastic

cooling of the Earth during the night. Increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere

reinforces this effect and is expected to result in a warming of the Earth's surface. Currently

carbon dioxide is responsible for 57% of the global warming trend.


Other greenhouse gases include methane — which comes from such sources as swamps and

gas emitted by livestock and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which were used in refrigerants

and aerosol propellants until they were banned because of their deteriorating effect on Earth's

ozone layer. 


Sulphur Dioxide is an another cause of outdoor pollution. Sulfur dioxide and closely related

chemicals are known primarily as a cause of acid rain. But they also reflect light when

released in the atmosphere, which keeps sunlight out and causes Earth to cool.

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Sulfur dioxide from volcanoes can cool the planet by blocking sunlight, cutting the amount of 

the compound in the atmosphere lets more sunlight through, warming the Earth. This effect is

exaggerated when elevated levels of other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trap the

additional heat.

Sulfur dioxide is produced by combustion of sulfur-containing fuels, such as coal and fuel

oils. Also, in the process of producing sulfuric acid and in metallurgical process involving

ores that contain sulfur. Sulfur oxides can injure man, plants and materials. At sufficiently

high concentrations, sulfur dioxide irritates the upper respiratory tract of human beings

because potential effect of sulfur dioxide is to make breathing more difficult by causing the

finer air tubes of the lung to constrict.


  To make an agreement between countries to reduce the emission of the carbondioxide.

  Put taxes on carbon emissions or higher taxes on gasoline.

N0X - nitric oxide (N0) and nitrogen dioxide (N02)

  Natural component of the Earth's atmosphere.

  Important in the formation of both acid precipitation and photochemical smog

(ozone), and causes nitrogen loading.

 Comes from the burning of biomass and fossil fuels.

  Average residence time in the atmosphere is days.

  Has a role in reducing stratospheric ozone.

N20 - nitrous oxide

  Natural component of the Earth's atmosphere.

  Important in the greenhouse effect and causes nitrogen loading.


The two main sources of air pollution are motor vehicles & industries. When they burn

petrol, cars and trucks release significant quantities of sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen,

carbon monoxide, lead, and suspended particulate matter.

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Electrical power plants and industries emit particulate matter, sulphur oxides, nitrogen

oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon dioxides.

The top three industrial sources of toxic air pollutants are the chemical, metal, and paper



When solid waste is burnt, heavy metals like lead, gases and soot is spread over residential

areas. Rubbish, dust and gases found during the decomposition of waste, all contribute to air



Burning medical waste is a serious source of air pollution, particularly in cities. Most

incinerators are rudimentary by today's standards. They burn waste incompletely, releasing

acidic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins into the air.


As developing countries become more industrialized, they also produce more air pollution.

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The leaders of most developing countries believe they must become industrialized rapidly in

order to be economically competitive.



Air pollution consists of substances present in the atmosphere in high enough levels to harm

humans, other animals, plants, or materials. Air pollution can result from human activities

such as driving cars. It can also come from natural sources, such as smoke from forest fires

caused by lightning or from volcano eruptions.

Urbanization causes the pollution to increase rapidly and disturb the balance of the nature of 

the earth. With the combination of growing industries the air pollution get increases.

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This is a mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in the air. Suspended particulates are

seen as dust, smoke, and haze which can make breathing difficult, especially for people with

chronic respiratory problems.


VOCs include gasoline, paint solvents, and organic cleaning solutions. They evaporate and

enter the air as vapor, and as molecules resulting from the incomplete burning of fuels and



One source of carbon monoxide is vehicle emissions. This is an invisible, odorless gas that is

highly toxic to air-breathing animals because it interferes with the blood's ability to transport

oxygen. Even low levels can start or increase damage to the heart in individuals with artery or

heart problems. At medium concentrations, carbon monoxide causes headaches and fatigue.

As the concentration increases, reflexes slow down and drowsiness occurs. At high levels

carbon monoxide causes death. People at greatest risk from carbon monoxide include

pregnant women, infants, and those with heart or respiratory diseases.


Nitrogen Oxides are lung irritants that can lead to acute respiratory diseases in children. They

may also cause over-sensitivity to pollen and dust in people suffering from asthma.


Sulphur Dioxide is converted to sulphuric acid in the atmosphere. It can be poisonous to both

plants and animals. Like particulates, sulphur dioxide irritates the respiratory tract, causing

airways to close, and interfering with the lungs. Children and the elderly are especially

sensitive to sulphur dioxide, as are people suffering from asthma and emphysema.

Some research indicates that the sulphur dioxide is reducing crop yields. The potential for

crop losses in Asia has been indicated by a study in Pakistan where a 40 per cent reduction in

rice yields was linked to the presence of pollutants in the air.


Lead is dangerous, even at low concentrations and can lead to reduced intelligence in

children, brain damage and death. It accumulates in the body and damages body tissue.

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Ozone in the upper atmosphere shields us from ultraviolet radiation. However on ground

level, it is highly toxic to both plants and animals as it can damage lungs. It can bring on

coughing; asthma attacks and lowers the immune system.


Indoor air pollution is caused by the burning of fuel-wood and dung for cooking, and can

cause suffocation.


Air pollution is caused by a wide variety of things. The earth is great at cleaning the air on its

own. However, air pollution has grown so much; the earth can no longer clean all of it. This

is starting to have adverse effects on the environment such as causing acid rain, smog and a

wide variety of health problems.


Cars, trucks, jet airplanes and other combustion engine vehicles cause air pollution. The

exhaust from these contains carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and gaseous oxide. This type of air pollution creates smog (as seen in Los Angeles) which causes respiratory health problems

and holes in the ozone layer, which increases the exposure to the sun's harmful rays.


Factories, office buildings, homes and power-generating stations burn fossil fuels, which

cause air pollution. The burning of oil and coal (fossil fuels) also contributes to smog. This

air pollution destroys plants, damages buildings and creates oxidation on iron.


Petroleum refineries release hydrocarbons and various particulates that pollute the air.


Some power lines are not insulated and are high voltage. This creates air pollution.


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Pesticides used to kill indoor and outdoor pests, insecticides used to kill insects and

herbicides use to kill weeds all cause air pollution.


Radioactive fallout causes air pollution from the nuclear energy dispersed, which is a dust.


Dust from fertilizers used to help plants grow causes air pollution.


Mining causes air pollution by releasing a variety of particles.


Mills and plants, include paper mills, chemical plants, iron mills, steel mills, cement plants

and asphalt plants, release emissions into the air causing air pollution.



Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate, or biological material that cause

harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment

into the atmosphere. 

Emissions fromTextile Processing 

Oil mist and organic emissions produced when textile materials containing lubricating oils,

plasticizers, and other materials that can volatilize or be thermically degraded into volatile

substances, are subjected to heat.

Processes that can be sources of oil mist include tentering, calendaring, heat setting, drying,

and curing.

Acid mist produced during the carbonization of wool and during some types of spray dyeing.

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Solvent vapors released during and after solvent processing operations such as dry cleaning

and volatile organic compounds from mineral spirit solvents in print pastes or inks.

Exhaust gases emanating from polycondensation of melt spinning fiber lines

Dust and lint produced by the processing of natural fibres and synthetic staple prior to and

during spinning, as well as by napping and carpet shearing.

Emission in processes 

Easy care finishing

  Formaldehyde – carcinogenic agent

Flame retardant finish

  Hydrogen cyanide, halogen compounds or oxides of nitrogen,

  highly conc. Carbon monoxide

Drying, curing

 HCl and cyanide produced when drying of incompletely removed excess antistatic,flame retardant or softening compounds occurs


Process Source Pollutants



Emissions from boiler Particulates, nitrous oxides

(Nox) sulphur dioxide (SO2)

Coating, drying

and curing

Emission from high temperature ovens Volatile organic components

(VOCs)Cotton handling


Emissions from preparation, carding,

combing, and fabrics manufacturing


Sizing Emission from using sizing compound

(gums, PVA)

Nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxide,

carbon monoxide.

Bleaching Emission from using chlorine compound Chlorine, chlorine dioxide

Dyeing Disperse dyeing using carriers Sulphur


Aniline dyeing



Aniline vapors

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Printing Emission Hydrocarbons, ammonia

Finishing Resin finishing Heat setting of synthetic



Carriers - low molecular weight

Polymers - lubricating oils

Chemical storage Emissions from storage tanks for

commodity and chemicals

Volatile organic components


Waste water


Emissions from treatment tanks and


Volatile organic components,

toxic emissions

Effect of Dust - Health Hazards 

  Cotton dust – biossinosis (lung disease)

  Asbestos dust – lung cancer  Wool dust – allergic, sneezing attacks, asthma and related diseases

Pollutants Effects On Human Being Sources

Sulpher di oxide Irritates respiratory system

and causes bronchitis

Boiler flue gas, rayon plant


aldehydes Irritates all parts of 

respiratory system

Polyester plant

chlorine Causes lung irritation and

also irritation in eyes

Processing house

Carbon di oxide Deprives body cells of 

oxygen and cause

unconsciousness by CO

combining with hemoglobin

Boiler house

PREVENTION:How you can we help to prevent Air Pollution:

  Encourage people to leave their car at home and walk or ride a bicycle to travel short


  Develop efficient public transport systems to help reduce dependence on private cars.

  Save energy - Try to use minimum amounts of natural gas and even electricity.

  Provide Government subsidies to encourage the introduction of petrol with low

sulphur and no lead.

  Always buy recycled products.

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  Reuse things such as paper and plastic bags, paper etc. This will contribute a lot

towards reducing the effects of air pollution and global warming.

  Avoid the use of firecrackers. You don't really need it to express your feeling of 


 Promote energy efficiency and conservation. Energy efficiency means usingtechnology to accomplish tasks with less energy.

  Modify furnaces and engines to provide more complete combustion. This helps

control the production of both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons.

  Replace incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs


spinning mill

  maintaining m/c parts

  Maintaining hardness of rubber cots

  Maintaining RH%

  Using overhead pneumatic cleaners

  Cyclone filters, Cloth filter

Wet processing unit

  Electrostatic precipitator

  scrubber  oxidizer



Chimneys height should not be less than 30 meters and release the pollutants not in the

vicinity of living organism


These are working on gravitational and inertial concepts of collecting, filtering etc of the

particulate matter. Eg. Settling chambers, dynamic separator and wet cyclones & multiple


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Woven or sintered metal beds of fibres, metal turning, fibrous mats & aggregate bed filter,

paper filters and fabric filters are used for the filtration of particulate matter like dust, lint and



From all the above and the research we get to know that air pollution is badly effecting the

environment. The amount of air pollution is increase very rapidly that its now become

difficult to control it. Government is making policies to control it but the result was not

according to the need. Urbanization, industrialization, burning of fossil fuels and other

process make the air pollution possible in the environment.

The best way to control the air pollution by making those products which contain less

pollutant, or prevent it at the early stage, or at the source.

Textile contribution in air pollution is increasing day by day. Especially in Pakistan where the

economy is running by the textile sector. Land contamination, fumes generating by the

dyeing process, chemical inhaling and dispersing of the fumes make environment hazardous

and unhealthy. That’s the reason why the labor of textile sector is mostly effected by the

disease of asthma, cancer, respiratory illness and etc.