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Environmental Interactions: Rural Land Resources

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Environmental Interactions: Rural Land Resources Rural Land Resources are the product of the interaction of a wide range of physical factors modified by human activity. The resultant rural landscapes offer a variety of physical, economic and social opportunities.
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Limestone: Yorkshire Dales

Environmental Interactions: Rural Land ResourcesRural Land Resources are the product of the interaction of a wide range of physical factors modified by human activity.

The resultant rural landscapes offer a variety of physical, economic and social opportunities.

Characteristics of glaciated upland, upland limestone and coastal landscapes. The evolution of these landscapes. Economic and social opportunities in these areas. Environmental problems and conflicts in these areas. UK and European Union policies. Environmental Interactions: Rural Land ResourcesAssessment in Rural Land ResourcesThe content covered in this unit will be assessed in paper 2.

Limestone: Yorkshire DalesEnvironmental Interactions:Rural Land Resources

Topic OutlineLimestone landforms in the Yorkshire Dales.

Background to the Yorkshire Dales.

Land Use in the Yorkshire Dales:FarmingTourismQuarrying

Land use conflict in the Yorkshire Dales.

Management of land use conflicts.Aims of the lessonTo introduce the Rural Land Resources Unit.

To practice answering 20 mark questions on upland limestone landforms.

Limestone Landforms in the Yorkshire DalesLets create a list of limestone landforms you have learnt about in the Yorkshire Dales.

Can you remember the named examples?Limestone Pavement e.g. Malham Cove

Potholes e.g. Gaping Gill

Shakeholes

Resurgent Streams

Scars & Scree Slopes e.g. Raven Scar

Gorge e.g. Cheddar Gorge

Dry Valley

Caverns e.g. Ingleborough Caves

Stalactites, Stalagmites & Pillars e.g. Ingleborough Caves

2012 PPQ Paper 2 Q1aThe Yorkshire Dales National Park is an area of Upland Limestone.With the aid of annotated diagrams, describe and explain how the main physicalfeatures of upland limestone landscapes are formed.Both surface and underground features should be included in your answer.

(20 Marks)Tips:Arrange your answer into a series of subheadings:Surface FeaturesLimestone PavementUnderground FeaturesCavernsStalactites, Stalagmites & Pillars4 Marks awarded for named examples.Detailed explanation of processes required.16 marks only if no diagrams included.

HomeworkComplete your 20 mark question at home for next lesson.SummarySo far we have

Introduced the Rural Land Resources Unit.

Practiced answering 20 mark questions on upland limestone landforms.

Aim of the lessonTo practice answering 20 mark questions on upland limestone landforms.

Peer MarkingPass your finished 20 mark answer to another member of the class.

Using a highlighter you will mark on the areas where you would give marks.

Use the marking scheme provided and textbooks to help you.

As bullet points, add in any information you feel they have missed out.HomeworkUsing the peer feedback you have been provided with, rewrite your answer to include all of the missed information.SummarySo far we have

Introduced the Rural Land Resources Unit.

Practiced answering 20 mark questions on upland limestone landforms.

Aim of the lessonTo practice answering 20 mark questions.

To develop our ability to write extended answers under exam timed conditions.Sample AnswerTake a look at this sample answer for the question you have been tackling in class.

Using a post-it, mark this sample answer and also write down any information you feel it may have missed.

Now take a look at this handwritten version.Time TestThe Yorkshire Dales National Park is an area of Upland Limestone.With the aid of annotated diagrams, describe and explain how the main physicalfeatures of upland limestone landscapes are formed.Both surface and underground features should be included in your answer.

(20 Marks)

SummarySo far we have

practiced answering 20 mark questions.

developed our ability to write extended answers under exam timed conditions.

True or False?Aims of the lessonTo learn about the location and background of the Yorkshire Dales

To learn the definition of social, economic and environmental factors.

Location of the Yorkshire DalesUsing the Modern School Atlas you are going to writer a brief description of the location of the Yorkshire Dales.It should include:When it opened: 1954The name of a settlement within it: M______.The names of three cities nearby.The names of the main roads connecting those cities to the Dales.

Location of the Yorkshire DalesThe Yorkshire Dales National park was founded in 1954. It is located in the north east of England. One of the main settlements in the Dales is Malham.Three major cities nearby to the park are Birmingham, Newcastle (both connected by the A1) and Manchester (connected by the M65).

Social, Economic & Environmental FactorsA social factor is one which will affects the people in the area.

An economic factor is one which affects industry in the area.

An environmental factor is one which affects the natural landscape.

Factors Affecting the Yorkshire DalesEach pair has been given a set of cards containing information on factors affecting the Yorkshire Dales.

You must divide these factors into 3 groups:Social FactorsEconomic FactorsEnvironmental Factors

There may be some cross over.

Once complete, take a copy of these into your notes.In 2004 it was estimated that tourism brought 350 million to the Yorkshire Dales. The industry supports approx 1250 jobs within the park and the surrounding area.Tourism has led to an increase in services in towns like Malham e.g. cafes, restaurants, shops, hotels.Heavy use of footpaths causes erosion and widens the path as people avoid muddy areas. This leads to some paths being 4 times their normal width.Tourists trespass on farmland causing damage to crops and to dry stone walls.Litter, dog waste and intentional vandalism are a constant problem in the National Park. It increases the risk to livestock and wildlife.As a result of footpath erosion, grazing land is also lost in the Yorkshire Dales.Limestone pavements like Malham Cove have been damaged by feet and stone removal.The lifestyle of the locals is encroached through increased noise, disturbance and loss of privacy.Housing prices have increased in towns like Malham. Locals can no longer afford to purchase homes here.Review QuestionsGive 2 social factors affecting the Yorkshire Dales you have learnt.

Give 2 economic factors affecting the Yorkshire Dales you have learnt.

Give 2 environmental factors affecting the Yorkshire Dales you have learnt.SummaryTo learn about the location and background of the Yorkshire Dales

To learn the definition of social, economic and environmental factors.

Aims of the lessonTo understand how quarrying is a suitable land use for the Yorkshire Dales.To learn the social, economic and environmental impacts of quarrying in YD with reference to named examples.To identify conflicts and solutions between quarrying and other land uses in the YD with reference to named examples.

JobsYou should be in groups with a maximum of 4 people per groupTimekeeper keeping track of the time and making sure all tasks are completed within the time limit.Resource Manager responsible for collecting and returning all resources required e.g. maps, paper etc.Chairperson ensures that everyone has a chance to have their say and help keep the discussion on track. Recorder Makes notes on what has been discussed by the group.

What you will needOnce each person in the group has a role the Resource Manager should collect the followingA copy of the Ingleton map

A set of characters (4) and statements (6) for your group

Lined paper to record the discussions RolesFor this activity each of you is going to take on a role:Quarry ManagerLocal ResidentNational Park Authority RepresentativePotholerTask 1: DiscussionAs a group identify the quarry at grid reference 706740 (this quarry spills over into parts of two squares). The owners of this quarry have applied to extend the quarry to the North-west of its current location. As a group you will have to discuss the merits and disadvantages of the extension and come to a decision on whether or not the extension can go ahead. You will have 15 minutes for your initial discussions the recorder should keep accurate notes of what is being discussed, timekeepers and chairperson make sure the group is on track!

Task 2: Conflict Spider DiagramFor the Yorkshire Dales we are going to create am A3 spider diagram that outlines the key conflicts that exist between land uses.

We will also add in possible solutions to these conflicts.YORKSHIRE DALESTourismFarmingQuarryingConflictsSolutionsSuitableSummaryToday we haveunderstood how quarrying is a suitable land use for the Yorkshire Dales.learnt the social, economic and environmental impacts of quarrying in YD with reference to named examples.identified conflicts and solutions between quarrying and other land uses in the YD with reference to named examples.

Review QuestionsAims of the lessonTo understand how farming is a suitable land use for the Yorkshire Dales.To learn the challenges and changes to farming in the Yorkshire Dales with reference to named examples.To identify conflicts and solutions between farming and other land uses in the YD with reference to named examples.

Farming in the Yorkshire DalesThe Yorkshire Dales landscape is one of small fields enclosed with limestone dry stone walls.

This traditional way of life is now increasingly under threat due to pressure on farming practices.

Sheep farming

Cattle are rearedwhere there is slightlybetter pasture.Suitability of Farming in Yorkshire DalesWhy do you think that farming is a suitable land use in the Yorkshire Dales?

Add this information to your A3 spider diagram.

DiversificationDiversification is when farmers give over land to purposes other than farming.

In your notes, brainstorm some ideas for a diversified farm.

Diversificationon farmsFarm shopTea roomsNew products

Places to stayBunkhousesCampsitesHotelsGuesthousesB&BMountain Biking

Caving / Potholing

Motor biking

Walking

PonyTrekkingYour Diversified FarmEach of you is going to get the chance to plan your own diversified farm in the Yorkshire Dales.

It should:Be completed on graph paper.Be neatly annotated.Contain a wide variety of different examples of diversification.

Use the photographs on your tables and p34 of the Higher Environmental Interactions textbook to help you.

Conflict Spider DiagramUsing the information on p32 and 33 of the Higher Environmental Interactions textbook.

Look carefully at figure 1.47a & 1.47b.Pressures & SolutionsConflictsIncreased production costs mean small farms struggle to compete with agribusiness.Increased pressure from tourists.Despite EU grants, subsidies and price guarantees, farmers still struggle to maintain income levels.Maintenance of traditional farm lifestyle is uneconomical.Sale prices for stock have fallen. Increases in cheaper imports, BSE and reduced demand for meat products.SolutionsUK Government payments for farmers in less favoured areas.EU Common Agricultural Policy supports cattle and sheep farmers.Farm diversification increases income.Barn and walls conservation scheme payments.Countryside Stewardship Scheme (CSS) pays grants to farmers who manage their land in a traditional way.Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs). Farmers who own ESAs receive payments for reducing the intensity of production.SummarySo far we haveunderstood how farming is a suitable land use for the Yorkshire Dales.learnt the challenges and changes to farming in the Yorkshire Dales with reference to named examples.identified conflicts and solutions between farming and other land uses in the YD with reference to named examples.Aims of the LessonTo understand why the Yorkshire dales is situated for the tourist industry.To learn the social, economic and environmental impacts of tourism in YD with reference to named examples.To identify conflicts and solutions between tourism and other land uses in the YD with reference to named examples.

Malham - Honey pot

Problems includeparking

Places to stayBunkhousesCampsitesHotelsGuesthousesB&BMountain Biking

Caving / Potholing

Motor biking

Walking

PonyTrekking

Goredale Scar

Malham Cove

Janets Foss a beauty spot close to Malham

ActivityThink about all the land uses the YD have that are aimed at tourism.Try to sort them into a table with the following headings:SocialEconomicEnvironmentalSmall quaint villagesHotels and B&BsBeautiful SceneryClose to major citiesLimestone caves for cavingAdd this information to your spider diagramProblemsWhat are some of the problems of tourism in the YD?

Use the tourism information sheet to create a poster for tourism in the YD.

It should promote sustainable tourism by explaining how the activities people will be taking part in will not negatively impact the environment.Your poster should include:

Why tourism is popular in the Dales.Problems caused by unsustainable tourism.Methods used to make tourism sustainable in the Dales.Plenty of facts and figures!

Ritter Paving used to surface car parks providing a Hard wearing surface that is environmentally friendlyConflict Spider DiagramUsing the information from your poster and tourism hand-out to complete your diagram for tourism.

SummarySo far we haveSeen what type of tourist activities are available in the Yorkshire dales and be able to explain why they are suited for this environment.Looked at some of the problems of the tourist industry and tried to find some workable solutions that keep the industry sustainableUsed named examples of villages that have tried to combat the conflict of tourist with locals. Past Paper Question (2012)Social tourism, recreation, nature conservation.Economic farming, forestry, water supply, energy generation, quarrying.

Sample AnswerThe YDs can be found in the north west of England. It is nearby to major cities such as Newcastle, Leeds and Manchester (1) which makes it an ideal area for day trippers and weekend visitors (1). They can access the area easily on roads such as the A1 (1).This means that the YDs has access to a large number of tourists. The outstanding natural beauty of the area (1), including limestone pavements at Malham (1), all act as a hook for people. This has provided economic opportunities for people to set up tourist led industries such as B&Bs and cafes (1). In turn this has led to a thriving business and around 1250 jobs for the locals of the area (1). The number of tourists and natural scenery allowed the creation of a National park in 1954 (1). This increased the price of housing in the area. It also allowed for restrictions being placed on buildings helping small villages and towns to retain their charm (1).The presence of limestone (1) has allowed for quarrying to take place e.g. Swindon Quarry (1). These 8 quarries employ roughly 7% of the YD population (1).

Sample AnswerThe YDs can be found in the north west of England. It is nearby to major cities such as Newcastle, Leeds and Manchester (1) which makes it an ideal area for day trippers and weekend visitors (1). They can access the area easily on roads such as the A1 (1).This means that the YDs has access to a large number of tourists. The outstanding natural beauty of the area (1), including limestone pavements at Malham (1), all act as a hook for people. This has provided economic opportunities for people to set up tourist led industries such as B&Bs and cafes (1). In turn this has led to a thriving business and around 1250 jobs for the locals of the area (1). The number of tourists and natural scenery allowed the creation of a National park in 1954 (1). This increased the price of housing in the area. It also allowed for restrictions being placed on buildings helping small villages and towns to retain their charm (1).The presence of limestone (1) has allowed for quarrying to take place e.g. Swindon Quarry (1). These 8 quarries employ roughly 7% of the YD population (1).

Aims of the lessonTo look more closely at conflicts between land users in the Yorkshire Dales.

To discuss possible solutions to these problems in the Yorkshire Dales.Land Use in Physical EnvironmentsLand Use: How we make use of the land.Land Use Conflict: How different land uses have difficulties with each other.Land Use Management: Measures put in place to reduce difficulties between different land users

Limestone: Yorkshire DalesCreated in 1954Land Uses:QuarryingLimestone easy to extract.Used in steel industry.Hill-Sheep FarmingCold & wet climate poor for growing crops.Very little water near the surface.Tourism50 million per year.MilitaryTough landscape suitable for training.

Land Use ConflictsRolesEach of you is going to be given a role to take on for this activity.Malham LocalTouristQuarry WorkerFarmerTaskYou are going to discuss the reasons why each of the land uses would be in conflict with each other.

Two people will discuss the reasons why they are in conflict.One person will chair the discussion.One person will keep notes on what is being said.Land Use ConflictLocals V Tourists

Damage to local way of life.

Traffic congestion.

Increased house prices.

Loss of services for locals.

Loss of young people.

Quarrying V Local Residents

Air pollution from lorries transporting limestone.

Traffic congestion on the roads.

Tourists V Farmers

Litter.

Gates left open.

Livestock frightened by dogs off leash.

Landscape degradation (dry stone walls & footpaths)Solutions: Quarry V LocalsLimited blastingWash lorries (remove dust)Covered trains (contain dust)New tracksTree screeningRedevelop quarry after use.

Solutions: Farmers V TouristsPut up signs to educate tourists on Country Code.Provide litter bins.Kissing gates.Projects to repair walls.Hard surface footpaths.

Solutions: Tourists V LocalsPreferential housing for locals.Ritter paving (increase parking space).Park & ride schemes.Postal Bus Shuttle.

2008 Past Paper QuestionFor the Peak District National Park or a named upland area you have studied; explain the environmental problems and conflicts which may arise from the competing demands of different land uses. 14 MarksTips:You must make reference to a named area with examples.Deal with each conflict separately:Tourist V LocalsLocals V QuarryFarmers V TouristsFarmers V Quarry etc.Sample AnswerFor the Peak District National Park or a named upland area you have studied; explain the environmental problems and conflicts which may arise from the competing demands of different land uses. 14 Marks

ANSWERSummarySo far we havelooked more closely at conflicts between land users in the Yorkshire Dales.

discussed possible solutions to these problems in the Yorkshire Dales.

Aims of the lessonTo learn the names of organisations responsible for managing and protecting the landscape of the Yorkshire Dales.To learn the names of schemes that land users can use in order to promote sustainable development in the YD.


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