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EPA Superfund

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  • 1. Overview of SuperfundComprehensive Environmental Response,Compensation and Liability ActShahid Mahmud, Environmental Engineer United States Environmental Protection AgencyOffice of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

2. Overview Origin of CERCLA (Superfund Law) Key provisions of CERCLA Key provisions of the National Oil and HazardousSubstances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) Overview of the cleanup process underSuperfund10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2 3. The Origin of CERCLA Public awareness of abandoned dump sites Two sites drew significant media attention: Love Canal in NiagaraFalls, New York Valley of the Drums inBrooks, Kentucky10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 3 4. Key Provisions of CERCLA Approved as law in 1980 Provides legal authority to respond to arelease of:A hazardous substanceAny pollutant or contaminant that may present an imminent and substantial endangerment Excludes oil releases 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 4 5. Key Provisions of CERCLA Creates Hazardous SubstanceTrust Fund Holds those PotentiallyResponsible Parties (PRPs)liable Cleanup costs Natural resource damages Inventories and prioritizes sites Establishes a National PrioritiesList (NPL)10/9/2012U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 5 6. Key Provisions of CERCLA Authorizes three types of response actions:Removal ActionRemedial ActionEnforcement Action Encourages participation of states and tribalgovernments Provides opportunities for communityinvolvement 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 6 7. PlanNational Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) Blueprint for responding to oil spills and hazardoussubstances releases. All Superfund response actions must be consistent withthe NCP. The NCP is found at 40 Code of Federalregulations (CFR) Part 300 http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text- idx?c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40cfr300_main_02.tpl NCP provides step-by-step process for conductingSuperfund response actions. 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency7 8. Removal Actions under Superfund Three types of removal response actions:1. Emergency Response (Action within hours)2. Time-Critical (Action within 6 months)3. Non-time Critical (Planning period more than 6 months) On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) investigates site todetermine extent of damage and the appropriateactions to take during the response effort. 10/9/2012U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 8 9. Emergency Response Coordination and implementation of awide range of activities to ensure timelyresponse measures for hazardoussubstance and oil releases. Includes large-scale national emergencies such as homeland security incidents. Emergencies range from small-scalespills to large events requiring promptaction and/or evacuation of nearbypopulations.10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 9 10. Removal Responses Common at Superfund Sites when contaminationposes an imminent threat to human health and theenvironment. Removal actions can supplement long-term cleanupactions at NPL sites Classified as either time-critical or non-time-criticaldepending on the extent and type of contamination. Decision to conduct removal documented in anAction Memorandum.10/9/2012U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 10 11. Overview of Superfund Response Process Short-TermCleanup RemovalSiteSite DiscoverySite ListingLong-Term Assessment Clean/ CleanupClosureRemedial Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS)Enforcement/Cost Recovery CommunityRelations 11Site Reuse 12. Site Listing Process - Hazard RankingSystem (HRS) Used to identify sites for the National Priorities List (NPL) Numerically based scoring system that uses information from initialinvestigations HRS assesses relative potential of sites to pose a threat to human healthand the environment Ranks sites based on their relative risk among sites evaluated Cut-off score of 28.5 was established for placing sites on the NPL An HRS evaluation is performed following procedures defined in the HRSregulation (40 CFR Part 300 Appendix A, part of the NCP)10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency12 13. Major Phases of Remedial Process NCP defines five major phases: Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Selection of Remedy Remedial Design Remedial Action (Site Cleanup) Operation and Maintenance Overall goal of remedy selection: Protective of human health and the environment Maintain protection over time Minimize untreated waste 10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 13 14. Overview of Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Process RI/FS supports remedy selection Remedial Investigation (RI) provides: Site characterization Baseline risk assessment FS develops and analyzes remedial actionalternatives Develop and screen alternatives Detailed analysis of alternatives Nine Evaluation criteria are basis of remedy selection 10/9/2012U.S. Environmental Protection Agency14 15. Remedy Selection Proposed plan informs the public on thepreferred cleanup option Public reviews and provides comments on theproposed plan All relevant documents are maintained in thesite information repository10/9/2012U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 15 16. Record of Decision, Remedial Design and Remedial ActionRecord of Decision Official decision document on remedy selection Technical, legal and public documentRemedial Design Develop final plans and specifications forselected remedyRemedial Action Contract selection Remedy Construction10/9/2012U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 16 17. Enforcement and Liability Enforcement principle: those responsible forhazardous waste sites pay for or perform cleanup. CERCLA provides criteria under which a party is liablefor cleanup costs. EPA identifies those responsible for contamination at asite and negotiates with them to do the cleanup. EPA can do the cleanup itself and recover its costsfrom the responsible party. 10/9/2012U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 17 18. Post Construction Completion Ensure that Superfund cleanup actions provide for the long-term protection of human health and the environment. Activities include: operations and maintenance (O&M), Five- year reviews, remedy optimization, institutional controls, and deleting sites from the NPL.10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 18 19. Operation & Maintenance (O&M) Ensure that equipment is installed andthat the remedy performs as intended. Site responsibility transfers to theStates for Fund lead sites. EPA is responsible for monitoring andensuring that the work is adequatelyperformed.10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 19 20. Five-Year Reviews/Site DeletionFive-Year Reviews Evaluate the implementation and performance of a remedy to determine whether it remains protective Required by CERCLA / NCP when hazardous substances remain on site above levels which permit unrestricted use and unlimited exposure.Site Deletion When cleanup levels are met and Operation and Maintenance is complete Site is deleted from NPL10/9/2012U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 20 21. Superfund Site Reuse and Redevelopment Over 600 Superfund sites have been returnedto productive use under the SuperfundRedevelopment Initiative Some mine site examples include:- Anaconda Smelter Company, Montana- Midvale Slag, Utah10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 22. Summary CERCLA provides legal authority to respondto a release of hazardous substances NCP provides the blueprint for responding tooil spills and hazardous substances releases Program designed to address both short andlong-term actions10/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 22 23. Thank You!!Contact Information:Shahid MahmudTeam Leader, EPA Abandoned Mine Lands TeamOffice of Site Remediation and Technology [email protected]/9/2012 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 23

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Overview of Superfund Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act Shahid Mahmud, Environmental Engineer United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
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