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Wind Turbine Generator Overview You can enter the properties associated with wind turbine generators of the electrical distribution system using this editor. Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. Wind Turbine rotor supplies fluctuating mechanical power (torque) to the connected generator. The Wind Turbine Generator Editor includes the following ten pages of properties: Info Page Rating Page Imp/Model Turbine Page Wind Page Controller Page Inertia Page Reliability Page Remarks Page Comment Page Info Page - Wind Turbine Generator Editor You can specify the wind turbine Generator (WTG) ID, connected Bus, In/Out of Service, Equipment FDR (feeder) Tag, Name, Description, Data Type, Priority, Generator Type, Configuration, Operation Mode, and Connection within the fields of the Info page. Page 1 of 24 Wind Turbine Generator Overview 24/03/2011 file://C:\Documents and Settings\gironda\Impostazioni locali\Temp\~hh6383.htm
Transcript
Page 1: etap manual

Wind Turbine Generator Overview

You can enter the properties associated with wind turbine generators of the electrical distribution system using this editor. Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. Wind Turbine rotor supplies fluctuating mechanical power (torque) to the connected generator.

The Wind Turbine Generator Editor includes the following ten pages of properties:

Info Page Rating Page Imp/Model

Turbine Page Wind Page Controller Page

Inertia Page Reliability Page Remarks Page

Comment Page

Info Page - Wind Turbine Generator Editor

You can specify the wind turbine Generator (WTG) ID, connected Bus, In/Out of Service, Equipment FDR (feeder) Tag, Name, Description, Data Type, Priority, Generator Type, Configuration, Operation Mode, and Connection within the fields of the Info page.

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Info

ID

Enter a unique ID with up to 25 alphanumeric characters.

ETAP automatically assigns a unique ID to each WTG. The assigned IDs consist of the default WTG ID plus an integer, starting with the number one and increasing as the number of WTGs increase. The default WTG ID can be changed from the Defaults Menu in the menu bar or from the Project View.

Bus

This is the ID of the connecting bus for the WTG. If the terminal is not connected to any bus, a blank entry will be shown for the bus ID. To connect or reconnect an induction machine to a bus, select a bus from the list box. The one-line diagram will be updated to show the new connection after you click on OK. Note: you can only connect to buses that reside in the same view where the WTG resides, i.e., you cannot connect to a bus that resides in the Dumpster or in another composite network.

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If a WTG is connected to a bus through a number of protective devices, reconnection of the wind turbine to a new bus in this editor will reconnect the last existing protective device to the new bus, as shown below where WTG is reconnected from Bus10 to Bus4.

ETAP displays the nominal kV of the bus next to the bus ID for your convenience.

In/Out of Service

The operating condition of a WTG can be selected by clicking on the buttons for either the In Service or Out of Service options. The properties of an Out of Service machine can be edited like an In Service machine; however, an Out of Service machine will not be included in any system studies. When the continuity check is activated, an Out of Service machine automatically becomes grayed out in the one-line diagram.

Note: the In/Out of Service option is an engineering property, which is independent of the configuration status. Therefore, you can set a branch to be In Service for the Base Data and Out of Service in Revision Data.

Equipment

FDR Tag #

Enter the feeder tag in this field, using up to 25 alphanumeric characters.

Name

Enter equipment name, using up to 35 alphanumeric characters.

Description

Enter equipment description, using up to 100 alphanumeric characters.

Data Type

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This field provides a convenient way to track data entry. Select one of the data types (such as Estimate, Typical, Vendor, Final, etc.) from the drop-down list. As the data is updated, this field can be changed to reflect the source of the latest data. There are a total of ten load types. To change the data type names, navigate to the Project Menu, point to Settings and select Data Type.

Priority

Select the load priority of this machine from the drop-down list. This field can be used for load priority, operating priority, load-shedding priority, etc. Ten different priorities are allowed. To change priority names, from the Project Menu, point to Settings and select Load Priority.

Generator Type

Select the generator type for this WTG from the drop-down list. ETAP currently models Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) connected to a wind driven rotor for analysis purposes.

Configuration

In ETAP, the operation mode of the WTG is dependent on the configuration. This provides the flexibility of using multiple configurations to take into account different modes of operation. For information about creating new configurations, see the Status Configuration Section in the Overview Chapter.

Select the operating status of the WTG for the selected configuration status from the list box.

Operation Mode

The generator mode of operation and its ratings are displayed on the top of the editor.

Mvar Control

Using this option you can specify the amount of fixed MW and Mvar generation in the Rating page of the Wind Turbine Generator Editor.

Connection

Quantity

Enter the quantity (number) of similar WTGs in the electrical network. The maximum number is 999 and the default is 1.

Info Page Rating Page Imp/Model

Turbine Page Wind Page Controller Page

Inertia Page Reliability Page Remarks Page

Comment Page

Rating Page - Wind Turbine Generator Editor

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On this page, you can specify the rating of the WTG, its Mvar Limits, the average wind speed, its operating values, and the WTG categories.

Ratings

MW/kW

You can toggle between these two options by clicking on the MW/kW button. Enter the rated real power of the WTG in MW or kW.

kV

Enter the rated voltage of the WTG in kV. This entry is used by ETAP to convert the ohmic values of the circuit elements to per unit values for calculations. This value is also used to convert the final WTG voltage to the actual values used for output reports.

% PF

Enter the rated power factor of the WTG as a percentage.

% Eff

This is the efficiency of the machine, in percent, at 100%, 75%, and 50% loading. Efficiency cannot

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exceed 100%. The efficiency at 100% loading is the rated efficiency and is used for calculating the rated values, i.e., when you change the efficiency at 100% loading, the machine full load current is recalculated. All three values of the efficiencies are used for determining the machine efficiency under different percent loading, i.e., when you change the value of any one of the efficiencies, the operating load and feeder losses for all loading categories are recalculated.

Poles

Enter the number of poles for the synchronous generator. As the number of poles is changed, the synchronous speed of the machine is recalculated and displayed in RPM (revolutions per minute).

RPM = 120 * Freq./Poles

RPM

ETAP displays the rated RPM (synchronous speed) of the WTG based on the system frequency and the number of poles entered (Ws=120 freq/pole).

MVA

ETAP displays the rated power of the synchronous generator in MVA.

% of Bus kVnom

ETAP displays the percentage of nominal bus kV.

FLA

This is the rated full load current of the machine calculated and displayed in amperes. This is the current the WTG will pull from the system when it is fully loaded (that is, when the system is operating at the rated HP (or kW), rated kV, and rated frequency). When you modify FLA, the WTG efficiency at 100% loading is recalculated. ETAP limits the entry of FLA so that the efficiency at 100% loading cannot exceed 100% or be below 10%.

Mvar Limits

Click on one of the two buttons to specify if the Mvar limits are user-defined or set by the Controller.

Wind Speed

This field displays the average wind speed in the Avg Wind Speed field in meters per second (m/s)

Generation Categories

This group is used to assign the various generation settings to each of the ten generation categories for this WTG. Each WTG can be set to have a different operating generation level for each generation category. Depending on the operation mode, some of the values are editable as follows:

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Voltage Control Mode: %V and MW

Mvar Control: MW and Mvar

% wind speed will use the Cp curve data to calculate operating kW and kvar for each generation category to be used by load flow analysis and all other modules that require pre-start generation levels.

Operating Values

%V

Enter the operating terminal voltage magnitude in this field as a percentage, using up to 7 numeric characters.

Vangle

Enter the operating voltage angle in this field, using up to 5 numeric characters.

MW

Enter the WTG operating real power (MW) in this field, using up to 7 numeric characters.

Mvar

Enter the WTG operating reactive power (Mvar) in this field, using up to 7 numeric characters

Info Page Rating Page Imp/Model

Turbine Page Wind Page Controller Page

Inertia Page Reliability Page Remarks Page

Comment Page

Imp/Model Page - Wind Turbine Generator Editor

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Locked-Rotor

% LRC

Enter the machine locked-rotor current (at motor rated kV) in percent of the rated full load current of the motor, using up to 5 numeric characters.

% PF

Enter the locked-rotor power factor in percent, using up to 5 numeric characters.

ANSI Short-Circuit Z

Std MF/Xsc

If you select Std MF, ETAP uses the following ANSI Multiplying Factors for calculating the positive sequence short-circuit impedances. If you select the Xsc option, you can directly enter the short-circuit impedances in percent with motor ratings as the base. Note: the IEC short-circuit method does not use these impedances.

Xsc Xsc

HP kW RPM ½ Cycle Network 1.5-4 Cycle Network

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> 1000 HP >745.7 ≤1800 1.0/LRC 1.5/LRC

> 250 HP > 186.4 3600 1.0/LRC 1.5/LRC

≥ 50 HP ≥ 37.28 other 1.2/LRC 3.0/LRC

< 50 HP <37.28 1.67/LRC Infinity

Parameters

X0

This is the zero sequence reactance in percent (machine base); used for calculating short-circuit currents for unbalanced faults. Enter up to 7 numeric characters.

X2

This is the negative sequence reactance in percent (machine base); This value is used for harmonic analysis, short-circuit, and unbalanced load flow studies. Enter up to 7 numeric characters.

X/R

This is the induction motorX/R ratio (Xsc/Ra). Enter up to 7 numeric characters.

T

This is the induction motor transient time constant in seconds. Enter up to 5 numeric characters. This value is used in the IEC 363 method.

T= X”/(2 f Rr) (Rr = rotor resistance)

Grounding Type

Choose from these four grounding types provided in the drop-down list:

� Open Neutral is not connected to ground (ungrounded)

� Solid Solidly grounded, no intentional impedance in the neutral grounding path

� Resistor A resistor is used in the neutral grounding path.)

� XFMR-Resistor Grounded A resistor is used in the neutral grounding path

� XFMR-Reactor Grounded A reactor is used in the neutral grounding path

Model

The Model area provides performance graphs and a field that displays the generator model type. Clicking on the Lib… button causes the Library Quick Pick box appear. You can select from the provided list of Design IDs and Models to specify the Model Type, Design Class and Model ID using the Library Quick Pick.

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The following table (NEMA MG-1) provides a summary of motor designs and can be used to estimate a design classification and torque loads and percentage of slip.

Motor Designs (NEMA MG-1)

Classification Locked Rotor Torque (% Rated Load Torque)

Breakdown Torque (% Rated Load Torque)

Locked Rotor Current (% Rated Load Current)

Slip (%) Typical Applications Relative Efficiency

Design B

Normal locked rotor torque and normal locked rotor current.

70-275* 175-300* 600-700 0.5-5 Fans, blowers, centrifugal pumps and compressors, motor-generator sets, etc., where starting torque requirements are relatively low.

Medium

or

High

Design C

High locked rotor torque and normal locked rotor current.

200-250*

190-225*

600-700 1-5 Conveyors, crushers, stirring machines, agitators, reciprocating pumps and compressors, etc., where starting torque under load is required.

Medium

Design D

High locked rotor torque and high slip.

275

275 600-700 5-8 High peak loads with or without fly wheels such as punch presses, shears, elevators, extractors, winches, hoists, oil-well pumping and wire-drawing machines.

Medium

Design E

IEC 34-12 Design N locked rotor torques and currents.

75-190* 160-200* 800-1000 0.5-3 Fans, blowers, centrifugal pumps and compressors, motor-generator sets, etc., where starting torque requirements are relatively low.

High

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Note: Design A motor performance characteristics are similar to those for Design B except that the locked rotor starting current is higher than the values shown in the table above.

WTG CKT Model Library

You can access Motor Model Library data by selecting CKT model and clicking on the Lib button to open the Library Quick-Pick - Motor Model. Motor model data from the library can be obtained and transferred to the Motor Editor by selecting the Model Type (Single1, Single2, DBL1, or DBL2) and then highlighting a Design Class and model ID. Motor model is used for dynamic motor starting and transient stability analysis.

After you select a new model, if you click on OK to leave the WTG CKT Model Editor and the WTG Parameter Update editor appears, which displays the updated WTG parameters. Click on the UPDATE button to apply these parameters or the Cancel button to reject them and close the editor without apply any changes. ETAP recalculates model parameters after you select a new circuit or characteristic model. The update occurs when you click OK to leave the Motor Editor, select another editor page, or navigate to another motor.

Info Page Rating Page Imp/Model

Turbine Page Wind Page Controller Page

Inertia Page Reliability Page Remarks Page

Comment Page

Turbine Page - Wind Turbine Generator Editor

You can use the Turbine page to define the characteristics of the turbine either by selecting turbine

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data from a library or by entering the required data manually. Click on the appropriate button to select the library or user-defined options. If you select data from a library all fields in the aerodynamics group will be populated. If you later change any parameter in a field the library header text will change to a dark blue color to indicate a change was made to the library data by a user.

Aerodynamics

This area contains rotor and air density and speed data that are used to generate the curve displayed in the Power Curve field.

V Rated

This is the turbine rated wind speed in meters-per-second (m/s). Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

Cut-in Speed

This is the minimum wind speed in m/s required for the turbine to generate power. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

Cut-out Speed

This is the maximum wind speed in m/s required for the turbine to generate power. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

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Swept Area

This is the rotor swept area in M2(Pi * CD/2)2 for a horizontal type of turbine. Enter up to 9 numeric

characters in this field.

Diameter

This is the rotor diameter in meters. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

Pitch Angle

This is the rotor blade pitch and angle in degrees. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

Air Density

This is the air density in kg/m3. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

RPM

This is the rotor/turbine rated RPM. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

Power Curve

This field displays a graph of the WTG power curve generated from either the Aerodynamics library data or the user-defined data.

Click on the Print button to print the graph.

Power Coefficient Cp

This area allows you to enter nine numeric constants for the turbine Cp (thrust coefficient) curve. Clicking the Sample Data button refreshes the nine fields with ETAP default data. These data are used to generate the graph displayed in the Wind Power Cp Curve field. The Cp curve data is analyzed by the Transient Stability module to allow you to accurately model system disturbances and events while performing studies such as impact of wind variation on running turbines.

The 9 fields of the Power Coefficient Cp area make up the coefficients for the equation based Wind Power Cp Curve. Enter the coefficients for the equation based cost curve:

C1

This is the numeric constant for the first turbine Cp curve. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

C2

This is the numeric constant for the second turbine Cp curve. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

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C3

This is the numeric constant for the third turbine Cp curve. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

C4

This is the numeric constant for the fourth turbine Cp curve. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

C5

This is the numeric constant for the fifth turbine Cp curve. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

C6

This is the numeric constant for the sixth turbine Cp curve. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

C7

This is the numeric constant for the seventh turbine Cp curve. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

C8

This is the numeric constant for the eighth turbine Cp curve. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

C9

This is the numeric constant for the ninth turbine Cp curve. Enter up to 9 numeric characters in this field.

Wind Power Cp Curve

This field displays a graph of the wind power curve generated from the user-defined Power Coefficient Cp data.

Click on the Print button to print the graph.

Info Page Rating Page Imp/Model

Turbine Page Wind Page Controller Page

Inertia Page Reliability Page Remarks Page

Comment Page

Wind Page - Wind Turbine Generator Editor

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You can use the Wind page to enter wind related factors that ETAP can use to create a wind profile for a wind farm.

You can use the Wind page to enter wind related factors that ETAP can use to create a wind profile for a wind farm.

Average Base Speed

This is the average wind speed in meter-per-second (m/s). Enter up to 8 numeric characters in this field.

Wind Disturbance

This area allows you to enter wind related data or load wind related data from a library. Click on the appropriate button to load data from a Wind Library, or to chose to enter the data manually.

Wind Profile

This field displays an ETAP generated graph of the wind profile based on the supplied data.

Ramp Wind

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Use this area to define the ramp characteristics of wind.

Max. Ramp

This is the maximum ramp wind speed in meter-per-second (m/s). Enter up to 7 numeric characters in this field.

Ramp Start

This is the ramp starting time in seconds. Enter up to 5 numeric characters in this field.

Ramp Stop

This is the ramp stopping time in seconds. Enter up to 5 numeric characters in this field.

Gust Wind

Use this area to define the gust characteristics of wind.

Gust Peak

This is the gust peak wind speed in m/s. Enter up to 7 numeric characters in this field.

Gust Start

This is the gust starting time in seconds. Enter up to 5 numeric characters in this field.

Gust Period

This is the gust stopping time in seconds. Enter up to 5 numeric characters in this field.

Noise Wind

Use this area to define the drag coefficient, turbulence, mean speed and frequency characteristics of wind.

Surface Drag

This is the noise wind surface drag coefficient. Enter up to 7 numeric characters in this field.

Turbulence Scale

This is the turbulence scale in meters. Enter up to 8 numeric characters in this field.

Mean Speed

This is the mean wind speed in m/s. Enter up to 7 numeric characters in this field.

Frequency

This is the Noise Fundamental Frequency in Radian per seconds. Enter up to 7 numeric characters in this field.

N

This is the Frequency Component Number. Enter up to 5 numeric characters in this field.

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Info Page Rating Page Imp/Model

Turbine Page Wind Page Controller Page

Inertia Page Reliability Page Remarks Page

Comment Page

Controller Page - Wind Turbine Generator Editor

The data on the WTG Controller page is analyzed by the Transient Stability module. Using it, you can define the Converter Control factors and the Pitch Control factors for each WTG. Click on the Sample Data button in each area to reload ETAP default data into these fields.

Converter Control

Model Type

Select a model type from the drop-down list.

Rc

Compensating line resistance in ohms.

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Xc

Compensating line reactance in ohms.

Ti

Converter time constant in seconds.

Tr

Voltage control time constant in seconds.

Tv

Voltage control time constant in seconds. Enter up to 7 numeric characters in this field.

Tpc

Power order control time constant in seconds

Kp

Converter proportional gain factor in pu.

Ki

Converter integral gain in pu.

Kpv

Voltage control proportional gain in pu.

Kiv

Voltage control integral gain in pu.

Pmax

Maximum power order in percent

Pmin

Minimum power order in percent

Qmax

Maximum reactive power in percent.

Qmin

Minimum reactive power in percent.

Vmax

Maximum rotor voltage in percent.

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Vmin

Minimum rotor voltage in percent.

Rate_max

Maximum power order rate of change in percent/sec.

Rate_min

Minimum power order rate of change in percent/sec.

Pitch Control

Model Type

Select a model type from the drop-down list.

K

This is the control gain in pu (power units). Enter up to 7 numeric characters in this field.

Ts

This is the control time constant in seconds. Enter up to 7 numeric characters in this field.

Rmax

This is the rising rate limiter in degrees per second. Enter up to 7 numeric characters in this field.

Rmin

This is the falling rate limiter in degrees per second. Enter up to 7 numeric characters in this field.

Theta_max

This is the maximum pitch angle in degrees. Enter up to 7 numeric characters in this field.

Theta_min

This is the minimum pitch angle in degrees. Enter up to 7 numeric characters in this field.

Wmax

This is the maximum wind in meters per second. Enter up to 7 numeric characters in this field.

Info Page Rating Page Imp/Model

Turbine Page Wind Page Controller Page

Inertia Page Reliability Page Remarks Page

Comment Page

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Inertia Page - Wind Turbine Generator Editor

Inertia Calculator

Turbine, Gear, and Generator RPM, WR2, and H

Enter the rated speed in revolutions per minute (RPM) and WR2 in lb-ft2 or H in MW-sec/MVA for

the Turbine, Gear, and Generator. ETAP calculates WR2 or H when one of them is known and RPM has been entered based on the following equation:

H = 2.31 * 10-10 * WR2 * RPM2 / MVA (for WR2 = Moment of inertia in lb-ft2)

or

H = 5.48 * 10-9

* WR2 * RPM

2 / MVA (for WR

2 = Moment of inertia in kg-m

2)

Total RPM

The Total RPM is equal to the Generator revolutions per minute.

Total WR2

The Total WR2 for Turbine, Gear, and Generator in lb-ft2 or Kg-m2 based on system unit, as calculated based on the Total RPM and Total H using the equation above.

Total H

This is the total inertia of the generator shaft including Turbine, Gear, and Generator in MW-sec/MVA.

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As noted, some of the below fields accept user-defined data.

RPM/Turbine

This is the turbine rated speed in RPMs.

RPM/Gear

This is the gear rated speed in RPMs. Enter up to 5 numeric characters in this field.

RPM/Generator

This is the Generator rated speed in revolutions per minute RPMs.

WR2/Turbine

This is the Turbine WR2 in lb-ft2 or Kg-m2 based on the system unit. Enter up to 10 numeric

characters in this field.

WR2/Gear

This is the Gear WR2 in lb-ft2 or Kg-m2 based on the system unit. Enter up to 10 numeric characters

in this field.

WR2/Generator

This is the Generator WR2 in lb-ft2 or Kg-m2 based on the system unit. Enter up to 10 numeric

characters in this field.

H/Turbine

This is the Turbine inertia in MW-sec/MVA. Enter up to 10 numeric characters in this field.

H/Gear

This is the Gear inertia in MW-sec/MVA. Enter up to 10 numeric characters in this field.

H/Generator

This is the Generator inertia in MW-sec/MVA. Enter up to 10 numeric characters in this field.

Info Page Rating Page Imp/Model

Turbine Page Wind Page Controller Page

Inertia Page Reliability Page Remarks Page

Comment Page

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Remarks Page

The remarks page is common to all element editors.

User-Defined Info

These fields allow you to keep track of extra data associated with this component. The names of the User-Defined (UD) fields can be changed from the Settings option in the Project menu in the Menu bar.

UD Field 1 (Eq. Ref.)

This is a number field with the default name Eq. Ref. You can change the name of this field and enter the equipment reference number or any other number here, using up to five digits.

UD Field 2 (Last Maint.)

This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Last Maint. You can change the name of this field and enter any additional data for this element here, using up to 12 alphanumeric characters.

UD Field 3 (Next Maint.)

This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Next Maint. You can change the name of this field and enter any additional data for this element here, using up to 12 alphanumeric characters.

UD Field 4 (Tests Req.)

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This is an alphanumeric field with the default name Tests Req. You can change the name of this field and enter any additional data for this element here, using up to 12 alphanumeric characters.

UD Field A5

This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A5. You can change the name of this field and enter any additional data for this element here, using up to 12 alphanumeric characters.

UD Field A6

This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A6. You can change the name of this field and enter any additional data for this element here, using up to 12 alphanumeric characters.

UD Field A7

This is an alphanumeric field with the default name UD Field A7. You can change the name of this field and enter any additional data for this element here, using up to 18 alphanumeric characters.

Drawing/Diagram

One-Line

Enter the name or ID of a one-line drawing or diagram associated with this element, up to 50 alphanumeric characters. An example is the manufacturer diagram or specifications for this element.

Reference

Enter the name or ID of a reference drawing or document for this element, using up to 50 alphanumeric characters.

Manufacturer

Name

Enter the manufacturername for this element here, using up to 25 alphanumeric characters.

Purchase Date

Enter the date of purchase for this element here, using up to 8 alphanumeric characters.

AC Elements AC-DC Elements DC Elements Underground Raceway System Elements

Comment Page

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Enter any additional data or comments regarding the condition, maintenance, tests, or studies associated with this element. This field can be up to 64kb and the default size is 4kb. To increase the size of this field, you need to change the entries in the ETAPS.INI file.

When entering information in this page, use Ctrl+Enter to start a new paragraph. Standard key combinations such as Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C, and Ctrl+V can be used to cut, copy, and paste information.

Element Editor Overview

AC Elements AC-DC Elements DC Elements Underground Raceway System Elements

Page 24 of 24Wind Turbine Generator Overview

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