+ All Categories
Home > Documents > Ethics and Business Ethics

Ethics and Business Ethics

Date post: 03-Apr-2018
Category:
Author: ptiypiya
View: 250 times
Download: 3 times
Share this document with a friend
Embed Size (px)

of 37

Transcript
  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    1/37

    ETHICAL APPROACHES

    JUSTICE

    ETHICS OF CARE RIGHTS

    UTILITARIANISM

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    2/37

    JUSTICE

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    3/37

    JUSTICE

    Justice is the ideal, morally correct state of

    things and persons.

    It is based on individual moral rights.

    Justice can be handled in three

    subcategories which are distributive

    justice, retributive justice, and

    compensatory justice.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    4/37

    JUSTICE

    JUSTICE

    DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE RETRIBUTIVE JUSTICE COMPENSATORY JUSTICE

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    5/37

    DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE

    It is interested in the fair distribution of

    societys benefits and burdens.

    The main principle of distributive justice is;

    If individuals are similar in the relevant

    aspects, they should be given similar

    benefits and burdens; if they are not, they

    should be treated dissimilarly in proportionto their dissimilarity.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    6/37

    RETRIBUTIVE JUSTICE

    All, and only, guilty people deserveappropriate punishment.

    In order to maintain justice while punishing

    the person, some criteria should be takeninto account. First, ignorant or unablepeople should not be punished. Second,there must be evidence of guilt. Finally,punishment system must be consistentand proportionate

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    7/37

    COMPENSATORY JUSTICE

    It deals with just offsetting the loss of a

    person who is wronged by others.

    The rationale behind this theory is that the

    person who damages someone else by

    doing a wrong must compensate that

    persons loss.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    8/37

    Justice as Equality: Egalitar ianism

    Each individual in the society or group

    should be given exactly the equal shares

    of benefits and burdens.

    There are objections to this view claiming

    that people do not have the same degree

    in a single aspect and some

    characteristics are disregarded like need,ability, and effort.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    9/37

    Justice Based on Contribution:Capita list Jus t ice

    What should be the basis of an individuals

    share of benefits must be the contribution

    to the society or group.

    Work effort,productivity, and market

    forces of supply and demandare the

    terms argued by critics to measure the

    value of contribution.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    10/37

    Justice Based on Needs and Abilities:

    Social ism

    Peoples abilities should be the determiner ofwork burdens and theirneeds should be thedeterminer of benefits.

    Potential, which is a value, can only be realizedby exercising ability so burdens should bedistributed considering abilities.

    There is an opposing argument claiming that if

    needs, not effort, determine benefits, there willbe no motivation to strive which will declineproductivityin return.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    11/37

    Justice as Freedom: Libertar ianism

    Free individual choices are the cornerstone of

    the libertarian view of justice according to Robert

    Nozick, a famous libertarian.

    Freedom from coercion is the right of everyindividual. If an individual is forced to do

    something, it is unjust.

    This argument completely disregards people

    needs counting freedom from coercion supreme

    over anything.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    12/37

    Justice as Fairness: Rawls

    According to John Rawls, two principles should be usedto distribute the benefits and burdens of a society justly.

    First principle, called asprinciple of equal liberty, statesthat each individual has a right to protect his/her liberties

    from invasion by others. Second principle consists of two parts. First part, called

    as difference principle, says that although there will beinequalities in the society, most needy people should begiven special importance unless this causes everyone

    get worse than before. Second part, called asprinciple offair equality of opportunity, argues that every individualbe given an equal opportunity to qualify for the moreprivileged positions in societys institutions.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    13/37

    ETHICS OF CARE

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    14/37

    ETHICS OF CARE

    People have an obligation to exercise special

    care toward those particular persons with whom

    we have worthy close relationships. This theory

    is known as ethics of care. Feminist ethicists, Carol Gilligan mostly, have

    developed this theory. They claim that women

    approach ethical issues from a nonindividualistic

    focus on relationships and caring.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    15/37

    ETHICS OF CARE

    Sometimes care and justice contradictswith each other.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    16/37

    RIGHTS

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    17/37

    RIGHTS

    A rightis an individuals entitlement tosomething.

    If this entitlement may be derived from a

    legal system that allows the person tobehave in a certain way, it is called a legalright.

    Rights can also be the consequences ofmoral standards. In this case, they arecalled as moral rights orhuman rights.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    18/37

    RIGHTS

    Rights can be understood in several ways.

    They can be interpreted as absence of

    prohibitions,authority, orexistence of

    prohibitions.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    19/37

    RIGHTS

    MORAL RIGHTS

    They are tightly correlated with duties

    because what is ones right is anothers duty.

    Moral rights enable individuals in the free

    trace of their interests.

    Moral rights constitute a basis for justifying

    ones actions and for invoking the protectionor assistance of others

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    20/37

    THE BASIS OF RIGHTS

    Utilitarians argue that moral rights exist

    because their existence maximizes utility.

    However, right is an entitlement and it

    should be regardless of utility

    maximization so there should be another

    source of moral rights

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    21/37

    THE BASIS OF RIGHTS

    Immanuel Kant (Categorical Imperative)

    Everyone has a moral right to suchtreatment and everyone has again the

    correlative duty to treat others in this way.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    22/37

    KANTS CATEGORICAL

    IMPERATIVE

    1) An action is morally right for a person if

    that person is absolutely sure that s/he

    will approve the same action of another

    person.

    2) An action is morally right if a person does

    not use other people as means to attain

    his/her interest but respects them.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    23/37

    UTILITARIANISM

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    24/37

    UTILITARIANISM

    Utilitarianism is a general term which

    argues that actions and policies should be

    evaluated on the basis of the benefits and

    costs they will have on society.

    Correct action is the one producing the

    greatest net benefits orlowest net costs.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    25/37

    UTILITARIANISM

    Utilitarian approach requires a three-step

    process.

    List the alternative actions to be applied in a

    certain situation

    Measure all costs and benefits of all

    alternatives

    Subtract the benefits from the costs and findthe action with the net greatest benefits or net

    lowest costs

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    26/37

    UTILITARIANISM

    The net greatest benefit forall peopleaffected by the action, not just theperson

    doing the action

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    27/37

    UTILITARIANISM

    Utilitarianism has its origins in the works ofthe Greek philosopher Epicurus, but as aspecific school of thought, it was originally

    proposed by Jeremy Bentham. From the principle of utility, Bentham

    found pain and pleasure to be the onlyintrinsic values in the world: "nature hasput man under the governance of twosovereign masters: pleasure and pain."

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    28/37

    UTILITARIANISM

    Some critics argue that it contradicts withboth justice and rights.

    They say that while maximizing the gain of

    society in an action, they engage in unjustactions or they violate some peoplesrights.

    Utilitarians have developed an alternativeversion of utilitarianism, which is rule-utilitarianism.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    29/37

    RULE-UTILITARIANISM

    The theory of rule-utilitarian is composed

    of two principles.

    An action is ethically right if and only if it

    would be required by correct moral rules.

    A moral rule is correct if and only if the sum

    total of utilities produced if everybody to follow

    that rule is greater than the sum total utilitiesproduced if everyone to follow some

    alternative rule.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    30/37

    UTILITARIANISM

    It targets the net greatest benefit for all

    people affected from the action.

    People affected from this action have a

    stake in this decision. In other words, they

    are the stakeholders of this action.

    Enterprises should not disregard this

    approach in their businesses in todays

    highly competitive world.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    31/37

    Niccol Machiavelli 1469-1527

    An Italian politician philosopher best

    known for his work "The Prince detailing

    his theory of government and maxims ofpractical statecraft suggesting certain

    principles of conduct specifically: cunning,

    duplicity, or bad faith.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    32/37

    The main theme of this short book is that

    all means may be resorted to for the

    establishment and preservation ofauthority and that the worst and most

    unethical and unreliable acts of the ruler

    are justified by the wickedness of thegoverned. Machiavelli principles have

    more to do with the efficient management

    of government, making management andcontrol priority over morality

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    33/37

    WHAT IS ETHICAL CODE?

    Ethic codes is the total of behavior principles

    specific to each organization. These principles

    help employees understand, what these rules

    are, in what way they affect their behaviors, whatkind of sanctions there are if they do not obey

    these rules

    Ethic codes provide a framework for employees

    to approach work life and organizationalfunctioning with a pragmatic view.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    34/37

    HOW IS ETHICAL CODE

    DEVELOPED?

    Developing ethical code, it will be helpfulto apply a democratic and participative

    method and to make code prepared by a

    committee selected through election.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    35/37

    The ethical program to ensure that ethical

    behaviors are implemented in an

    organization is composed of the 12 steps.

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    36/37

    1.Vision Statement

    2.Values Statement3.Organizational Ethic Principles

    4.Ethic Officials

    5.Ethic Committees

    6.Ethic Communication Strategy7.Ethic Education

    8.Ethic Help Line

    9.Assessment and Awarding

    10.Supervision and Monitoring11. Performance Measurement

    12.Ethic Leadership

  • 7/28/2019 Ethics and Business Ethics

    37/37

    HOW IS ETHICAL CODE

    IMPLEMENTED?

    1. The contribution of organization

    2. Motivation

    3. Communication4. Associating culture with ethics


Recommended