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Ethics Prof. Toby Walsh NICTA and UNSW. Ethics  Why?  Why...

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Ethics Prof. Toby Walsh NICTA and UNSW Slide 2 Ethics Why? Why should you worry about ethics? What? What should you worry about? How? How do you decide what to do? Slide 3 Why should you worry? Slide 4 Youll be found out Slide 5 Slide 6 It will have consequences.. Slide 7 Slide 8 You may have to resign Slide 9 Slide 10 You may be fired Slide 11 Slide 12 You could end up in prison Slide 13 Slide 14 Slide 15 Your reputation is at stake.. Slide 16 What should you worry about? Slide 17 Slide 18 Research misconduct Fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Fact Sheet, October 14, 1999 Slide 19 Research misconduct Fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results Fabrication is making up results and recording or reporting them Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Fact Sheet, October 14, 1999 Slide 20 Research misconduct Fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Fact Sheet, October 14, 1999 Slide 21 Research misconduct Fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results Plagiarism is the appropriation of another persons ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit, including those obtained through confidential review of others research proposals and manuscripts Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Fact Sheet, October 14, 1999 Slide 22 Beyond misconduct Ilegal activities Money Drugs Human and animal ethics Computers dont have rights Universities are quite good at monitoring human and animal studies! Slide 23 It impacts on a conference like IJCAI-11 Reviews discarded Conflicts of interest Papers rejected Falsification Even one of the Distinguished Papers raised problems! And in one case, disciplinary action has been taken Your funding agency probably requires you to take action Slide 24 IJCAIs new conflict of interest policy A potential conflict of interest exists when a person is involved in making a decision that could result in financial or professional gain (such as the selection of a paper for a conference) for that person, a close associate of that person or that persons institution or company. Slide 25 IJCAIs new conflict of interest policy A close associate is someone that is employed at the same institution or company; advisor or current or recent graduate student (within last 60 months); co-author within the last 48 months; investigator on the same grant or research project; actively working on a project together or on a similar topic; related by birth or marriage or friendship; in deep personal animosity. Slide 26 How do you decide what to do? Slide 27 Actions Consult Advisor Colleague Mentor Editor Program Chair University research office Slide 28 Actions Protect yourself Keep records Record time stamps Get a witness Tread very carefully Reputation at stake! Speak hypothetically Slide 29 Actions Communicate Danger of email Use the phone Visit in person Declare conflicts Slide 30 Actions Trust your gut When you think you might need to speak to a lawyer, it is already too late! If you feel uncomfortable, it is time to act You have responsibilities to act E.g. ARC requirements to report Slide 31 Ethical speed bumps Authorship Citation Reviewing Experimentation Slide 32 Authorship See Judys talk My advice Try to agree up front who is an author and what is the order of authors Some questions to consider: Would the paper exist without this person? If the other authors fell sick, could this person present the talk? Slide 33 Authorship See Judys talk My advice When deciding the author order, try to have one rule across all your papers However, your rule may conflict with mine! Keep it simple Mine: alphabetical order Slide 34 Authorship See Judys talk My advice When deciding the author order, try to have one rule across all your papers However, your rule may conflict with mine! Keep it simple Mine: alphabetical order Mine: otherwise I go last Slide 35 Citation See Judys talk Credit where credit is due If we stand on the shoulders of others, we should give them fair credit Were not in it for the money! Citations only get more important Grants, tenure, Slide 36 Reviewing Ethical minefield Material under review is strictly confidential Stakes are high Publish or perish Peoples egos/livelihood is at stake Anonymous Permits bad behaviours Role of author feedback! First past the post Credit is only given to the 1 st to publish Slide 37 Reviewing DO Declare conflicts & excuse yourself where appropriate Treat all material in confidence Be objective (if you cant, dont review this particular work) Be constructive Think how your text will be received! DONT Review work where you have a conflict Wage vendettas, promote religions, Now work on this problem (at least till the work is published) Slide 38 Experimentation Recall, this is where 40% of scientific misconduct takes place! Avoid the temptation to take shortcuts Nature will find you out Theres always a curve ball waiting Remember 1% inspiration 99% perspiration Slide 39 Experimentation DO Keep good records (eg raw data) Look at the data Report enough detail to enable replication Publish corrections promptly DONT Be selective Cherry picking results! Obfuscate Slide 40 Final words Slide 41 Conclusions Many ethical situations await you Its only to be expected! Take care Your reputation is your greatest (only?) asset Dont worry Many others will have tread the same road And can offer advice Slide 42 Barcelona, Im listening

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