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Ethyl Benzene

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  • Ethyl Benzene

  • Hashim Khan

    (DDP-SP13-

    BEC-53)

    Abu Bakar

    (DDP-SP13-

    BEC-43)

    Zohaib Uzair

    (DDP-SP13-

    BEC-101)

    Shahzaib

    Younis

    (DDP-SP13-

    BEC-85)

  • Ethyl Benzene

    Introduction Manufacture

    RoutesChemistry

    Uses & Applications

    Effects On Human Health

  • Introduction Manufacture

    RoutesChemistry

    Uses & Applications

    Effects On Human Health

  • Ethylbenzene was first

    produced on a commercial scale in the

    1930s in Germany and

    the United States.

    The ethylbenzenestyrene industry remained relatively

    insignificant until the Second World War, when the demand

    for synthetic styrenebutadiene rubber prompted accelerated

    technology improvements and tremendous capacity expansion.

    History

  • Nomenclature

    Reg. No.: 100-41-4 EthylbenzeneEB; ethyl benzol; -methyl toluene;

    phenyl ethane

  • Ethylbenzene (EB) is a

    Colorless

    Aromatic liquid

    Has a boiling point of 136.2C which is very closeto that of p-xylene

    This complicates separating it from the C 8aromatic equilibrium mixture obtained fromcatalytic reforming processes. Ethyl benzeneobtained from this source, however, is smallcompared to the synthetic route.

  • Description Colorless liquid with an aromatic odor (Coty et al., 1987)

    Boiling-point 136.2 C (Lide & Milne, 1996)

    Melting-point 94.9 C (Lide & Milne, 1996)

    Density 0.8670 g/cm 3 at 20 C (Lide & Milne, 1996)

    Spectroscopy data

    Infrared, ultraviolet [97], nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectraldata have been reported (Lide & Milne, 1996)

    Solubility Slightly soluble in water (152 mg/L at 20 C) (ECETOC, 1986) andchloroform; miscible with diethyl ether and ethanol (Lide & Milne,1996)

    Volatility Vapor pressure, 1.28 kilo Pascal at 25 C (Lide & Milne, 1996); relativevapor density (air = 1), 3.7 (Verschueren, 1996); flash-point (closed-cup), 15 C (Coty et al., 1987)

    Octanol/water partition

    coefficient (P)

    log P, 3.15 (Verschueren, 1996)

    Conversion factor

    mg/m 3 = 4.34 ppm

  • Introduction Manufacture

    RoutesChemistry

    Uses & Applications

    Effects On Human Health

  • Alkylation Of Benzene

    Ethylene is also an active alkylating agent.

    Alkylation of benzene with ethylene producesethyl benzene.

    Ethyl benzene can be dehydrogenated to styrene.

    Styrene is a monomer used in the manufacture ofmany commercial polymers and copolymers.

  • Benzene Ethylene Ethyl Benzene

    The main process for producing EB is the catalyzedalkylation of benzene with ethylene.

  • Chapter 17 13

    Friedel-Crafts Alkylation

    Synthesis of alkyl benzenes from alkyl halides and a Lewis acid, usually AlCl3.

  • Organic Chem4 614

  • Ethyl Benzene

    Introduction Manufacture

    RoutesChemistry

    Uses & Applications

    Effects On Human Health

  • Badger process which has been commercializedsince 1980, can accept dilute ethylene streams suchas those produced from FCC off gas.

    A zeolite type heterogeneous catalyst is used in afixed bed process. The reaction conditions are420C and 200300 psi.

    Over 98% yield is obtained at 90% conversion.

  • Poly ethylbenzene

    (poly-alkylated) and unreacted

    benzene are recycled and join the fresh feed to

    the reactor.

    The reactor effluent is fed to

    the benzene fractionation

    system to recover unreacted benzene.

    The bottoms containing

    ethylbenzene and heavier poly

    alkylates are fractionated in two columns.

    The first column separates the ethylbenzene

    product, and the other separates

    poly-ethylbenzene for

    recycling.

  • Introduction Manufacture

    RoutesChemistry

    Uses & Applications

    Effects On Human Health

  • Ethylbenzene is almost exclusively (> 99%) used as an intermediate for the manufacture

    of styrene monomer.

  • Less than 1% of the ethylbenzene produced is used as a paint solvent or as an

    intermediate for the production of diethyl benzene and acetophenone.

  • Ethylbenzene has been added to motor and aviation fuels because of its anti-knock

    properties. Estimates of ethylbenzene in gasoline have ranged from < 12.7%.

  • Ethylbenzene is also used as a negative photoresist solvent in the semiconductor

    industry.

  • Ethylbenzene is also present in commercialmixed xylenes at levels up to 25%, theethylbenzene present in recovered mixed xylenesis largely converted to xylenes or benzene.

    Other than that it is also present in many

    paints

    lacquers

    printing inks

    insecticides

    solvents

    rubber and chemical industries

  • Introduction Manufacture

    RoutesChemistry

    Uses & Applications

    Effects On Human Health

  • There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of ethylbenzene.

    There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the

    carcinogenicity of ethylbenzene.

    But based on results of test performed on test species ethylbenzene is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).

  • Production Of Methanol With Bio Gas

    What is Biogas? Methanol Synthesis In Pakistan

  • Organic Waste + Microorganisms

    Biogas

    Digestate

  • What Is Biogas?

    Manufacture

    AD is a microbiological process of decomposition of organic matter, in the absence of oxygen, common to many natural environments

    and largely applied today to produce biogas in airproof reactor tanks, commonly named digesters.

    ProcessA wide range of micro-organisms are involved in the anaerobic

    process which has two main end products: biogas and digestate.

    Co

    mp

    .

    Biogas is a combustible gas consisting of methane, carbon dioxide and small amounts of other gases and trace elements. Digestate is the decomposed substrate, rich in macro- and micro nutrients and

    therefore suitable to be used as plant fertilizer.

  • Common Biomass Categories

    Animal manure and slurry

    Agricultural residues and by-products

    Digestible organic wastes from food and agroindustries (vegetable and animal origin)

    Organic fraction of municipal waste and fromcatering (vegetable and animal origin)

    Sewage sludge

    Dedicated energy crops (e.g. maize, miscanthus,sorghum, clover)

  • The initial material is continuously broken down into smaller units.Specific groups of micro-organisms are involved in each individualstep. These organisms successively decompose the products of theprevious steps. The simplified diagram of the AD process, shown inFigure 3.5, highlights the four main process steps: hydrolysis,acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis.

  • Municipal solid waste supplied to a German biogas plant

  • Maize silage

  • Biogas installations, processing agricultural substrates, aresome of the most important applications of AD today.

    In Asia alone, millions of family owned, small scale digestersare in operation in countries like China, India, Nepal andVietnam, producing biogas for cooking and lighting.

    Thousands of agricultural biogas plants are in operation inEurope and North America, many of them using the newesttechnologies within this area, and their number iscontinuously increasing. In Germany alone, more than 3700agricultural biogas plants were in operation in 2007.

  • The Worlds economies are dependent today of crude oil. There issome disagreement among scientists on how long this fossil resourcewill last but according to researchers, the peak oil production* hasalready occurred or it is expected to occur within the next period oftime.

  • Methane yield from various biomass stocks

  • CO2

    Biogas

    CO2

    Organics

  • What is Biogas? Methanol Synthesis In Pakistan

  • From Biogas

    Purification

  • What is Biogas? Methanol Synthesis In Pakistan

  • Reference Files\methanol-fact-sheet.pdf

    Reference Files/methanol-fact-sheet.pdf

  • Biogas plants will be installed for the operation of 100,000tube wells across the Punjab.

    At present. 835000 tube wells run on high speed diesel; 70% ofthese tube wells are owned by small farmers who constitute85% of the farmers population.

    The main objective of this initiative is to reduce energy costs.Furthermore, the project will also offer huge benefits byreducing huge costs on imported petroleum.

    It is estimated that each biogas operated tube well (16 HP) willresult In saving more than 2000 liters of high speed diesel

    annually.

  • Biogas Concept\My Movie.mp4

    Biogas Concept/My Movie.mp4

  • Thanks

  • Last slide

  • Ethyl Benzene

    History & Process Ethylbenzene was first produced on a commercial scale in the 1930s in Germany and the United

    States. The ethylbenzenestyrene industry remained relatively insignificant until the Second World

    War, when the demand for synthetic styrenebutadiene rubber prompted accelerated

    technology improvements and tremendous capacity expansion.

    There are many processes to convert ethylene and benzene into ethyl benzene. One of them is

    Badger process. The process flow diagram is given above.

    Applications There are many applications of ethyl benzene Some of them are

    1. paints

    2. lacq

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