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Etienne & Claude

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    tienne-Louis Boulle

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    Born in Paris, in 1728

    Died on Feb. 6, 1799, in Paris

    He was one of the most innovative neoclassic

    French architects

    He wanted to be a painter, but followed his fatherwish & he turned to architecture

    He studied French Classical architecture &

    Neoclassicism under Jacques-Franois Blondel,

    Germain Boffrand and Jean-Laurent Le GeayHe opened his own studio by age of 19

    He was elected to the Acadmie Royale

    d'Architecture in 1762


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    He became chief architect to Frederick II of


    A visionary neoclassical architect

    His work greatly influenced contemporary

    architects and is still influential todayHe designed several Parisian city mansions from

    1762 to 1778

    His most notable works are Htel Alexandre and

    Htel de Brunoy, both in ParisHe was more influential as a teacher & theorist.

    His great writing on, Architecture. Essai sur l'art

    written in 1790s was not published until 1953

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    STYLE OF WORKDistinctive abstract geometric style inspired by

    Classical forms

    Removal of all unnecessary ornamentation

    Inflating geometric forms to a huge scale andrepeating elements such as columns in huge ranges

    Boulle promoted the idea of making architecture

    expressive of its purpose, a doctrine that his

    detractors termed architecture parlante ("talkingarchitecture")

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    Boulle had a fondness for grandiose.

    He designed public works to capture the

    revolutionary spirit and give monumental spaces to

    the people.

    He used effects of light and shadow to bringgeometric forms to life.

    His focus on polarity (offsetting opposite design


    He also buried part of a structure to emphasizethe mystery in building.

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    He considered sphere as most ideal form.

    Boulle designed cenotaph for the English scientist Isaac

    Newton, in 1784

    The structure was never built, its design was engraved and

    circulated widely in professional circles

    The structure would have taken the form of a sphere 150m(490

    ft) high embedded in a circular base topped with cypress trees.

    Cnotaphe New ton

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    The small sarcophagus for Newton is placed at the lower pole of

    the sphere.

    The interior of the cenotaph was to be a hollow globe

    representing the universe.The design of the memorial creates the effect of day and night.

    The effect of night, when the sarcophagus is illuminated by the

    starlight coming through the holes in the vaulting.

    The effect of day by an armillary sphere hanging in the center

    that gives off a mysterious glow.

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    For Boulle symmetry and variety were the golden rules of


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    HOTEL ALEXANDREBuilt in Paris from 176366

    It is the sole survivor of Boulle's residential work in Paris

    It was built for the financier Andr-Claude-NicolasAlexandre

    In its three sided courtyard, four Corinthian columns

    embedded against a recess in the wall plane create an entry

    (now glazed)

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    Flanking doors in the corners of the courtyard have isolatedarchitraves embedded in the wall above their plain openings

    The oval bull's-eye windows are draped with the swags of husks

    (a common feature of the neoclassical manner).

    The garden front has a colossal order of pilasters raised on the

    high basement occupied by the full height of the ground floor.

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    French National Library

    Boulle proposed a grand design for a French National Library in


    The design for the main reading room featured a vast, barrel-

    vaulted ceiling and a modern shelving arrangement

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    There are stacked galleries of books over flat wall-cases.

    This create a feeling of an endless bookcases.

    The bookcases are open and easily browsable, in dramatic

    contrast to the earlier medieval system.

    Visitors are free to wander about and converse in small groupsBut there is no provision of studydesks or chairs

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    Metropolitan Cathedral

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    Created in 1782

    Use of shadow and light lend a sense of drama to thespace.The long barrel vaults and rich patterns surrounding thediminutive scale figures make the cathedral seem

    incomprehensibly massive.

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    Palais nationale

    Boulle projected a Palais National to replace the ancient

    Couvent de Capucines between Place Vendme and theboulevard.

    The construction was inspired by antique roman


    The cupola seems to be influenced by the Panthon

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    It shows an utopian( idealistic)

    palace surrounded by residences

    and buildings for

    the education of the Prince.

    Palais in Saint-Germain-en-Laye

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    An opra

    Inspired by the Colosseum Boulle's "Circus" was

    designed for "patriotic meetings"

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    Cenotaph in Egyptian style, 1784

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    Claude-Nicolas Ledoux

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    Born on March 21, 1736 & Died on November 18, 1806A French NeoClassic Architect

    Studied architecture under Jacques-Franois Blondel.

    He was influenced by Classical Greek architecture &

    works of Palladio.

    He used his theory to design not only in domestic

    architecture but in town planning also.

    He made a visionary plan for Ideal City of Chaux

    His greatest works were funded by the French monarchyand came to be perceived as symbols of the Ancien

    Rgime rather than Utopia


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    Most of his works was destroyed in The French


    After which he published a collection of his designs under

    the title "Architecture considered in relation to art, morals,

    and legislation.

    He built palaces and various public buildings, among

    them the tollhouses (barrires) around Paris (1784), the

    Palace of Justice and prison of Aix-en-Provence, the

    Theater of Besanonthe

    His most important work was the uncompleted Royal

    Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, an idealistic and visionary

    town showing many examples of architecture parlante.

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    STYLE OF WORK A rational system of architecture that emphasized

    form rather than decoration He uses elements within classical Greek and Roman


    Using colossal order: The principle of superimposing

    the classic column motifs on each floor, rising fromsimplest to the most complex: Tuscan, Doric, Ionic,


    His architecture is quite practical and functional,

    though, the "visionary" aspects of his work are better


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    Claude-Nicolas Ledoux Works

    Built in the rue Saint-Honor.The result was an interior of trompe l'oeil and mirrors.

    Pilasters painted on the walls were interspersed with alternating

    pier glasses and panels

    The panels were painted with trophies of helmets and weaponry,

    all executed in bold detail.

    The Caf Godeau

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    Ledoux rebuilt the chteau for Marquis de Montesquiou-

    Fzensac and created new gardens replete with fountains

    supplied by an aqueduct

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    The Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans1775-1778)Salt was extracted from saline wells by vaporizing in wood-

    fuelled furnaces

    Contrary to what the French government wanted, Ledoux

    placed the saltworks near the woods as apposed to the

    source of the salt water

    He logically reasoned that it would be easier to transport

    water than wood.

    Ledoux designed the a radical concentric complex to reflect

    a hierarchical organization of work

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    E t i th h i D i ti i i d b th

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    Entrance is through a massive Doric portico, inspired by the

    temples at Paestum

    The alliance of the columns is an archetypal motif of


    I id h ll i th i i f t i

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    Inside, a cavernous hall gives the impression of entering an

    actual salt mine.

    The hall is decorated with concrete ornamentation representing

    the elementary forces of nature and the organizing genius of Man,

    a reflection of the views of the relationship between civilizationand nature

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    The entrance building opens into a vast semicircular open

    air space that is surrounded by ten buildings arranged on

    the arc of a semicircle.

    On the arc is the cooper's forge, the forging mill and twohuts for the workers.

    On the straight diameter are the workshops for the

    extraction of salt alternating with administrative buildings.

    At the centre is the house of the director ,which originallyalso contained a chapel.

    The significance of this plan is:

    The circle, a perfect figure, evokes the harmony of the ideal

    cityIt theoretically encloses a place of harmony for common


    It recalls also contemporary theories of organization and of

    official surveillance

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    House Of The Director

    Th Th t Of B

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    The Theatre Of Besanon

    Constructed in 1784

    The exterior of the building was a severe Palladian Cube

    adorned only by an almost Grecian neoclassical portico of sixDoric columns

    The interior was a revolution design in its provision of seats for

    the ordinary public as well as upper classes.

    Th ti f di bli & l t d

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    The seating of ordinary public & upper classes was segregated.

    It have a ground floor amphitheater furnished with seats for the

    ordinary paying public.

    Above them was a raised terrace or balcony for state employers.

    Directly above was the first tier of boxes reserved for the

    aristocracy, and above this a tier of smaller boxes occupied by the

    middle-class the second.

    Besanon was the first theater to screen the musicians in an

    orchestra pit

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    H d i d i t h i th 1780

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    He designed private houses in the 1780s

    They had brilliantly eccentric features, including odd layouts,

    discontinuous elevations, and a striking use of Doric architectural


    Chateau benouville

    Tollhouses or barrires

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    Barriere de Monceau

    Barriere de la Villette

    Tollhouses or barrires

    Built from 178589, in the four years preceding the French


    He created colossal geometric forms to its furthest extent,

    fashioning rotundas, Greek temples, porticoes, and vaulted apses

    with rusticated masonry and Doric columns.

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    Many of the barrires were subsequently torn down by mobs

    of resentful taxpayers during the Revolution.Ledoux himself was arrested during the Terror

    This ended his active career as an architect.

    After his release he spent his last years writing and compiling

    Larchitectureconsidre sous le rapport de lart, des moeurs

    et de la lgislation (1804; Architecture Considered with

    Respect to Art, Customs, and Legislation), which contains his

    own engravings of his works.

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    1) en.wikipedia.org

    2) www.britannica.com3) www.greatbuildings.com4) www.architecture.com5) www.scholarsresource.com

    6) hanser.ceat.okstate.edu

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