Europe Plunges Into War
EVENTS AND CAUSES OF WORLD WAR ONE1871 - UNIFICATION OF GERMANY . DEFEAT OF FRANCE (Franco-Prussian War).FRENCH DESIRE FOR REVENGE RECOVER ALSACE AND LORRAINE (because of Franco-Prussian War)MILITARY ARMS RACE BEGINS BETWEEN FRANCE AND GERMANY. ARMIES INCREASE IN SIZE.1888 - WILHELM II BECOMES KAISER. HIS AMBITIONS FOR GERMANY RAISE TENSIONS BETWEEN THE GREAT POWERS.1879-1907: FORMATION OF THE ALLIANCE SYSTEMS: TRIPLE ALLIANCE: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy.TRIPLE ENTENTE: France, Russia, Great Britain.
NAVAL RACE 1906-1914; WILHELMS AMBITIONS FOR EMPIRE THREATENS BRITAINS SECURITY 1908-1914 - RIVALRY IN THE BALKANS BETWEEN SERBIA AND AUSTRIA-HUNGARYJULY 1914 - ASSASSINATION AT SARAJEVO
IntroductionAustria-Hungarys declaration of war against Serbia set off a chain reaction within the alliance system. The countries of Europe followed through on their pledges to support one another. As a result, nearly all of Europe soon joined what would be the largest, most destructive war the world had yet seen.
The Great War BeginsJuly 31, 1914: Russia announces full mobilization of its armed forces.August 1, 1914: Germany, taking Russias mobilization as a defacto declaration of war, declares war on Russia.August 3, 1914: Germany declares war on France.August 4, 1914: Germany declares war on neutral Belgium and invades in a right flanking move designed to defeat France quickly. As a result of this invasion, Britain declares war on Germany.
The Great War BeginsNations Take SidesBy mid-August 1914, there are two sides at war throughout Europe:Central PowersGermany, Austria-Hungary; later joined by Bulgaria and the Ottoman EmpireAlliesGreat Britain, France, Russia; later joined by Japan, Italy (once a member of the Triple Alliance, but switched sides because Italians believed the war was unjustly started)
THE ALLIANCE SYSTEMS GO INTO ACTION before WW1 began??
The Conflict Grinds AlongThe Schlieffen PlanCalled for attacking and defeating France in the west and then rushing east to fight Russia.Counted on the slow mobilization of Russian forces due to lack of railways.Called for 39 days for the fall of Paris, and 42 days for the defeat of France.General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen
The Conflict Grinds Along (continued)By early September Germany had swept into France and reached the outskirts of ParisSeptember 5, 1914At the First Battle of the Marne, Germany is forced to retreat.With this defeat, the Schlieffen Plan failed because Germany was then forced to fight a two front war.Western Front against FranceEastern Front against Russia
War in the TrenchesConflict descends into trench warfarearmies fighting from trenches.Battles result in many deaths and very small land gains.Life in trenches is miserable, difficult, unsanitary.New weapons only lead to more deaths.The slaughter reached a peak in 1916.February 1916: Battle of VerdunEach side lost more than 300,000.July-November 1916: The SommeEach side suffered more than 500,000 casualties.Only 5 miles were gained in each of these battles.
A Bloody StalemateAs the summer of 1914 turned to fall, the war turned into a long and bloody stalemate, or deadlock, along the battlefields of France. This deadlocked region in northern France became known as the Western Front.
New Weapons of the Warpoison Gaschlorine and phosgeneboth toxic substances that caused suffocationmustard gasa blistering agent that caused severe burns and blisters on the skin and stripped severely damaged the lungs. It sometimes took five weeks to die from mustard gas exposure.machine guntanksubmarineairplanes
Australian troops in the trenches equipped with gas masks, Battle of Ypres, 1917
Mustard gas burns from World War I
The British Vickers machine gun required a six man team to operate. One to fire, one to feed the ammunition, and the rest to help carry the weapon and supplies.
British Mark I tank on September 26, 1916
Submarines:German U-Boat U-14
Flying AcesManfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (2 May 1892 21 April 1918) was a German fighter pilot known as the "Red Baron". He was the most successful flying ace of World War I, being officially credited with 80 confirmed air combat victories. He was killed in combat with Canadian pilots near the Somme River.
Trench Warfare ProblemsAll Quiet on the Western Front, excerptWe must look out for our bread. The rats have become much more numerous lately because the trenches are no longer in good condition. Detering says it is a sure sign of a coming bombardment.The rats here are particularly repulsive, they are so fatthe kind we call corpse rats. They have shocking, evil naked faces, and it is nauseating to see their long, nude tails.
All Quiet on the Western Front, excerptThey seem to be mighty hungry. Almost every man has had his bread gnawed. Kropp wrapped his in his waterproof sheet and put it under his head, but he cannot sleep because they run over his face to get at it. Detering meant to outwit them: he fastened a thin wire to the roof and suspended his bread from it. During the night when he switched on his pocket-torch he saw the wire swing to and fro. On the bread was riding a fat rat.At last we put a stop to it. We cannot afford to throw the bread away, because then we should have nothing left to eat in the morning, so we carefully cut off the bits of bread that the animals have gnawed.
All Quiet on the Western Front, excerptThe slices we cut off are heaped together in the middle of the floor. Each man takes out his spade and lies down prepared to strike. Detering, Kropp, and Kat hold their pocket-torches ready.After a few minutes we hear the first shuffling and tugging. It grows, now it is the sound of many little feet. Then the torches switch on and every man strikes at the heap, which scatters with a rush. The result is good. We toss the bits of rat over the parapet and again lie in wait.
All Quiet on the Western Front, excerptSeveral times we repeat the process. At last the beasts get wise to it, or perhaps they have scented the blood. They return no more. Nevertheless, before morning the remainder of the bread on the floor has been carried off.(pp. 101-103, Ballantine paperback edition.)
Trench FootAffected feet become numb and then turn red or blue. As the condition worsens, they may swell. Advanced immersion foot often involves blisters and open sores, which lead to fungal infections; this is sometimes called tropical ulcer (jungle rot).If left untreated, immersion foot usually results in gangrene, which can require amputation. If immersion foot is treated properly, complete recovery is normal, though it is marked by severe short-term pain when feeling returns. Like other cold injuries, immersion foot leaves sufferers more susceptible to it in the future.
Pictures of trench foot (yuck!!!)
The Battle on the Eastern FrontEarly FightingEastern Frontsite of main fighting along the German-Russian border.Russians push into Austria and Germany, but soon forced to retreat.Russia StrugglesRussias war effort was suffering by 1916; many casualties and few supplies.The huge size of Russian army keeps it a formidable force and prevents Germany from sending more troops to the Western Front.
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