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EVALUATION OF 4.1.3 Aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related 4.1.4 Alkoxy-substituted...

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  • WHO Technical Report Series 952

    EVALUATION OF CERTAIN FOOD ADDITIVES

    Sixty-ninth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on

    Food Additives

    ISBN 978 92 4 120952 6

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    I SF I A T

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity.

    The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40–65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified); iron oxides; isomalt; monomagnesium phosphate; Patent Blue V; Sunset Yellow FCF; and trisodium diphosphate. Re-evaluation of flavouring agents for which estimated intake was based on anticipated poundage data was carried out for 2-isopropyl- N,2,3-trimethylbutyramide (No. 1595) and L-monomenthyl glutarate (No. 1414).

    Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee’s recommendations for intakes and toxicological evaluations of the food additives considered.

  • WHO Technical Report Series 952

    EVALUATION OF CERTAIN FOOD ADDITIVES

    Sixty-ninth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on

    Food Additives

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    World Health Organization

  • WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

    Evaluation of certain food additives : sixty-ninth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    (WHO technical report series ; no. 952)

    1.Food additives - analysis. 2.Food additives - toxicity. 3.Flavoring agents - analysis. 4.Flavoring agents - toxicity. 5.Food contamination - analysis. 6.Risk assessment. I.World Health Organization. II.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. III.Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Meeting (69th: 2008, Rome, Italy). IV.Series.

    ISBN 978 92 4 120952 6 (NLM classification: WA 701)

    ISSN 0512-3054

    © World Health Organization 2009

    All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: permissions@who.int).

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.

    This publication contains the collective views of an international group of experts on food additives and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the policies of the World Health Organization.

    Typeset in India Printed in India

  • Contents

    1. Introduction 1.1 Declarations of interests

    2. General considerations 2.1 Modification of the agenda 2.2 Report from the Fortieth Session of the Codex Committee on

    Food Additives (CCFA) and the Second Session of the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Food (CCCF)

    2.3 Principles governing the toxicological evaluation of compounds on the agenda

    2.4 The safety evaluation of flavouring agents 2.4.1 Dietary exposure assessment of flavouring agents:

    Incorporation of the single portion exposure technique (SPET) into the Procedure for the Safety Evaluation of Flavouring Agents

    2.4.2 Considerations on the thresholds of toxicological concern used in the Procedure

    2.5 Food additive specifications 2.5.1 Withdrawal of specifications

    2.5.1.1 Carbohydrase from Aspergillus niger varieties 2.5.1.2 Estragole

    2.5.2 Method for determination of nickel in polyols 2.6 Relationship between the ADI and specifications

    3. Specific food additives (other than flavouring agents) 3.1 Safety evaluations

    3.1.1 Asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger

    3.1.2 Calcium lignosulfonate (40–65) 3.1.3 Ethyl lauroyl arginate 3.1.4 Paprika extract 3.1.5 Phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris 3.1.6 Phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters 3.1.7 Polydimethylsiloxane 3.1.8 Steviol glycosides 3.1.9 Sulfites: assessment of dietary exposure

    3.2 Revision of specifications 3.2.1 Canthaxanthin 3.2.2 Carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified) 3.2.3 Chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and

    potassium salts 3.2.4 Fast Green FCF 3.2.5 Guar gum and guar gum (clarified) 3.2.6 Iron oxides 3.2.7 Isomalt 3.2.8 Monomagnesium phosphate 3.2.9 Patent Blue V

    1 1

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    14 15 15 15 16 16 16

    19 19

    19 22 27 32 36 39 46 50 55 66 66 66

    67 67 67 67 68 68 68

    iii

  • 3.2.10 Sunset Yellow FCF 3.2.11 Trisodium diphosphate

    4. Flavouring agents 4.1 Flavouring agents evaluated by the Procedure for the Safety

    Evaluation of Flavouring Agents 4.1.1 Aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated

    alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters: additional compounds

    4.1.2 related alcohols, acetals and esters: additional compounds

    4.1.3 Aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related

    4.1.4 Alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents

    4.1.5 Esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids: additional compounds

    4.1.6 Furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers

    4.1.7 Hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives: additional compounds

    4.1.8 Miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances: additional compounds

    4.1.9 Monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters: additional compounds

    4.1.10 Substances structurally related to menthol: additional compounds

    4.2 Re-evaluation of flavouring agents for which estimated intake was based on anticipated poundage data 4.2.1 2-Isopropyl-N,2,3-trimethylbutyramide

    (No. 1595) 4.2.2 L-Monomenthyl glutarate (No. 1414)

    4.3 Specifications of identify and purity of flavouring agents

    5. Future work

    6. Recommendations

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Annex 1 Reports and other documents resulting from previous meetings of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives

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