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EXPLANATION OF Dr. Martin Luther's Small indispensable historical remarks (Article II) and...

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  • 1

    EXPLANATION

    OF

    Dr. Martin Luther's Small

    Catechism

    TOGETHER WITH THREE SUPPLEMENTS

    _______________

    Prepared by Dr. J. M. Reu

    Professor of Theology at Wartburg Seminary, Dubuque, lowa

    _______________

    TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN

    Wartburg Publishing House,

    Chicago, Ill

    Wartburg Press, Waverly, Iowa

    16—20 thousand

    1917

    Published by the

    Independent Lutheran Diocese

    Klamath Falls, OR 97603

    © 2016

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    Table of Contents: ___

    Page Translator’s Preface……………………………………………………………. 3 Preface……………………………………………………………………………. 4 Luther’s Small Catechism…………………………………………………….. 7 Part I: The Ten Commandments……………………………………... 8 Part II: The Creed……………………………………………………….. 11 Part III: The Lord’s Prayer……………………………………………… 12 Part IV: The Sacrament of Holy Baptism………………….………… 14 Part V: The Sacrament of the Altar …………………………………. 16 Appendix…………………………………………………………..……… 18 1. Of the Office of the Keys……………………………………... 18 2. Of Confession…………………………………………………... 19 3. Morning and Evening Prayer………………..……………….. 21 4. Table Prayers……………………………………………………. 22 5. The Table of Duties…………………………………………….. 22 Explanation of Luther’s Small Catechism………………………………….. 27 Introduction……………………………………………………………..… 28 Part 1: The Ten Commandments………………..…………………… 29 Part 2: The Creed…………………………………………………..…… 55 Part 3: The Lord’s Prayer…………………………………………….... 84 Part 4: The Sacrament of Baptism………………………………….... 99 Part 5: The Sacrament of the Altar…………………………………...111 Supplement………………………………………………………………… ….. 119 1. Brief Instruction concerning the Bible…………………………… 119 2. Important Facts about the Church Year………………………….. 122 3. Important Events in the History of the Christian Church…….. 125 Scriptural Index………………………………………………………………….133

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    Translator's Preface: ___

    Professor Reu's Explanation of the Catechism is here offered in translation.

    The work had hardly been issued in German when a translation was urgently

    demanded. To supply this demand the translation was undertaken. The hope is

    cherished, however, that in its English garb the Explanation will now find favor

    throughout our English Lutheran Church and be considered worthy of acceptation.

    The text of the "Enchiridion" used in the translation is the one revised and

    recommended by the Joint Committee consisting of representatives of the General

    Council, General Synod, United Synod of the South, Joint Synod of Ohio and English

    Synod of Missouri. We have reluctantly adopted the rendering of the third

    commandment as it stands and would have preferred a literal translation of the

    German. But for the sake of a uniform text we have adopted it and have given the

    literal translation in footnote.

    As to the principles governing the author in preparing the explanation, the

    advantages of the thetic form, the selection of proof-passages and the best method of

    using this explanation we refer to the author's preface.

    We feel deeply obliged to Professor Alfred Ramsey of the Chicago Lutheran

    Theological Seminary for many valuable suggestions and for painstaking and repeated

    revision of the whole. We also acknowledge our indebtedness to Rev. A. D. Crile of

    Chicago for valuable suggestions on several parts and to the Faculty of Wartburg

    Seminary, Dubuque, Iowa, for their kind assistance. The translator is also grateful to

    the many personal friends, who have looked over parts and by their kind words have

    greatly encouraged him.

    If it should please God to suffer this translation to find as hearty a welcome as did

    the German original the translator would feel more than repaid for what was to him a

    labor of love.

    C. G. Prottengeier

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    Preface.

    ___

    In the preparation of the present explanation of the Catechism, the principle was

    adhered to, that an explanation should be no more, than an introduction into the

    fullness of religious truth, as contained in the words of Luther's Catechism. Accordingly

    every addition from Dogmatics and Sacred History was excluded, as well as every

    attempt to convert the Five Parts into a system by means of translations.—Along with

    this another principle was adhered to, to wit, that apart from necessary definitions,

    indispensable historical remarks (Article II) and contingent statements of plan (Part II),

    the text of the Catechism was not again to be explained, but that Luther's paraphrase

    was the object of explanation. (See "Kirchliche Zeitschrift" Vol. 25, No. 6, and Vol. 26,

    No 1.) Hence, the matter here given or omitted must be judged accordingly.

    Concerning the form, the thetic was prescribed to the author in place of the

    erotematic. This form fetters the catechist in a much less degree than does the form of

    questions and answers. According to it, he may begin whenever he chooses, he may

    conclude whenever he chooses. In the presentation here given, he can even

    demarcate the matter for the separate grades, without causing disorder. He needs

    only, e.g., to have the definitions underlined, to get the lesson for the lower or middle

    grade. This is impossible with the prevalent form of questions and answers. There

    one is bound to the progress and connection of the questions and answers of the

    explanation, which have been deliberately put. Never-the-less to disregard them, is

    only to prove that the form of questions and answers is inadequate. For the child the

    thetic form has the great advantage that it teaches him to think independently, for in

    rehearsing the lesson he must find the answers independently from the given matter.

    Some difficulties will indeed be encountered at first, but they will soon be overcome

    and blessed results will not fail to appear. Add to this, that with the thetic form the child

    always receives something whole, while with the other he generally gets only

    something incomplete, since he is so prone simply to learn the given answer, without

    reference to the question. By means of the thetic form, finally, our youth are more apt

    to become well-versed in the Catechism, for here the text of the catechism can be

    plainly traced by the eye, as it winds through all the explanation like a string of beads.

    And pray, do not underrate this! Many who have entertained misgivings regarding the

  • 5

    thetic form, will find the reason for them in a confusion of instruction with the means of

    instruction; the doubts of others may be removed by a judicious employment of italics

    and black-type, as here attempted.—For pedagogic reasons the personal wording has

    been introduced, whenever possible.

    Concerning the text of the " Enchiridion " to be explained, the one found in the

    edition of 1531 was selected, as this, contrary to prevalent opinion, is probably the last

    edition prepared by Luther himself. Since, however, various texts of Luther's

    Catechism are scattered among our congregations, as found, for instance, in our

    "Spruchbuch,” our "Kirchenbuch,” the "Konfirmandenbuechlein" and the catechisms of

    Caspari, Stohlmann, and Mecklenburg, the respective additions are given in

    parentheses. The explanation, however, is based on the original text only, with one

    exception; that regarding the superscription of the Ten Commandments.

    In selecting the proof-passages, the author's endeavor was not only to offer dicta

    probantia, but also such passages, as would prove helpful for life. The passages are

    divided in four classes, ranging from the easy to the difficult. Those denoted by an

    asterisk (*) are intended for the lower, those by a double asterisk (**) for the middle,

    and those by a dagger (†) for the higher grade. Wherever the school consists of one

    class only, as in the confirmation schools, a part of the passages ought to be

    previously committed, in Saturday or Sunday School. Denoted passages have been

    inserted. either for highly gifted pupils, or because they offer particular sources of

    deduction for the catechist.

    Every experienced catechist knows how an explanation of the catechism is to be

    treated. Let it, however, be distinctly un

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