WATER CONSERVATIONWater conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource to protect the water environment and to meet current and future human demand.Sustainability,Energy conservation,Habitat coservation are some goals of water conservation.There are various steps to conserve water but I would like to give special emphasis on rain water harvesting.
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. Uses include water for garden, water for livestock, water for irrigation, and indoor heating for houses etc.. In many places the water collected is just redirected to a deep pit with percolation. The harvested water can be used as drinking water as well as for storage and other purpose like irrigation.Some advantages of rain water harvesting are -: Makes use of a natural resource and reduces flooding, storm water , erosion, and contamination of surface water with pesticides, sediment, metals, and fertilizers. Excellent source of water for landscape irrigation, with no chemicals such as fluoride and chlorine, and no dissolved salts and minerals from the soil. Home systems can be relatively simple to install and operate and it may reduce your water bill.RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM IN INDIA-:In the state of Tamil Nadu, rainwater harvesting was made compulsory for every building to avoid ground water depletion. It proved excellent results within five years, and every other state took it as role model. Since its implementation, Chennai saw a 50 percent rise in water level in five years and the water quality significantly improved.
In Rajasthan, rainwater harvesting has traditionally been practiced by the people of the Thar Desert. There are many ancient water harvesting systems in Rajasthan, which have now been revived .Water harvesting systems are widely used in other areas of Rajasthan as well, for example the chauka system from the Jaipur district.At present, in Pune (in Maharashtra), rainwater harvesting is compulsory for any new society to be registered.An attempt has been made at Dept. of Chemical Engineering, IISc, Bangalore to harvest rainwater using upper surface of a solar still, which was used for water distillation[
RAIN-WATER HARVESTING IN KERALARainwater harvesting, irrespective of the technology used, essentially means harvesting and storing water in days of abundance, for use in lean days. Storing of rainwater can be done in two ways; (i) storing in an artificial storage and (ii) in the soil media as groundwater. The former is more specifically called roof water harvesting and is rather a temporary measure, focusing on human needs providing immediate relief from drinking water scarcity, while the latter has the potential to provide sustainable relief from water scarcity, addressing the needs of all living classes in nature. Through the proposed individual rainwater harvesting, units will be made available to the beneficiaries. Rain water harvesting has gained popularity in Kerala through various projects implemented by different agencies. The Rain Water Harvesting Campaign of the Government and publicity by various media are responsible for popularizing rain water harvesting in the state. Rainwater harvesting is viewed as a water security measure for the State of Kerala, with two broad types of programmes.
HYDRO POWERHydro-power or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water and running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Kinetic energy of flowing water (when it moves from higher potential to lower potential) rotates the blades/propellers of turbine, which rotates the axle. The axle has a coil which is placed between the magnets. When the coils rotate in magnetic field it induce them in the coil due to change in flux. Hence, kinetic energy of flowing water is converted to electrical energy.Since ancient times, hydro-power has been used for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as watermills, sawmills, textile mills, dock cranes, domestic lifts, power houses and paint making.
Since the early 20th century, the term has been used almost exclusively in conjunction with the modern development of hydro-electric power, which allowed use of distant energy sources. Another method used to transmit energy used a tromp, which produces compressed air from falling water. Compressed air could then be piped to power other machinery at a distance from the waterfall. Hydro power is a renewable energy source. Water's power is manifested in hydrology, by the forces of water on the riverbed and banks of a river. When a river is in flood, it is at its most powerful, and moves the greatest amount of sediment
HYDROPOWER TYPES -:
Hydropower is used primarily to generate electricity. Broad categories include:Conventional hydroelectric, referring to hydroelectric dams.Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity, which captures the kinetic energy in rivers or streams, without the use of damsSmall hydro projects are 10 megawatts or less and often have no artificial reservoirs..Micro hydro projects provide a few kilowatts to a few hundred kilowatts to isolated homes, villages, or small industries. Small hydro projects are 10 megawatts or less and often have no artificial reservoirs.
HYDROPOWER:21ST CENTURYHaving fallen out of favor during the late 20th century due to the disruptive ecological and social effects of large impoundments, hydropower enjoyed a revival by 2013 as international institutions such as the World Bank tried to find solutions to economic development which avoided adding substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere
HARD WATERHard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects.
EFFECTS OF HARDWATER-:With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate instead of producing lather, because the 2+ ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap by forming a solid precipitate (the soap scum). A major component of such scum is calcium stearate, which arises from sodium stearate, the main component of soap 2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ (C17H35COO)2Ca
Hardness can thus be defined as the soap-consuming capacity of a water sample, or the capacity of precipitation of soap as a characteristic property of water that prevents the lathering of soap. Synthetic detergents do not form such scums.Hard water also forms deposits that clog plumbing.
The presence of ions in an electrolyte, in this case, hard water, can also lead to galvanic corrosion, in which one metal will preferentially corrode when in contact with another type of metal, when both are in contact with an electrolyteThe softening of hard water by ion exchange does not increase its corrosivit. Similarly, where lead plumbing is in use, softened water does not substantially increase plumb-solvency.In swimming pools, hard water is manifested by a turbid, or cloudy (milky), appearance to the water. Calcium and magnesium hydroxides are both soluble in water. The solubility of the hydroxides of the alkaline-earth metals to which calcium and magnesium belong (group 2 of the periodic table) increases moving down the columnAqueous solutions of these metal hydroxides absorb carbon dioxide from the air, forming the insoluble carbonates, giving rise to the turbidity. This often results from the alkalinity (the hydroxide concentration) being excessively high (pH > 7.6)
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT HARDNESSTemporary hardnessTemporary hardness is a type of water hardness caused by the presence of dissolved bicarbonate minerals (calciumbicarbonat and magnesium bicarbonate)When dissolved these minerals yield calcium and magnesium cation (Ca2+, Mg2+) and carbonate and bicarbonate anions (CO32-, HCO3-) The presence of the metal cation makes the water hard. However, unlike the permanent hardness caused by sulfate and chloride compounds, this "temporary" hardness can be reduced either by boiling the water, or by the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) through the softening process of lime softening[Permanent hardnessPermanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling.When this is the case, it is usually caused by the presence of calcium sulfateand/or magnesium sulfates in the water, which do not precipitate out as the temperature increases. Ions causing permanent hardness of water can be removed using a water softener, or ion exchange column. Total Permanent Hardness = Calcium Hardness + Magnesium Hardness
WAR OVER WATER (JORDAN RIVER)The "War over Water" also the Battle over Water refers to a series of confrontations between Israel and its Arab neighbors from November 1964 to May 1967 over control of available water sources in the Jordan River drainage basin. The 1949 Armistice Agreements which followed the 1948 ArabIsraeli War, created three Demilitarized zones on the Israel-Syria border. The southernmost, and also the largest of stretched from the south-eastern part of the Sea of Galilee eastwards to the Yarmuk River where the borders of Israel, Jordan and Syria converged, The issue of sharing the waters of the JordanYarmuk system between Israel, Syria and Jordan turned out to be a major problem.In July 1953, Israel began construction of the intake of its National Water Carrier at the Daughters of Jacob Jordan Bridge north of the Sea of Galilee and in the demilitarized zone. Syrian artillery units opened fire on the construction site. The United Nations security council majority voted for resumption of work by Israel. The Israelis then moved the intake to an economically inferior site at the Sea of Galilee.[
13At 1955 the Jordan Valley Unified Water Plan was accepted by the technical committees of both Israel and the Arab League The Arab League Council decided on 11 October 1955 not to ratify the plan. According to most observers, including Johnston himself, the Arab non-adoption of the plan was not total rejection. while they failed to approve it politically, they were determined to adhere to the technica hough the Unified Plan failed to be ratified, both Jordan and Israel undertook to operate within their allocations l details. Israel completed its National Water Carrier which siphoned water from the Sea of Galilee in 1964. The initial diversion capacity of the National Water Carrier without supplementary booster pumps was 320 million m3, well within the limits of the Johnston Plan. The Arab states were not prepared to coexist with this project, that seemed likely to make a major contribution to Israel economic growth. The Arab states decided to deprive Israel of a 35% of the National Water Carrier capacity, by a diversion of the Jordan River headwaters (both the Hasbani and the Banias) to the Yarmouk River, although the scheme was only marginally feasible, it was technically difficult and expensive. At 1965, there were 3 notable border clashes, starting with the Syrians shooting Israeli farmers and army patrols, and continuing by Israeli tanks and artillery destroying the Arab heavy earth moving machines that were used for the diversion plan.The Arab countries eventually abandoned their project. Control of water resources and Israeli military attacks regarding the diversion effort are considered among the major factors which led to the Six-Day War in June 1967.
Water politics in middle eastIssues relating to water supplies, then, affect international and inter-regional affairs, with disputes over countries rights and access to water resources most often the cause of tensions in this arena. The contended nature of some water provisions has tended to mean that certain waters become more prone to political conflicts (those which are primarily prone to this in the Middle East and northern Africa are the Nile, Jordan and Tigris-Euphrates rivers. In order to secure reliable levels of water access for their populations, states must either have a large water supply in terms of economic availability, or their rights to such supplies must be established.Studies of water in the Middle East have also suggested that, in a sensitive hydrological location, a countrys existing surface and ground-water access should be protected as a first priority if it is to begin to address any water difficulties or shortages. Such measures as these can be seen as being the primary responsibilities of national governments or ruling authorities; and water is therefore closely tied up with statehood and geographical territory in international relations, and with the recognition and rights of nation states as the central actors in this field
The political process and interactions underlying the international relations of water have been characterised as having three stages. These are that a state must go through a process of; firstly claiming its right to water resources, secondly receiving recognition of this right, and finally seeking to attain its entitlement to water in accordance with the recognition of its claim. However, these processes have not always succeededThe postCold War period, therefore, has since been perceived to offer the opportunity for transforming water politics in the Middle East, in light of the shift which it has brought about in global political dynamics in the region. This potential, however, had failed to be fulfilled by the end of the decade, with states in the Middle East still mainly involved in asserting water rights over shared waters. The consequence of this has been that non-agreed water sharing is an unavoidable reality in present Middle Eastern international relations, with attendant political problems invariably surfacing
WATER RECYCLINGReclaimed water or recycled water, is former wastewater (sewage) that is treated to remove solids and certain impurities, and used in sustainable landscaping irrigation or to recharge groundwater aquifersThe purpose of these processes is sustainability and water conservation, rather than discharging the treated water to surface waters such as rivers and oceans. In some cases, recycled water can be used for streamflow augmentation to benefit ecosystems and improve aestheticsThe definition of reclaimed water, as defined by Levine and Asaneo, is "The end product of wastewater reclamation that meets water quality requirements for biodegradable materials, suspended matter and pathogens
industry uses.SOME BENEFITS OF WATER RECYCLING ARE-:Cycled repeatedly through the planetary hydrosphere, all water on Earth is recycled water, but the terms "recycled water" or "reclaimed water" typically mean wastewater sent from a home or business through a pipeline system to a treatment facility, where it is treated to a level consistent with its intended useThe recycling and recharging is often done by using the treated wastewater for designated municipal sustainable gardening irrigation applications.In more recent conventional use, the term refers to water that is not treated as highly in order to offer a way to conserve drinking water.This water is given to uses such as agriculture and sundry The recycled water is supplied at a discount to the potable water priceConnecting to the AquaNet water network eliminates the need to build and maintain on site water recycling facilities
USES OF RECYCLED WATERThe usage of water reclamation decreases the pollution sent to sensitive environmentsReclaimed water is usually sold to citizens at a cheaper rate to encourage its use.It can also enhance wetlands, which benefits the wildlife depending on that eco-system.By using recycled water customers can save on the space and cost of storm water capture and storageHigh quality recycled water is a superior alternative to untreated potable (drinking) water, especially for industrial applications such as boilers and cooling towersAquaNet can connect to customers on the main line with no minimum usage requirements
DISTRIBUTION AND DEMANDReclaimed water is often distributed with a dual piping network that keeps reclaimed water pipes completely separate from potable water pipes. In the United States, reclaimed water is always distributed in lavender (light purple) pipes to distinguish it from potable waterThe use of the color purple for pipes carrying recycled water was pioneered by the Irvine Ranch Water District in Irvine, California.n many cities using reclaimed water, it is now in such demand that consumers are only allowed to use it on assigned days. Some cities that previously offered unlimited reclaimed water at a flat rate are now beginning to charge citizens by the amount they use.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF GROUNDWATERSustainable DevelopmentSustainable development means finding ways to preserve a preciousresource like clean water foreverand meeting our customers needs not just today, but tomorrow. Sustainable groundwater resources development implies use of groundwater as a source of water supply, on a long term basis, in an efficient and equitable manner sustaining its quality and environmental diversity. An understanding of the behaviour of a groundwater system and of its interaction with the environment is required to formulate a sustainable management plan.
Mathematical models supported by field information play a key role in assessing the future behaviour of a system to stresses and to find effective operating conditions for sustainable development and management of groundwater resources. Basic principles for sustainable development are stressed and a brief review of two case studies is provided to illustrate how a systems approach and its computational framework of mathematical models can be used in addressing the main issue of water allocation satisfying some of the technical and environmental constraints.
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