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  • AWWA Standard

    SM

    ®

    Steel Water Pipe, 6 In.

    (150 mm) and Larger

    Efective date: August 1 , 201 7.First edi tion approved by AWWA Board of Directors June 26, 1 975.This edi tion approved Jan. 1 4, 201 7Approved by American National Standards Insti tute Feb. 23, 201 7.

    ANSI/AWWA C200-17(Revision of ANSI/AWWA C200-12)

    Copyright © 201 7 American Water Works Association. Al l Rights Reserved.

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  • i i

    AWWA Standard

    This document i s an American Water Works Association (AWWA) standard. I t i s not a specifcation. AWWA standards

    describe min imum requirements and do not conta in a l l of the engineering and administrative information normal l y

    conta ined in specifcations. The AWWA standards usual l y conta in options that must be eva luated by the user of the

    standard . Unti l each optiona l feature is specifed by the user, the product or service i s not ful l y defned. AWWA pub -

    l i cation of a standard does not consti tute endorsement of any product or product type, nor does AWWA test, certi fy,

    or approve any product. The use of AWWA standards is entirely voluntary. Th is standard does not supersede or take

    precedence over or d isplace any appl icable law, regu lation , or code of any governmenta l authori ty. AWWA standards

    are intended to represent a consensus of the water industry that the product described wi l l provide satis factory ser-

    vice. When AWWA revises or wi thdraws th is standard , an ofcia l notice of action wi l l be placed on the frst page of the

    Ofcia l Notice section of J ournal – American Water Works Association . The action becomes efective on the frst day of the month fol lowing the month of J ourna l – American Water Works Association publ ication of the ofcia l notice.

    American National Standard

    An American National Standard impl ies a consensus of those substantia l l y concerned wi th i ts scope and provisions.

    An American National Standard is intended as a gu ide to a id the manu facturer, the consumer, and the genera l publ ic.

    The existence of an American National Standard does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether that person has

    approved the standard or not, from manu facturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or proce -

    dures not con forming to the standard. American National Standards are subject to period ic review, and users are cau -

    tioned to obta in the la test ed i tions. Producers of goods made in con formity wi th an American National Standard are

    encouraged to state on their own responsibi l i ty in advertising and promotional materia ls or on tags or labels that the

    goods are produced in con formity wi th particu lar American National Standards.

    Caution notiCe : The American National Standards I nsti tute (ANSI ) approval date on the front cover of th is standard

    ind icates completion of the ANSI approval process. Th is American National Standard may be revised or wi thdrawn at

    any time. ANSI procedures require that action be taken to reafrm, revise, or wi thdraw th is standard no la ter than fve

    years from the date of publ ication . Purchasers of American National Standards may receive current information on

    a l l standards by ca l l ing or wri ting the American Nationa l Standards I nsti tu te, 25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New

    York, N Y 1 0036; 21 2.642.4900; or emai l ing [email protected] .org.

    hours of work by your fellow water professionals.

    Revenue from the sales of this AWWA material supports

    ongoing product development. Unauthorized distribution,

    either electronic or photocopied, is illegal and hinders

    AWWA’s mission to support the water community.

    This AWWA content is the product of thousands of

    I SBN -1 3, print: 978-1 -58321 -906-5 eISBN -1 3, electronic:   978-1 -61 300-201 -8

    DOI : http: //dx.doi .org/1 0.1 2999/AWWA.C200.1 7

    Al l rights reserved . No part of th is publ ication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,

    electronic or mechanica l , includ ing photocopy, record ing, or any information or retrieva l system, except in the form of

    brief excerpts or quotations for review purposes, wi thout the wri tten permission of the publ isher.

    Copyright © 201 7 by American Water Works Association

    Printed in USA

    Copyright © 201 7 American Water Works Association. Al l Rights Reserved.

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  • i i i

    Committee Personnel

    Te Steel Water Pipe Manufacturer’s Technical Advisory Committee (SWPMTAC) Task Group

    on AWWA C200, which reviewed and revised this standard, had the following personnel at the

    time:

    Brent Keil, Chair

    John Luka, Vice-Chair

    S.A. Arnaout, Forterra Pressure Pipe Inc., Grand Prairie, Texas (AWWA)

    H.H. Bardakjian, Manufacturing Consultant, Glendale, Calif. (AWWA)

    R.J. Card, Manufacturing Consultant, Sugar Hill, Ga. (AWWA)

    K. Couture, American SpiralWeld Pipe Company, Columbia, S.C. (AWWA)

    G.A. Davidenko, Northwest Pipe Company, Saginaw, Texas (AWWA)

    D. Dechant, Consultant, Aurora, Colo. (AWWA)

    V. DeGrande, Ameron International, Rancho Cucamonga, Calif. (AWWA)

    B.D. Keil, Northwest Pipe Company, Draper, Utah (AWWA)

    J.L. Luka, American SpiralWeld Pipe Company, Columbia, S.C. (AWWA)

    R.D. Mielke, Northwest Pipe Company, Raleigh, N.C. (AWWA)

    J. Olmos, Ameron International, Rancho Cucamonga, Calif. (AWWA)

    R.N. Satyarthi, Baker Coupling Company Inc., Los Angeles, Calif. (AWWA)

    C. Shelley, Victaulic, Atlanta, Ga. (AWWA)

    B.P. Simpson, American SpiralWeld  Pipe Company, Columbia, S.C. (AWWA)

    N. Williams, National Welding Corporation, Midvale, Utah (AWWA)

    Te AWWA Standards Committee on Steel Pipe, which reviewed and approved this standard, had

    the following personnel at the time of approval:

    John H. Bambei Jr., Chair

    Dennis Dechant, Vice-Chair

    John L. Luka, Secretary

    General Interest Members

    J.H. Bambei Jr., Bambei Engineering Services, Arvada, Colo. (AWWA)

    W.R. Brunzell, Brunzell Associates Ltd., Skokie, Ill. (AWWA)

    R.J. Card, Lockwood Andrews & Newnam, Sugar Hill, Ga. (AWWA)

    R.L. Cofey, HDR Engineering Inc., Omaha, Neb. (AWWA)

    Copyright © 201 7 American Water Works Association. Al l Rights Reserved.

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  • i v

    S.N. Foellmi, Black & Veatch Corporation, Irvine, Calif. (AWWA)

    R.L Gibson, Freese and Nichols Inc., Fort Worth, Texas (AWWA)

    M.D. Gossett,* HDR, Denver, Colo. (AWWA)

    M.B. Horsley,* Horsley Engineering LLC, Overland Park, Kan. (AWWA)

    R. Issa,* AECOM, McKinney, Texas (AWWA)

    R.A. Kufaas, Norske Corrosion & Inspection Services Ltd., Surrey, B.C., Canada (AWWA)

    J.L. Mattson, Corrosion Control Technologies, Sandy, Utah (AWWA)

    R. Ortega,* Consultant, Spring, Texas (AWWA)

    E.S. Ralph,† Standards Engineer Liaison, AWWA, Denver, Colo. (AWWA)

    A.E. Romer, AECOM, Orange, Calif. (AWWA)

    J.R. Snow, MWH Americas Inc., Denver, Colo. (AWWA)

    W.R. Whidden, Woolpert, Winter Park, Fla. (AWWA)

    Producer Members

    D.W. Angell,† Standards Council Liaison, American Flow Control,

    Birmingham, Ala. (AWWA)

    S.A. Arnaout, Forterra Pressure Pipe, Grand Prairie, Texas (AWWA)

    H.H. Bardakjian, Consultant, Glendale, Calif. (AWWA)

    D. Dechant, Dechant Infrastructure Service, Aurora, Colo. (AWWA)

    V. DeGrande,* Ameron International, Rancho Cucamonga, Calif. (AWWA)

    W.B. Geyer, Steel Plate Fabricators Association, Lake Zurich, Ill. (SPFA)

    B.D. Keil, Northwest Pipe Company, Draper, Utah (AWWA)

    J.L. Luka, American SpiralWeld Pipe Company, Columbia, S.C. (AWWA)

    R. Mielke,* Northwest Pipe Company, Raleigh, N.C. (AWWA)

    J. Olmos, Ameron International, Rancho Cucamonga, Calif. (AWWA)

    G.F. Ruchti,* Consultant, Punta Gorda, Fla. (AWWA)

    B.P. Simpson,* American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Birmingham, Ala. (AWWA)

    C.C. Sundberg, Victaulic, Issaquah, Wash. (AWWA)

    D. Walker, Avid Protective Products LTD/Tnemec Company, Oakville, Ont., Canada (AWWA)

    J.A. Wise, Canus International Sales Inc., Surrey, B.C., Canada (AWWA)

    * Alternate

    † Liaison, non-voting

    Copyright © 201 7 American Water Works Association. Al l Rights Reserved.

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  • v

    User Members

    L. Adams, US Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. (AWWA)

    G.A. Andersen, New York City Bureau of Water Supply, Little Neck, N.Y. (AWWA)

    B. Cheng, Metro Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C., Canada (AWWA)

    M.E. Conner, San Diego County Water Authority, San Diego, Calif. (AWWA)

    S. Hattan, Tarrant Regional Water District, Fort Worth, Texas (AWWA)

    T.J. Jordan,* Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, La Verne, Calif. (AWWA)

    P.K. Karna, Tacoma Water, Tacoma, Wash. (AWWA)

    M. McReynolds,* Metropolitan Water District of Southern California,

    Oak Park, Calif. (AWWA)

    K.R. Parbhoo, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, Los Angeles, Calif. (AWWA)

    M. Turney,* Denver Water, Denver, Colo. (AWWA)

    * Alternate

    Copyright © 201 7 American Water Works Association. Al l Rights Reserved.

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  • vi i

    Contents

    All AWWA standards follow the general format indicated subsequently. Some variations from this format may be found in a particular standard.

    SEC. PAGE SEC. PAGE

    Foreword

    I Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

    I.A Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

    I.B History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

    I.C Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x

    II Special Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

    II.A Advisory Information on Product

    Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

    II.B Chlorine and Chloramine

    Degradation of Elastomers . . . . . . . . xii

    III Use of Tis Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

    III.A Purchaser Options and

    Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

    III.B Modifcation to Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv

    IV Major Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv

    V Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv

    Standard

    1 General

    1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    1.2 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    1.3 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    3 Defnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    4 Requirements

    4.1 Permeation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    4.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    4.3 Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    4.4 Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    4.5 Selection of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    4.6 Requirements for Welding

    Qualifcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    4.7 Fabrication of Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    4.8 Production Weld Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    4.9 Permissible Variations in

    Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    4.10 Ancillary Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    4.11 Preparation of Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    4.12 Protective Coatings and Linings . . . . . . 24

    4.13 Special Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    4.14 Fabrication of Special Sections . . . . . . . . 25

    5 Verifcation

    5.1 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    5.2 Test Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    5.3 Calibration of Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    5.4 Test Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    6 Delivery

    6.1 Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    6.2 Handling and Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    6.3 Afdavit of Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    Figures

    1 Charpy Test Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    2 Repair Method by Ofset Value and

    Wall Tickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    3 Bridge Cam Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    Copyright © 201 7 American Water Works Association. Al l Rights Reserved.

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  • vi i i

    4 Reduced-Section Tension Test

    Specimen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    5 Guided-Bend Test Specimen . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    6 Jig for Guided-Bend Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    7 Alternative Guided-Bend

    Wraparound Jig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    8 Alternative Guided-Bend Roller

    Jig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    Tables

    1 Steel Plate, Sheet, or Coils for

    Fabricated Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    2 Repair Requirements Based On

    Ofset Value and Wall

    Tickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    3 Guided-Bend Test Jig

    Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    SEC. PAGE SEC. PAGE

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  • ix

    Foreword

    Tis foreword is for information only and is not a part of ANSI*/AWWA C200.

    I. Introduction.

    I.A. Background. Tis standard covers butt-joint welded straight-seam or

    spiral-seam steel pipe, 6 in. (150 mm) and larger, for transmission and distribution of

    water, including fabrication of pipe, requirements of welding operations, permissible

    variations of thickness and dimensions, preparation of ends, fabrication of special

    sections, inspection, and test procedures.

    I.B. History. Te frst AWWA steel pipe standards issued were 7A.3 and

    7A.4, published in 1940. Standard 7A.4 pertained to steel pipe smaller than 30 in.

    (750 mm) in diameter, and 7A.3 pertained to steel pipe 30 in. (750 mm) in diameter

    and larger. Subsequently, in recognition that some pipe used in water utility service

    was manufactured in steel mills rather than in a fabricator’s shop, two new AWWA

    standards were issued in 1960. AWWA C201 replaced 7A.3 and pertained to all pipe,

    regardless of diameter, manufactured in a fabricator’s shop from steel sheet or plate.

    Te physical and chemical properties are properties of the sheet or plate from which the

    pipe is made. Te properties are a function of the steel mill practice and are not afected

    signifcantly by fabricating procedures. AWWA C202 replaced 7A.4 and pertained

    to mill pipe, which is normally produced in a production pipe mill. Te specifed

    physical and chemical properties are those of the completed pipe. Physical testing is

    performed on the pipe rather than on the steel from which it originates. In many cases,

    the physical properties are signifcantly afected by the pipe-manufacturing procedure.

    AWWA C201 was revised in 1966, and AWWA C202 was revised in 1964. Both

    AWWA C201 and AWWA C202 were superseded by AWWA C200-75, approved by

    the AWWA Board of Directors on Jan. 26, 1975.

    AWWA C200 includes all types and classes of steel pipe, 6 in. (150 mm) in diam-

    eter and larger, used in water utility service, regardless of the pipe-manufacturing

    source. With adequate quality assurance, pipe manufactured in a fabricator’s shop or

    in a steel pipe mill is suitable for water utility service.

    By reference, AWWA C202 (which pertained to mill-type steel water pipe) included

    API† 5L and API 5LX pipe grades manufactured to API standards for high-pressure

    * American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New York, NY 10036.

    † American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005.

    Copyright © 201 7 American Water Works Association. Al l Rights Reserved.

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  • x

    applications. With the inclusion of ASTM A570/A570M and ASTM A572/A572M

    high-strength steels in AWWA C200-75, API high-pressure pipe was omitted from

    AWWA C200-75 as being redundant. API 5L and API 5LX pipe grades fully met all

    requirements of AWWA C200 and could be used for water utility applications if dic-

    tated by availability or other economic considerations.

    AWWA C200-75 introduced design criteria for determination of wall thickness

    to meet internal pressure conditions. Tese criteria facilitated the selection of the opti-

    mum combination of thickness and material for steel pipe.

    Revisions in AWWA C200-86 included clarifcation of forming for lap-joint

    ends and gasketed ends and testing of O-ring gaskets. Subsequent editions of this

    standard were approved by the AWWA Board of Directors on June 23, 1991; Feb. 2,

    1997; June 12, 2005, and June 10, 2012. Tis edition was approved on Jan. 14, 2017.

    I.C. Acceptance. In May 1985, the US Environmental Protection Agency

    (USEPA) entered into a cooperative agreement with a consortium led by NSF

    International (NSF) to develop voluntary third-party consensus standards and a

    certifcation program for direct and indirect drinking wat er additives. Other members of

    the original consortium included the Water Research Foundation (formerly AwwaRF)

    and the Conference of State Health and Environmental Managers (COSHEM). Te

    American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the Association of State Drinking

    Water Administrators (ASDWA) joined later.

    In the United States, authority to regulate products for use in, or in contact with,

    drinking water rests with individual states.* Local agencies may choose to impose

    requirements more stringent than those required by the state. To evaluate the health

    efects of products and drinking water additives from such products, state and local

    agencies may use various references, including

    1. Specifc policies of the state or local agency.

    2. Two standards developed under the direction of NSF:† NSF/ANSI 60,

    Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals—Health Efects, and NSF/ANSI 61, Drinking

    Water System Components—Health Efects.

    3. Other references, including AWWA standards, Food Chemicals Codex,

    Water Chemicals Codex,‡ and other standards considered appropriate by the state or

    local agency.

    * Persons outside the United States should contact the appropriate authority having jurisdiction.

    † NSF International, 789 North Dixboro Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48105.

    ‡ Both publications available from National Academy of Sciences, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington,DC 20001.

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  • xi

    Various certifcation organizations may be involved in certifying products in accor-

    dance with NSF/ANSI 61. Individual states or local agencies have authority to accept

    or accredit certifcation organizations within their jurisdictions. Accreditation of certi-

    fcation organizations may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

    Annex A, “Toxicology Review and Evaluation Procedures,” to NSF/ANSI 61 does

    not stipulate a maximum allowable level (MAL) of a contaminant for substances not

    regulated by a USEPA fnal maximum contaminant level (MCL). Te MALs of an

    unspecifed list of “unregulated contaminants” are based on toxicity testing guidelines

    (noncarcinogens) and risk characterization methodology (carcinogens). Use of Annex A

    procedures may not always be identical, depending on the certifer.

    ANSI/AWWA C200 does not address additives requirements. Tus, users of this

    standard should consult the appropriate state or local agency having jurisdiction in

    order to

    1. Determine additives requirements, including applicable standards.

    2. Determine the status of certifcations by parties ofering to certify products

    for contact with, or treatment of, drinking water.

    3. Determine current information on product certifcation.

    II. Special Issues.

    II.A. Advisory Information on Product Application.

    1. Basis of design. ANSI/AWWA C200 pertains to the manufacture and testing

    of the steel-pipe cylinder. Coatings that protect against corrosion are referenced in Sec.

    4.12. ANSI/AWWA C604, Installation of Buried Steel Water Pipe, 4 In. (100 mm) and

    Larger, provides feld installation guidelines. Overall design of steel pipelines is described

    in AWWA Manual M11, Steel Water Pipe—A Guide for Design and Installation .

    Design of the wall thickness of steel pipe is primarily afected by internal pressure,

    including working, transient, and test pressures. Other factors that may infuence the

    designed wall thickness are external loads, including trench loading and earth fll;

    special physical loading, such as continuous-beam loading with saddle supports or

    ring girders; vacuum conditions; type of joint used; and practical considerations for

    handling, shipping, lining, and coating or similar operations.

    Te design techniques described in AWWA Manual M11 are used to determine

    required wall thicknesses of steel pipe. Te purchaser may establish and specify a wall

    thickness determined to be satisfactory for all conditions, including internal pressure,

    trench loadings, special physical loadings, and handling. Selection of design stresses and

    defection limits should be made with regard to the properties of the lining and coating

    materials used. Te purchaser may alternatively specify the performance criteria for the

    Copyright © 201 7 American Water Works Association. Al l Rights Reserved.

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  • xi i

    pipeline, in which case the manufacturer, using AWWA standards, provides the wall-

    thickness calculations for purchaser acceptance. Performance criteria provided should

    include internal design pressures, external loading, and any other special conditions. Te

    manufacturer is allowed to select materials and manufacturing processes within the limi-

    tations of this standard to produce pipe to the wall thickness required to additionally

    satisfy the specifed performance criteria. Tis thickness should govern if it is greater than

    the wall thickness specifed by the purchaser. Tickness tolerances for pipe are governed

    by the requirements of this standard.

    2. Application. Tis standard describes the requirements for steel water pipe

    for use in water transmission and distribution under normal circumstances. It is the

    responsibility of the purchaser for each project to determine if any unusual circum-

    stances related to the project require additional provisions that are not included in the

    standard. Such special conditions might afect design, manufacture, quality control,

    corrosion protection, or handling requirements.

    3. Brittle fracture precautions. Sec. 4.5.2 provides test requirements for steel

    to ensure notch toughness. Under certain conditions where a restrained pipeline with

    welded lap joints will be used, notch toughness verifcation may be necessary, see also

    ANSI/AWWA C206, Field Welding of Steel Water Pipe.

    4. Testing of special sections. Sec. 5.2.2 provides for nondestructive testing of

    the weld seams of special sections. Tis testing should be adequate for normal condi-

    tions previously discussed under Item 2, Application (above).

    5. Roundness of pipe. Te roundness of pipe during handling, shipping, joint

    makeup, and backflling should be covered in the purchaser’s documents. When

    requested, the pipe is delivered with internal bracing for shipping and handling pur-

    poses. Although not generally designed for such, this bracing can assist in limiting the

    maximum vertical defection of the pipe during installation and backflling operations.

    Bracing design for this purpose is the responsibility of the constructor.

    II.B. Chlorine and Chloramine Degradation of Elastomers. Te selection of

    materials is critical for water service and distribution piping in locations where there is a

    possibility that elastomers will be in contact with chlorine or chloramines. Documented

    research has shown that elastomers such as gaskets, seals, valve seats, and encapsulations

    may be degraded when exposed to chlorine or chloramines. Te impact of degradation

    is a function of the type of elastomeric material, chemical concentration, contact surface

    area, elastomer cross section, and environmental conditions as well as temperature.

    Careful selection of and specifcations for elastomeric materials and the specifcs of their

    application for each water system component should be considered to provide long-term

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  • xi i i

    usefulness and minimum degradation (swelling, loss of elasticity, or softening) of the

    elastomer specifed.

    II.B.1 Gasket Degradation Study. A pipe gasket, having the hardness of a

    compressed elastomer with a large mass relative to the small exposed surface area, thus

    experiences minimal degradation. Tis was validated in a research paper reported in

    the Journal - AWWA ,* where the pipe gasket degradation in a 110 mg/L chloramine

    solution was found to degrade just the exposed surface.

    III. Use of Tis Standard. It is the responsibility of the user of an AWWA

    standard to determine that the products described in that standard are suitable for use

    in the particular application being considered.

    III.A. Purchaser Options and Alternatives. Te following information should be

    provided by the purchaser.

    1. Standard used—that is, ANSI/AWWA C200, Steel Water Pipe, 6 In. (150 mm)

    and Larger, of latest revision.

    2. Whether compliance with NSF/ANSI 61, Drinking Water Treatment

    Components—Health Efects, is required.

    3. A description or drawings indicating the diameter and total quantity of pipe

    required for each diameter.

    4. Internal design pressure(s) (AWWA Manual M11).

    5. External design pressures and other special physical loadings (AWWA

    Manual M11).

    6. Permeation requirements (Sec. 4.1).

    7. Details of other federal, state or provincial, and local requirements (Sec. 4.2).

    8. Te drawings and calculations to be provided by the manufacturer if

    required (Sec. 4.3 and 4.4).

    9. Protective coating or lining if applicable (Sec. 4.12).

    10. Minimum service temperature for toughness requirements (Sec. 4.5.2).

    11. Specifcation of steel if there is a preference (Sec. 4.5).

    12. Wall thickness (Sec. 4.5.3).

    13. Qualifcation code for automatic welding (Sec. 4.6.2.1).

    14. Qualifcation code for manual welding (Sec. 4.6.3.1).

    15. Length of pipe sections, random or specifed lengths (Sec. 4.9.4).

    16. Type of pipe ends (description or drawings) (Sec. 4.11).

    * R.W. Bonds. 2004. Efect of Chloramines on Ductile-Iron Pipe Gaskets of Various ElastomerCompounds. Jour. AWWA, 96(4):153–160.

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  • xiv

    17. Requirements for reports of tests of rubber-gasket materials (Sec. 4.11.6.3).

    18. All special sections, indicating for each component part the dimensions or

    standard designation (Sec. 4.13).

    19. Instructions regarding inspection at place of manufacture (Sec. 5.1).

    20. Method, acceptance criteria, location, and frequency of nondestructive test-

    ing to be used for special sections (Sec. 5.2.2.1).

    21. Test reports if required (Sec. 5.4).

    22. Requirements for marking, line diagrams, or laying schedules (Sec. 6.1).

    23. Special handling requirements and allowable out-of-roundness (Sec. 6.2).

    24. Afdavit of compliance if required (Sec. 6.3).

    III.B. Modifcation to Standard. Any modifcation of the provisions, defnitions,

    or terminology in this standard must be provided by the purchaser.

    IV. Major Revisions. Major revisions made to the standard in this edition

    include the following:

    1. Te order that a few of the sections appear was rearranged to provide a better

    fow to the standard and the section numbers were revised.

    2. An advisory statement was added in the foreword (Sec. II.B) regarding chlo-

    rine and chloramine degradation of elastomers.

    3. In Section 3, the defnition for coupon was deleted since it does not agree

    with the use in the standard, the defnition for internal design pressure was deleted

    since it is defned in AWWA Manual M11, and the defnition for order to chemistry was

    deleted since this section was deleted from the standard.

    4. Te Charpy Impact Testing section (Sec. 4.5.2) was revised.

    5. Te Tickness of Pipe Wall section (Sec. 4.5.3) was revised.

    6. Sec. 4.7.1, Weld Seams, was revised to include weld seams for special sec-

    tions be CJP (complete joint penetration) welded butt joints.

    7. Te section Orders to Chemistry Only was deleted since this practice is no

    longer used (old Sec. 4.7.3).

    8. Te maximum interval for frequency of production weld tests was changed

    from feet of pipe to lineal feet of weld to refect standard industry practice (Sec. 4.8.6).

    9. Te thickness and tolerance determination in Sec. 4.9.1 was further clarifed.

    10. Sec. 4.14, Fabrication of Special Sections, was revised for clarity.

    V. Comments. If you have any comments or questions about this standard,

    please call AWWA Engineering and Technical Services at 303.794.7711, FAX at

    303.795.7603; write to the department at 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, CO

    80235-3098; or email at [email protected]

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  • 1

    AWWA Standard®

    ANSI/AWWA C200-17(Revision of ANSI/AWWA C200-12)

    Steel Water Pipe, 6 In. (150 mm)

    and Larger

    SECTION 1 : GENERAL

    Sec. 1.1 Scope

    Tis standard describes electrically butt-joint-welded straight-seam or spiral-

    seam pipe and seamless pipe, 6 in. (150 mm)* in nominal diameter and larger, for

    the transmission and distribution of water or for use in other water system facilities.

    Sec. 1.2 Purpose

    Te purpose of this standard is to provide the minimum requirements for

    steel water pipe, 6 in. (150 mm) and larger, including materials and quality of

    work, fabrication, and testing of pipe and special sections.

    Sec. 1.3 Application

    Tis standard can be referenced in the purchaser’s documents for steel water

    pipe, 6 in. (150 mm) and larger. Te stipulations of this standard apply when this

    document has been referenced and then only to steel water pipe, 6 in. (150 mm)

    and larger.

    * Metric conversions given in this standard are direct conversions of US customary units and are not those specifedin the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards.

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  • 2  AWWA C200-1 7

    SECTION 2: REFERENCES

    Tis standard references the following documents. In their latest editions,

    they form a part of this standard to the extent specifed within the standard. In any

    case of confict, the requirements of this standard shall prevail.

    ANSI*/AWWA C203—Coal-Tar Protective Coatings and Linings for Steel

    Water Pipe.

    ANSI/AWWA C205—Cement–Mortar Protective Lining and Coating for

    Steel Water Pipe—4 In. (100 mm) and Larger—Shop Applied.

    ANSI/AWWA C208—Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings.

    ANSI/AWWA C209—Cold-Applied Tape Coatings for Steel Water Pipe,

    Special Sections, Connections, and Fittings.

    ANSI/AWWA C210—Liquid-Epoxy Coatings and Linings for Steel Water

    Pipe and Fittings.

    ANSI/AWWA C213—Fusion-Bonded Epoxy Coatings and Linings for Steel

    Water Pipe and Fittings.

    ANSI/AWWA C214—Tape Coatings for Steel Water Pipe.

    ANSI/AWWA C215—Extruded Polyolefn Coatings for Steel Water Pipe.

    ANSI/AWWA C216—Heat-Shrinkable Cross-Linked Polyolefn Coatings

    for Steel Water Pipe and Fittings.

    ANSI/AWWA C217—Microcrystalline Wax and Petrolatum Tape Coating

    Systems for Steel Water Pipe and Fittings.

    ANSI/AWWA C218—Liquid Coating Systems for Aboveground Steel Water

    Pipe and Fittings.

    ANSI/AWWA C222—Polyurethane Coatings and Linings for Steel Water

    Pipe and Fittings.

    ANSI/AWWA C224—Nylon-11-Based Polyamide Coatings and Linings for

    Steel Water Pipe Fittings.

    ANSI/AWWA C225—Fused Polyolefn Coatings for Steel Water Pipe.

    ANSI/AWWA C229—Fusion-Bonded Polyethylene Coatings for Steel Water

    Pipe and Fittings.

    ANSI/AWWA C602—Cement–Mortar Lining of Water Pipelines in

    Place—4 In. (100 mm) and Larger.

    API Specifcation 5L—Specifcation for Line Pipe.

    * American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New York, NY 10036.

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  • STEEl WATEr PIPE, 6 IN . (1 50 MM) AND lArGEr   3

    ASME*—Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code [BPVC], Section V, Nondestruc-

    tive Examination.

    ASME—Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Rules for

    Construction of Pressure Vessels.

    ASME—Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX, Welding, Brazing, and

    Fusing Qualifcations.

    ASTM† A36/A36M—Standard Specifcation for Carbon Structural Steel.

    ASTM A53/A53M—Standard Specifcation for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-

    Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless.

    ASTM A106/A106M—Standard Specifcation for Seamless Carbon Steel

    Pipe for High-Temperature Service.

    ASTM A135/A135M—Standard Specifcation for Electric-Resistance-

    Welded Steel Pipe.

    ASTM A139/A139M—Standard Specifcation for Electric-Fusion (Arc)-

    Welded Steel Pipe (NPS 4 and Over).

    ASTM A283/A283M—Standard Specifcation for Low and Intermediate

    Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates.

    ASTM A370—Standard Test Methods and Defnitions for Mechanical Test-

    ing of Steel Products.

    ASTM A516/A516M—Standard Specifcation for Pressure Vessel Plates, Car-

    bon Steel, for Moderate- and Lower-Temperature Service.

    ASTM A572/A572M—Standard Specifcation for High-Strength Low-Alloy

    Columbium-Vanadium Structural Steel.

    ASTM A673/A673M—Standard Specifcation for Sampling Procedure for

    Impact Testing of Structural Steel.

    ASTM A941—Standard Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel,

    Related Alloys, and Ferroalloys.

    ASTM A1011/A1011M—Standard Specifcation for Steel, Sheet and Strip,

    Hot-Rolled, Carbon, Structural, High-Strength Low-Alloy and High-Strength

    Low-Alloy With Improved Formability, and Ultra-High Strength.

    ASTM A1018/A1018M—Standard Specifcation for Steel, Sheet and Strip,

    Heavy-Tickness Coils, Hot-Rolled, Carbon, Commercial, Drawing, Structural,

    * ASME International, 3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016.

    † ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.

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  • 4  AWWA C200-1 7

    High-Strength Low-Alloy, High-Strength Low-Alloy With Improved Formability,

    and Ultra-High Strength.

    ASTM D297—Standard Test Methods for Rubber Products—Chemical

    Analysis.

    ASTM D395—Standard Test Methods for Rubber Property—Compression

    Set.

    ASTM D412—Standard Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Termo-

    plastic Elastomers—Tension.

    ASTM D471—Standard Test Method for Rubber Property—Efect of Liquids.

    ASTM D573—Standard Test Method for Rubber—Deterioration in an Air

    Oven.

    ASTM D1149—Standard Test Methods for Rubber Deterioration—Crack-

    ing in an Ozone Controlled Environment.

    ASTM D1566—Standard Terminology Relating to Rubber.

    ASTM D2240—Standard Test Method for Rubber Property—Durometer

    Hardness.

    ASTM E340—Standard Practice for Macroetching Metals and Alloys.

    AWS* A3.0—Standard Welding Terms and Defnitions Including Terms for

    Adhesive Bonding, Brazing, Soldering, Termal Cutting and Termal Spraying.

    AWS B2.1—Specifcation for Welding Procedure and Performance

    Qualifcation.

    AWS D1.1/D1.1M—Structural Welding Code—Steel.

    AWS QC 1—Specifcation for AWS Certifcation of Welding Inspectors.

    AWWA Manual M11—Steel Pipe—A Guide for Design and Installation .

    SECTION 3: DEFINITIONS

    Te following defnitions shall apply in this standard:

    1. Bevel: Te angle formed between the prepared edge of a pipe end and

    a plane perpendicular to the surface of the pipe. Bevels are generally used for butt-

    joint welding of pipe ends.

    2. Check analysis: Te chemical analysis taken from the skelp, plate, or pipe.

    3. CJP: Complete joint penetration; defned in AWS 3.0.

    * American Welding Society, 550 Northwest LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.

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  • STEEl WATEr PIPE, 6 IN . (1 50 MM) AND lArGEr   5

    4. Coil-splice weld: A welded seam used to join two coils the alignment of

    which is perpendicular to the connecting spiral welds. A coil splice is considered a

    spiral weld.

    5. Constructor: Te party that provides the work and materials for place-

    ment or installation.

    6. CWI: Certifed welding inspector qualifed in accordance with AWS

    QC1.

    7. Defect: A discontinuity or discontinuities that by nature or accumu-

    lated efect render a part or product unable to meet the minimum applicable accep-

    tance standards or specifcations. Tis term designates rejectability.

    8. Discontinuity: An interruption of the typical structure of a weldment,

    such as lack of homogeneity in the mechanical or metallurgical or physical charac-

    teristics of material or weldment. A discontinuity is not necessarily a defect.*

    9. Electrically butt-joint-welded pipe: Straight-seam or spiral-seam resistance-

    welded or fusion-welded pipe.

    10. Fillet weld: A weld of approximately triangular cross section the throat

    of which lies in a plane disposed approximately 45 degrees with regard to the sur-

    face of the parts joined. (Te size of the fllet weld is expressed in terms of the

    width, in inches or millimeters, of one of its adjacent fused legs; the shorter leg, if

    unequal.)

    11. Fine-grain practice: Steelmaking practice intended to produce a killed

    steel that is capable of meeting the requirements specifed for fne austenitic grain

    size (see ASTM A941).

    12. Flame cutting: Te process of severing metal by means of a gas fame.

    13. Fusion welding: Te melting together of fller metal and base metal, or

    melting of base metal only, which results in coalescence.

    14. Girth weld: A circumferential welded seam lying in one plane, used to

    join sections into lengths of straight pipe or to join pieces of mitered pipe to form

    fabricated special sections.

    15. Lap joint: A circumferential joint in which one of the members joined

    overlaps the other.

    16. Longitudinal weld: A welded seam parallel to the axis of the pipe.

    17. “Lot” of pipe: All pipe between two subsequent tests.

    * Lundeen, C.D. 1984. “Fundamentals of Weld Discontinuities and Teir Signifcance.” Welding Research Council,Bulletin 295 .

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  • 6  AWWA C200-1 7

    18. MT: Magnetic particle testing.

    19. Manufacturer: Te party that manufactures, fabricates, or produces

    materials or products.

    20. Minimum service temperature: Te lowest expected steel temperature

    in service.

    21. Miter: Te angle included between the cut of a pipe end and a line

    drawn perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the pipe. Miters are used in fab-

    ricating elbows and to facilitate pipe laying at changes in horizontal or vertical

    alignment.

    22. NDT: Nondestructive testing.

    23. Nominal diameter or size: Te commercial designation or dimension

    by which pipe is designated for simplicity.

    24. PT: Liquid penetrant testing.

    25. Plain-end pipe: Pipe not threaded, belled, or otherwise given a special

    end confguration.

    26. Purchaser: Te person, company, or organization that purchases any

    materials or work to be performed.

    27. RT: Radiographic testing.

    28. Random lengths: Pipe lengths as produced in a pipe mill to which no

    special treatment is given to make the lengths uniform.

    29. Reinforcement of weld: Weld metal on the face of a weld in excess of

    the metal necessary for the specifed weld size.

    30. Resistance-welded pipe: Pipe having a longitudinal or spiral butt joint

    that is produced by the heat obtained from resistance to the fow of electric current

    across the joint and the simultaneous application of pressure.

    31. Root: Tat portion of a joint to be welded where the members approach

    closest to each other. In cross section, the root of a joint may be a point, a line, or

    an area.

    32. Seamless pipe: Pipe without welds, made from solid ingots, blooms,

    billets, or round bars that have been hot-pierced and then brought to the desired

    size by hot rolling, hot drawing, or a combination of both.

    33. Special section: Any piece of pipe other than a normal straight section.

    Tis includes but is not limited to elbows, pipes with outlets, reducers, adapter sec-

    tions with special ends, and other fttings or nonstandard sections.

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  • STEEl WATEr PIPE, 6 IN . (1 50 MM) AND lArGEr   7

    34. Specifed lengths: Sections of fnished pipe the length dimensions of

    which do not vary from a fxed fgure specifed by the purchaser by more than the

    tolerance set forth in this standard.

    35. Spiral weld: A welded seam helical to the axis of the pipe.

    36. Spiral-seam welded pipe: Pipe in which the line of the seam forms a

    helix on the barrel of the pipe.

    37. Straight-seam welded pipe: Pipe in which the line of the seam is parallel

    to the axis of the pipe.

    38. Tickness (t): Calculated steel thickness of the pipe wall that is struc-

    turally adequate per the design considerations in AWWA Manual M11 or as speci-

    fed by the purchaser.

    39. UT: Ultrasonic testing.

    40. VT: Visual testing or inspection.

    41. WPS: Welding procedure specifcation.

    42. Welded butt joints: A weld the throat of which lies in a plane disposed

    approximately 90 degrees with regard to the surface of at least one of the parts

    joined. Te size of the weld shall be expressed in terms of its net throat dimensions,

    in inches (millimeters), excluding weld metal above plate surface. A double-welded

    butt joint is one in which the fller metal is added to both sides. A single-welded

    butt joint is one in which the fller metal is added to one side only.

    SECTION 4: REQUIREMENTS

    Sec. 4.1 Permeation

    Te selection of materials is critical for water service and distribution piping

    in locations where there is likelihood the pipe will be exposed to signifcant con-

    centrations of pollutants composed of low-molecular-weight petroleum products

    or organic solvents or their vapors. Documented research has shown that pipe

    materials (such as polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride) and elastomers, such as

    those used in jointing gaskets and packing glands, are subject to permeation by

    low-molecular-weight organic solvents or petroleum products. If a water pipe must

    pass through such a contaminated area or an area subject to contamination, con-

    sult with the manufacturer regarding permeation of pipe walls, jointing materials,

    and so forth before selecting materials for use in that area.

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  • 8  AWWA C200-1 7

    Sec. 4.2 Materials

    Materials shall comply with the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act

    and other federal regulations for water systems as applicable.

    Sec. 4.3 Drawings

    When pipe detail drawings are required to illustrate compliance with the pur-

    chaser’s requirements, they shall be subject to acceptance by the purchaser.

    Sec. 4.4 Calculations

    If the manufacturer is required to determine the wall thickness, the manu-

    facturer’s calculations of wall thickness shall be submitted to and accepted by the

    purchaser before the start of manufacturing.

    Sec. 4.5 Selection of Materials

    4.5.1 General. If the purchaser’s documents do not specify the type of

    pipe or steel, the manufacturer shall select the type of pipe and steel from this stan-

    dard to meet the design requirements of the purchaser’s documents. Pipe shall be

    fabricated from plate, sheet, or coil from Table 1 . Te steel shall be fully killed and

    shall conform to fne-grain practice.

    4.5.2 Charpy impact testing. Charpy impact testing shall be utilized to eval-

    uate steel used to fabricate pipe that will be restrained in its application. Restrained

    pipe with a minimum service temperature below 30°F (–1°C) should be evaluated

    by other methods, such as ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) Section

    VIII, Division 1, UG-20(f). Steel for pipe in excess of 2.0-in. (50-mm) thick shall be

    Charpy tested. Steel for pipe 0.500 in. (13 mm) or thinner does not require Charpy

    testing. Other pipe thicknesses shall be evaluated using Figure 1. Plot the minimum

    service temperature and the steel thickness. When a minimum service temperature is

    not provided by the purchaser, 32°F (–0°C) shall be used for the evaluation. Materi-

    als that comply with Sec. 4.5.1 are Group 1. Group 1 materials that plot below the

    Group 1 line require Charpy testing. All other materials are Group 2. Group 2 mate-

    rials that plot below the Group 2 line require Charpy testing. Materials that plot on

    or above the applicable line do not require Charpy testing.

    When Charpy testing is required, Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens shall

    be prepared and test results interpreted in accordance with ASTM A370. CVN

    shall be heat-lot tested; specimens shall be taken in the transverse direction at

    30°F (–1°C) with a minimum average full size criteria of 25 ft·lbf (33.9 N·m).Heat-lot testing for plate is defned in ASTM A673. Heat-lot testing for coils is

    defned as two coils per heat, with test coupons being taken from the outer wrap

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  • STEEl WATEr PIPE, 6 IN . (1 50 MM) AND lArGEr   9

    Table 1 Steel plate, sheet, or coils for fabricated pipe*†

    Specifcation GradeMinimum Yield Point

    ksi (MPa)

    ASTM A36/A36M Steel Plate 36 (248)

    ASTM A139/A139M ‡ B 35 (240)

    C 42 (290)

    D 46 (317)

    E 52 (359)

    ASTM A283/A283M C 30 (207)

    D 33 (228)

    ASTM A516/A516M 55 30 (205)

    60 32 (220)

    65 35 (240)

    70 38 (260)

    ASTM A572/A572M 42 42 (290)

    50 50 (345)

    ASTM A1011/A1011M Structural Steel (SS)

    30 30 (207)

    33 33 (228)

    36 36 (248)

    40 40 (276)

    45 45 (310)

    50 50 (345)

    55 55 (380)

    High-Strength–Low-Alloy Steel (HSLAS)

    45 45 (310)

    50 50 (345)

    55 55 (380)

    High-Strength–Low-Alloy Steel With Improved Formability (HSLAS-F)

    50 50 (345)

    ASTM A1018/A1018M Structural Steel (SS)

    30 30 (207)

    33 33 (228)

    36 36 (248)

    40 40 (276)

    45 45 (310)

    High-Strength–Low-Alloy Steel (HSLAS)

    45 45 (310)

    50 50 (345)

    55 55 (380)

    High-Strength–Low-Alloy Steel With Improved Formability (HSLAS-F)

    50 50 (345)

    *For the ASTM grades listed in this table, all type, limit, and class designations are acceptable.†All listed steel shall be fully killed and conform to fne-grain practice.‡Steel shall meet chemical and physical properties as required in Sections 6, 7, and 9 of ASTM A139/A139M.

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  • 1 0  AWWA C200-1 7

    only. When the evaluation of the base metal as shown above has determined that

    Charpy testing is required, the applicable welding procedures shall be qualifed for

    notch toughness to meet the same requirements as the base metal.

    4.5.3 Tickness of pipe wall. Plate, sheet, and coil for the manufacture

    of pipe (Table 1) or ancillary pipe (Sec. 4.10) shall be furnished to the thickness

    as determined by considering all pertinent performance criteria. Pipe wall thick-

    ness shall be indicated to the nearest 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm). Sec. 4.9.1 provides

    for standard manufacturing tolerances. For additional tolerance requirements, the

    purchaser shall indicate numerical tolerances limitations to the nearest 0.001 in.

    (0.0254 mm). For purchaser-specifed materials described as minimum wall thick-

    ness without further clarifcation of tolerance by the purchaser, the manufacturing

    tolerances in Sec. 4.9.1 shall apply.

    Charpy Impact Test Exemption Curves

    Wall Thickness (in. )

    Minim

    um Service Temperature (°F)

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    1 00

    3/41 /2 21 3/41 1 /21 1 /41

    Group 2

    Group 1

    Figure 1 Charpy test evaluation

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  • STEEl WATEr PIPE, 6 IN . (1 50 MM) AND lArGEr   1 1

    Sec. 4.6 Requirements for Welding Qualifcation

    4.6.1 End welding. End welding of longitudinal seams of fusion-welded

    pipe, if not done by automatic submerged-arc or automatic shielded-arc welding,

    shall be done by an operator qualifed in accordance with Sec. 4.6.3.1.

    4.6.2 Automatic welding. Spiral-weld, coil-splice-weld, longitudinal-

    weld, and girth-weld seams of straight pipe sections and special sections, when

    practicable, shall be welded with an automatic welding machine. On request, sam-

    ple welds shall be submitted to the purchaser for testing.

    4.6.2.1 Qualifcation. Automatic welding operators and procedures

    shall be qualifed under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,

    under AWS B2.1 or AWS D1.1/D.1.1M, or under any other code mutually agreed

    on between the purchaser and manufacturer. Materials listed in Table 1 shall be

    accepted in P-Number 1, Groups 1, 2, or 3 material grouping of ASME BPVC,

    Section IX.

    4.6.3 Manual welding. Manual welding of girth seams and special

    sections shall be permitted when it is impractical to use an automatic welding

    machine. On straight pipe sections, manual welding shall be permitted only for

    tack welding of coils and plates during the continuous pipe-making process, in

    making a weld on the inside of the pipe, in rewelding and repairing structural

    discontinuities in the plate and automatic machine welds, and as otherwise permit-

    ted in this standard (Sec. 4.7). On request, sample welds shall be submitted to the

    purchaser for testing.

    4.6.3.1 Qualifcation. Manual-welding operators and procedures shall

    be qualifed under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,

    under AWS B2.1 or AWS D1.1/D.1.1M, or under any other code acceptable to the

    purchaser and the manufacturer. Materials listed in Table 1 shall be accepted as

    P-Number 1, Groups 1, 2, or 3 material grouping of ASME BPVC, Section IX.

    Sec. 4.7 Fabrication of Pipe

    Te longitudinal edges of the sheet or plate shall be shaped by pressing or by

    rolling to the true pipe radius. Hammering the edges during the forming process

    shall not be permitted. Te plate or sheet shall then be properly formed and may be

    tacked prior to welding. Te weld shall be of reasonably uniform width and height

    for the entire length of the pipe, and it shall be made by automatic means, except

    that, by agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer, manual welding

    by qualifed procedure and welders shall be acceptable.

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  • 1 2  AWWA C200-1 7

    4.7.1 Weld seams. Spiral-weld, coil-splice-weld, longitudinal-weld, and

    girth-weld seams used in the manufacture of the pipe and special sections shall be

    CJP-welded butt joints. Allowable radial ofset (misalignment) is determined by

    Figure 2 or mathematically determined by Table 2.

    Ofset shall be measured with commercially available equipment, such as a

    Bridge Cam gauge (Figure 3). Two measurements shall be taken. Te two measure-

    ments shall be taken on the same surface, along the longitudinal axis of the pipe

    (see Figure 3), one on each side of the weld. For longitudinal seams, the gauge shall

    be perpendicular to the weld. Both measurements shall be taken either across the

    inside weld or across the outside weld of the pipe. Te ofset value is the absolute

    Longitudinal Weld

    No-Repair Limit (see Note 4)

    Spiral and Girth Welds

    No-Repair

    Lim its for No Repair Lim i ts for Repair Method 1

    Offset Value, in

    .

    Wall Thickness t, in.

    1/32

    1/1 6

    3/32

    1/8

    1/8

    5/32

    3/1 6

    3/1 6

    7/32

    1/4

    1/4

    9/32

    5/1 6

    15/1 611/1 69/1 65/1 6

    11/32

    3/8

    7/8

    3/8

    5/83/8

    13/32

    13/1 6

    7/1 6

    7/1 6

    15/32

    1/2

    1/2

    No-Repair Area

    00 11/1 6 11/1 6 11/413/1 611/83/4

    Repair Method 1 Area

    Longitudinal WeldRepair Method 1 Limit (see Note 5)

    Spiral and Girth Welds

    Repair Method 1

    Repair Method 2 Area

    NOTE : See Table 2.

    Notes

    1. For thicknesses greater than shown, the “No Repair Line” does not exceed 3/16 in. measured ofset.

    2. For thicknesses greater than shown, the “Repair Method 1 Line” does not exceed 3 in. measured ofset.

    3. Lines in the fgure are considered part of the area below them.

    4. Longitudinal weld seams are subject to the limitation curves, but with a maximum allowable ofset of 1 in.

    before repair is necessary.

    5. Longitudinal weld seams are subject to the limitation curves, but with a maximum allowable ofset of 1 in.

    before repair method 2 is necessary.

    Figure 2 Repair method by ofset value and wall thickness

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  • STEEl WATEr PIPE, 6 IN . (1 50 MM) AND lArGEr   1 3

    value of measurement one (O1) minus measurement two (O2), divided by two

    (|[O1 – O2] /2 | ).

    Ofsets determined to require repair by Figure 2 shall be repaired by the

    method indicated. In all cases, wall thickness through the fnished weld seam shall

    be maintained. Te manufacturer shall take precautions to minimize recurring

    ofsets, imperfections, damage, and defects.

    4.7.1.1 Repair method 1 .

    a. Provide a minimum 3:1 taper over the width of the fnished inside

    and outside welds, or if necessary, add additional weld metal beyond what

    Table 2 Repair requirements based on ofset value and wall thickness

    Measured Ofset Repair Required Repair Method

    Spiral and Girth Welds

    ≤ Minimum[3/16 in., t/4] NO None

    Minimum[3/16 in., t/4] < Ofset ≤ Minimum[3 in., t/3] YES 1

    > Minimum[3 in., t/3] YES 2

    Longitudinal Weld

    ≤ Minimum[1 in., t/4] NO None

    Minimum[1 in., t/4] < Ofset ≤ Minimum[1 in., t/3] YES 1

    > Minimum[1 in., t/3] YES 2

    Figure 3 Bridge Cam gauge

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  • 1 4  AWWA C200-1 7

    would otherwise be the edge of the welds to achieve a continuous 3:1 transi-

    tion across the ofset.

    b. Ofsets may also be repaired by removing the weld metal, realigning

    the material, and welding in accordance with welding requirements of this

    standard.

    c. Repairs shall be inspected per Sec. 4.7.2, followed by testing in ac-

    cordance with Sec. 5.2.1 or Sec. 5.2.2.

    4.7.1.2 Repair method 2.

    a. Remove the weld metal, realign the material, and weld in accordance

    with welding requirements of this standard.

    b. Optionally, the method described in paragraph “a” under Repair

    method 1 may be used if a representative weld test specimen with the maxi-

    mum ofset that has been repaired by such method complies with the re-

    quirements of Sec. 4.8.

    c. Repairs shall be inspected per Sec. 4.7.2, followed by testing in ac-

    cordance with Sec. 5.2.1 or Sec. 5.2.2.

    4.7.1.3 Defects. Te fnished pipe shall be free from unacceptable dis-

    continuities. Discontinuities in seamless pipe or in the parent metal of welded pipe

    shall be considered defects when the depth of the discontinuity is greater than

    12.5 percent of the wall thickness. Defects in fnished pipe as defned in AWS

    D1.1/D.1.1M, Table 6.1, for statically loaded nontubular connections, including

    cracks, sweats, and leaks, shall be unacceptable and shall be repaired in accordance

    with Sec. 4.7.3 and Sec. 4.7.1.

    Inspection shall be 100 percent visual inspection (VT) by trained personnel

    in accordance with AWS D1.1/D1.1M, Table 6.1, for statically loaded nontubular

    connections. Additional inspection shall be specifed by the purchaser.

    4.7.2 Repair of defects. Te repair of defects or cutouts in the pipe shall be

    permitted. Repairs shall conform to the following requirements:

    1. Cracks or other defects in the weld metal shall be removed, the cav-

    ity cleaned, and weld metal deposited. For surface defects, such as undercut or

    improper weld profle, the surface shall be cleaned and weld metal deposited.

    2. Cutouts for testing or verifcation shall be ftted with material of equiva-

    lent or greater thickness and grade as the parent material and welded in place using

    a CJP butt joint.

    3. Te repair weld shall be made by automatic welding or manual welding

    by a welder qualifed in accordance with this standard.

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  • STEEl WATEr PIPE, 6 IN . (1 50 MM) AND lArGEr   1 5

    4. Repairs shall be inspected, followed by testing in accordance with

    Sec. 5.2.1 or Sec. 5.2.2.

    Sec. 4.8 Production Weld Tests

    4.8.1 Weld-test specimens. Te weld-test specimens shall be taken perpen-

    dicularly across the weld or from test plates made of material used in the manu-

    facture of the straight pipe. Test plates shall be welded using the same procedure,

    operator, and equipment and in sequence with the welding of the represented joints

    in the pipe. Te test plates shall have the weld approximately in the middle of the

    specimen. Te specimens shall be straightened and tested at room temperature.

    4.8.2 Reduced-section tension specimens. Two reduced-section tension speci-

    mens made in accordance with Figure 4 shall test at a tensile strength not less than

    100 percent of the minimum specifed tensile strength of the base material used.

    4.8.3 Bend-test specimens. Two transverse guided-bend test specimens shall

    be prepared in accordance with Figure 5 or ASTM A370 and shall withstand a

    180-degree bend in a jig in accordance with Figures 6, 7, or 8. When performing

    the guided-bend tests, one specimen shall be bent so that the specimen face (root)

    representing the inside of the pipe is on the inside of the test bend, and the other

    specimen shall be bent so that the specimen face representing the inside of the pipe

    is on the outside of the test bend. Material 3 in. (9.5 mm) or greater in thickness

    may, in lieu of transverse-bend tests, be tested with side bends prepared in accor-

    dance with ASTM A370. Four side-bend tests shall be performed—two for each

    transverse-bend test. A bend-test specimen shall be considered as having passed if no

    crack or other open discontinuity exceeding 1 in. (3.2 mm) measured in any direc-

    tion is present in the weld metal or at the interface of the weld and base material after

    1/8 in.

    1/8 in.

    1/4 in.

    1/4 in.

    1 1/2 in.

    2 in

    .

    t

    2-in. Radius

    Edge of Weld

    This section shal l be machined

    (preferably by mil l ing).

    Approx. 1 0 in.

    NOTES :1 . Weld reinforcement or flash may or may not be removed flush with base metal.

    2. To convert inches (in. ) to mi l l imeters (mm), multiply by 25.4.

    Figure 4 Reduced-section tension test specimen

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  • 1 6  AWWA C200-1 7

    NOTES :1 . Weld reinforcement or flash need not be removed flush with base metal.

    2. To convert inches (in. ) to mi l l imeters (mm), multiply by 25.4.

    1/8-in. Max.

    1 1/2 in.

    Wall

    Thickness (t)

    Weld

    Specimen edges may be plasma cut

    and also may be machined.

    6-in. Min.

    Figure 5 Guided-bend test specimen

    B

    RA

    RB

    As Required

    2 in.

    Tapped Hole to Suit

    Testing Machine

    Hardened Rollers 1 1/2 in. Diameter May Be

    Substituted for J ig Shoulders

    As Required

    Plunger Member

    Shoulders Hardened

    and Greased

    9 in.

    3-i

    n. M

    in.

    2-i

    n. M

    in.

    Yoke

    A

    3/4

    3 /4 in

    .

    11 /

    8 in

    .

    1/4 in.

    3/4

    37/8 in.

    3 /4 in

    . 3/4 in.

    Rad.

    1/2 in.

    1 1/8 in.

    1/8 in.

    Chamfer6

    3 /4 in

    .

    71/2 in.

    3/4 in.

    ƒ ƒ

    ƒ

    ƒ

    ƒ

    NOTES :

    Reprinted from ASME 2010 BPVC, Section IX, by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

    All rights reserved.

    1 . See Table 3 for j ig dimensions.

    2. The symbol indicates a l ight finish cut; t is the specified wall thickness of pipe.

    3. See Figures 7 and 8 for alternative guided-bend test fixtures.

    4. To convert inches (in. ) to mil l imeters (mm), multiply by 25.4.

    Figure 6 Jig for guided-bend test

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  • STEEl WATEr PIPE, 6 IN . (1 50 MM) AND lArGEr   1 7

    the bending. For electric-resistance welded straight-seam pipe 16 in. (400 mm) and

    smaller in diameter, two face bends or a set of 0-degree and 90-degree fattening tests

    (ASTM A135/A135M, Section 9) may be performed in lieu of the above bend tests.

    4.8.4 Etching tests. Two etch tests for CJP butt joint production welds

    shall be prepared in accordance with ASTM E340. Verifcation of CJP shall be

    done by means of a macroetch of the joint weld cross section.

    Table 3 Guided-bend test jig dimensions*

    Specifed Minimum Yield Strength—psi

    Up to 42,000 42,000 45,000 50,000–55,000

    Radius of male member, RA 2t 3t 31 t 4t

    Radius of female member, RB 3t + 1 /16 in. 4t + 1 /16 in. 41 t + 1 /16 in. 5t + 1 /16 in.

    Width of male member, A 4t 6t 7t 8t

    Width of groove in female member, B 6t + 1 in. 8t + 1 in. 9t + 1 in. 10t + 1 in.

    * For intermediate grades of pipe, the above dimensions of the bending jig shall conform to those shown for the next lower grade or shall be proportional thereto.

    Notes :1 . t ≤ specifed wall thickness of the pipe.2. To convert inches (in.) to millimeters (mm), multiply by 25.4.3. To convert pounds per square inch (psi) to kilopascals (kPa), multiply by 6.895.

    Reprinted from ASME 2010 BPVC, Section IX, by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

    All rights reserved.

    NOTES : 1 . Dimensions not shown are the option of the designer. The essential consideration is to have adequate rigidity

    so that the j ig parts wil l not spring.

    2. The specimen shall be firmly clamped on one end so that there can be no sl iding of the specimen during the

    bending operation.

    3. Test specimens shal l be removed from the j ig when the outer rol l has been removed 1 80° from the

    starting point.

    4. To convert inches (in. ) to mi l l imeters (mm), multiply by 25.4.

    t + 1/1 6 in. Max.

    RA = 1/2 A

    A

    Roller

    t

    Figure 7 Alternative guided-bend wraparound jig

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  • 1 8  AWWA C200-1 7

    4.8.5 Defective test specimens. If any test specimen shows defective

    machining or develops faws not associated with the welding, it may be discarded

    and another specimen substituted.

    4.8.6 Frequency of production weld tests. Weld tests are required if there is

    a change in any of the following: welding procedure specifcation, specifed diam-

    eter, specifed thickness or grade, operator procedure qualifcation record, or weld-

    ing equipment. Weld tests shall be conducted at a maximum interval of once per

    7,500 lin ft (2,286 m) of weld.

    4.8.7 Retests. If a tested specimen fails to meet the requirements, retests

    of two additional specimens from the same lot of pipe shall be made, each of which

    shall meet the requirements specifed. If such specimens conform to the specifed

    requirements, all lengths from the lot shall be accepted, except the length initially

    selected for testing. If any of the retests fail to conform to the requirements, the

    entire lot shall be rejected, or test specimens may be taken from each untested pipe

    length at the manufacturer’s option, and each specimen shall meet the require-

    ments specifed or that pipe shall be rejected.

    Reprinted from ASME 2010 BPVC, Section IX, by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

    All rights reserved.

    NOTES :1 . Either hardened and greased shoulders or hardened rollers free to rotate shal l be used.

    2. The shoulders or rol lers shal l have a minimum bearing surface of 2 in. (51 mm) for placement of the specimen.

    The rollers shal l be high enough above the bottom of the j ig so that the specimens wil l clear the rol lers when the ram

    is in the low position.

    3. The ram shall be fi tted with an appropriate base and provision made for attachment to the testing machine,

    and shall be designed to minimize deflection and misalignment. The ram to be used with the rol ler j ig shall be of

    identical dimensions to the ram shown in Figure 6.

    4. I f desired, either the rol lers or the rol ler supports may be made adjustable in the horizontal direction so that

    specimens of t thickness may be tested on the same j ig.

    5. The roller supports shal l be fitted with an appropriate base designed to safeguard against deflection or

    misal ignment and equipped with means for maintaining the rol lers centered, midpoint, and al igned with respect

    to the ram.

    6. The weld and heat-affected zone in the case of a transverse-weld bend specimen shal l be completely within

    the bend portion of the specimen after testing.

    7. To convert inches (in. ) to mil l imeters (mm), multiply by 25.4.

    R min. = 3/4 in.

    RA

    R min.

    B

    A 3

    12

    4

    5

    Figure 8 Alternative guided-bend roller jig

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  • STEEl WATEr PIPE, 6 IN . (1 50 MM) AND lArGEr   1 9

    Te manufacturer may also elect to retest any length that has failed to pass

    the test by cropping back and cutting two additional specimens from the same

    end. If the requirements of the original test are met by both of these additional

    tests, that length shall be acceptable. Te maximum size for a lot will be the pipe

    produced requiring no more than one set of weld tests as defned in Sec. 4.8.6.

    4.8.8 Weld repair. Weld repair may be made in accordance with Sec. 4.7.3.

    Sec. 4.9 Permissible Variations in Dimensions

    4.9.1 Tickness. Tickness under-tolerance for plate, sheet, or coil (Table

    1) or for ancillary pipe (Sec 4.10) shall be the lesser of the applicable ASTM stan-

    dard nominal thickness under-tolerance, 0.010 in. (0.254 mm), or 6 percent of the

    thickness defned in Sec. 4.5.3.

    4.9.2 Circumference. Te outside circumference of the pipe shall not vary

    more than ±1.0 percent but not to exceed 3 in. (19 mm) from the nominal outside

    circumference based on the diameter specifed, except that the circumference at

    ends shall be sized, if necessary, to meet the requirements of Sec. 4.11.

    4.9.3 Straightness. Te maximum deviation from a straight line, over the

    entire pipe length, shall be 0.2 percent of the pipe length.

    4.9.4 Lengths. Pipe lengths shall be supplied in accordance with the fol-

    lowing sections:

    4.9.4.1 Specifed. Specifed lengths shall be provided with a tolerance of

    ±2 in. (±51 mm). Tis tolerance does not apply to the shorter lengths from which

    test coupons have been cut.

    4.9.4.2 Random. Random lengths shall be provided in lengths averaging

    29 ft (8.84 m) or more, with a minimum length of 20 ft (6.10 m), but not more

    than 5 percent of the random lengths shall be less than 25 ft (7.62 m).

    4.9.4.3 Circumferential welds. Pipe lengths containing girth welds shall

    be permitted. Lap-welded joints for joining lengths of pipe in the shop may be used

    by agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser subject to the toler-

    ances set forth in Sec. 4.11.

    Sec. 4.10 Ancillary Pipe

    Pipe less than 36 in. (900 mm) in outside diameter manufactured to meet the

    requirements of any of the following specifcations and that meets the requirements

    of Sec. 4.5.2 is acceptable for use under this standard.

    1. For ASTM A53/A53M, all grades, Type E or S.

    2. For ASTM A106/A106M, all grades.

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  • 20  AWWA C200-1 7

    3. For API 5L, API Monogrammed, PSL-1 and PSL-2, X42, X46, X52,

    X56, or X60.

    4. ASTM A135/A135M, all grades, that also meet Sec. 5.1.1 and Sec. 5.2

    of this standard, and that are made from steel that is fully killed and conforms to

    fne-grain practice.

    Sec. 4.11 Preparation of Ends

    Pipe ends shall be smooth and free of notches, weld spatter, and burrs.

    4.11.1 Ends for mechanically coupled feld joints. Ends for mechanically

    coupled feld joints shall be plain, grooved, or banded. Te outside surfaces of ends

    of plain-end pipe shall be free from surface discontinuities and shall have the lon-

    gitudinal or spiral welds ground fush with the plate surface for a sufcient distance

    from the ends to permit the coupling gaskets to form a watertight seal against the

    pipe wall. Grooved or banded ends shall be prepared to ft the type of mechanical

    coupling to be used.

    4.11.2 Ends for lap joints for feld welding. Te bell ends shall be formed

    by expanding with segmental dies on a hydraulic expander, pressing on a plug die,

    or by rolling. After forming, the minimum radius of the curvature of the bell end

    at any point shall not be less than 15 times the nominal thickness of the pipe wall.

    Bell ends formed by rolling shall be completed in a manner to avoid impairment

    of the mechanical properties of the steel shell. Joints shall permit a lap, when the

    joint is assembled, of at least 1 in. (25 mm). Te longitudinal or spiral welds on

    the inside of the bell end and the outside of the spigot end on each section of pipe

    shall be ground fush with the plate surface. Te inside edge of the bell and the

    outside edge of the spigot shall be scarfed or lightly ground to remove sharp edges

    and burrs.

    4.11.3 Plain-end pipe. Pipe shall be provided with a plain right-angle cut.

    Burrs at the ends of the pipe shall be removed.

    4.11.4 Beveled ends for feld butt joint welding. For feld butt welding of

    circumferential joints, the ends shall be beveled to an angle of 30 degrees, mea-

    sured from a line drawn at right angles to the axis of the pipe, with a tolerance

    of +5 degrees, –0 degrees, and with a width of root face (or fat at the end of the

    pipe) of 1 /16 in. ±1 /16 in. (1 .6 mm ±1.6 mm). Other bevel angles may be used if prior

    approval between purchaser and constructor is obtained. Bevel angles shall be in

    accordance with approved WPS.

    4.11.5 Ends ftted with butt straps for feld welding. Butt strap thickness

    shall not be less than the adjoining pipe wall thickness and when assembled shall

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  • STEEl WATEr PIPE, 6 IN . (1 50 MM) AND lArGEr   21

    lap over the pipe ends a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm). Butt straps may be made in

    halves or as complete cylinders. Tey may be welded to the pipe by the manufac-

    turer or shipped separately. Welds at faying surfaces of the pipe ends and inside the

    butt strap shall be ground fush with the plate surfaces for a distance sufcient to

    facilitate installing the butt strap.

    4.11.6 Bell-and-spigot ends with rubber gasket. Bell-and-spigot ends shall

    be designed so that when the joint is assembled, it will be self-centering and the

    gasket will be restrained or confned to an annular space so that the gasket cannot

    be displaced by movement of the pipe or hydrostatic pressure. When the joint is

    completed, compression of the gasket shall not be dependent on water pressure in

    the pipe or external pressure and shall maintain a watertight seal when subjected

    to the specifed conditions.

    Note: AWWA Manual M11 shows several types of bell-and-spigot joints

    with rubber gaskets. Other types are available from various pipe manufacturers.

    4.11.6.1 Fabrication. Bell-and-spigot ends may be formed integrally with

    the steel cylinder or may be fabricated from separate plates, sheets, or special sec-

    tions for attachment to pipe ends. Bell ends formed integrally with the cylinder

    shall be shaped either by pressing over a machined swage or die or by sizing with

    an internal expander. Spigot ends may be formed integrally with the steel cylinder

    by rolling with suitable equipment or by welding a preformed shape or fat bars to

    the spigot end of the pipe to form a groove of the proper confguration. Welds on

    the inside of the bell and outside of the spigot shall be ground fush with the plate

    surface for a distance not less than the depth of insertion.

    4.11.6.2 Rubber gaskets. Terms relating to rubber or elastomer shall be

    defned in accordance with ASTM D1566, Standard Terminology Relating to

    Rubber. Te manufacturer shall supply a continuous rubber gasket with smooth

    surfaces for each bell-and-spigot joint. All gasket material shall be extruded or

    molded in such a manner that any cross section will be dense, homogeneous, and

    free of porosity, blisters, pitting, or other imperfections that may interfere with

    the proper functioning of the sealing system. Te size and shape of the gasket

    cross section shall be designed for continuous deformed contact with both the bell

    and the spigot and shall be of sufcient volume to fll the recess provided for the

    gasket when the pipe joint is assembled. Gaskets shall be stored in a location that

    will minimize gasket exposure to moisture, high temperature, or extremely low

    temperatures. Gaskets shall be protected from the direct rays of the sun. When

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  • 22  AWWA C200-1 7

    installed, gaskets shall not show any surface crazing, cracking, or other evidence

    of deterioration.

    4.11.6.3 Rubber gasket requirements. Te gasket rubber compound shall

    contain not less than 50 percent by volume of frst-grade synthetic rubber or syn-

    thetic-rubber blends. Te remainder of the compound shall consist of pulverized

    fllers free from rubber substitutes, reclaimed rubber, and deleterious substances.

    When permeation conditions as described in Sec. 4.1 are encountered, consult

    the manufacturer for possible alternative gasket materials and properties. Standard

    gaskets shall meet the following physical requirements when tested in accordance

    with the indicated ASTM standards:

    1. Tensile strength: 2,300 psi (15.9 MPa) minimum (ASTM D412).

    2. Elongation at rupture: 350 percent minimum (ASTM D412).

    3. Specifc gravity: Consistent within ±0.05 and in the range of 0.95–1.45

    (ASTM D297).

    4. Compression set: 20 percent maximum. Te compression set determina-

    tion shall be made in accordance with ASTM D395, except that the disc shall be

    a 1-in. (12.7-mm) thick section of the rubber gasket.

    5. Tensile strength and elongation after accelerated aging: After being sub-

    jected to an accelerated aging test for 96 hours in air at 158°F (70°C) in accordance

    with ASTM D573, reduction in tensile strength shall not exceed 15 percent of the

    initial value, and reduction of elongation shall not exceed 20 percent of the initial

    value.

    6. Shore durometer: Te specifed shore-durometer hardness shall be in the

    range of 50–65 and shall be determined by using a type A durometer in accordance

    with ASTM D2240, with the exception of Section 4 thereof. Te determination shall

    be taken directly on the gasket and shall not vary by more than ±5 points from the

    specifed durometer.

    7. Ozone resistance: Resistance shall be determined in accordance with

    ASTM D1149. Test specimens shall be constructed from a fnished gasket cross

    section and shall be of type A. Conduct the test for 72 hours in 50 pphm at 105°F

    (40°C) stressed at 20 percent extension. Gasket shall show no cracking.

    8. Water immersion: Determine the change in volume in accordance with

    ASTM D471. Maximum allowable change in volume shall be 5 percent. Te tem-

    perature shall be 158 ±4°F (70 ±2°C), and the immersion period shall be 48 hours.

    Immediately after removal from water, the specimens shall be blotted, weighed,

    and the volume increase calculated in accordance with ASTM D471.

    Copyright © 201 7 American Water Works Association. Al l Rights Reserved.

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  • STEEl WATEr PIPE, 6 IN . (1 50 MM) AND lArGEr   23

    4.11.6.4 Testing and certifcation. Rubber gaskets shall be tested to

    ensure that the material is fully cured and homogeneous, and that the gasket cross

    section contains no voids or physical defects that will impair its ability to maintain

    compressive strength and provide the necessary volume, as designed. If a splice is

    used in the manufacture of the gasket, the part of each gasket that includes a splice

    shall be subjected to 100 percent elongation. While stretched, the full splice shall

    be inspected. Splices shall be subjected to a bend test. Te bend test for circular

    gaskets is defned as wrapping the portion of the unstretched gasket containing the

    splice a minimum of 180 degrees around a rod of a diameter equal to, or less than,

    the cross-section diameter of the gasket. Any visible separation of the splices during

    either the elongation test or the bend test shall result in the rejection of the gasket.

    4.11.6.5 Gasket dimensions and tolerances. Gasket diameter and volume

    shall conform to the dimensions specifed by the pipe manufacturer. Gasket diam-

    eter tolerance shall be ±1.5 percent but not less than ±1 /64 in. (0.40 mm) on all dia-

    metrical dimensions. For molded gaskets or gasket material, the permissible fash

    shall be maximum of +0.032 in. (0.80 mm). Maximum mold mismatch shall not

    exceed 0.010 in. (0.25 mm).

    4.11.6.6 Gasket markings: Gaskets shall be molded or permanently

    marked with identifcation that will provide traceability to the manufacturer, pipe

    size, cord size, or part number, reel or lot number, country where extruded or

    molded, and year of manufacture. Molded markings shall not be on the sealing

    surfaces.

    4.11.7 Plain ends ftted with fanges. Ends

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