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Feedstuffs Swine, Sheep and Goat nutrition. Feedstuffs Definition- any component of a diet ( ration)...

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Feedstuffs Large Animal Nutrition

Feedstuffs

Swine, Sheep and Goat nutritionFeedstuffsDefinition- any component of a diet ( ration) that serves some useful functionFunctionsProvide source of nutrients and energyCombined to produce rationsModify characteristics of diet

Eight Classes of FeedstuffsDry roughagesPasture and range grassesEnsiled roughagesHigh energy concentratesProtein sourcesMineralsVitaminsadditives1. Dry RoughagesBulky feed that has low weight per unit volumeHigh crude fiber content, low protein and fat digestibilityA feed is classified as a roughage if it contains >18% crude fiber and 20% crude proteinAnimal, avian, marine sourcesMilk and by-productsLegume seedsUrea6. Mineral supplements 7. Vitamin supplementsMust be added by sources that animal is able to absorbVitamin concentration in plants and animal tissues varies greatlyPlants: vitamin concentration affected by harvesting, processing and storingAnimals: liver and kidney are good sources of most vitamins8. AdditivesNon-nutritive ingredients added to stimulate growth or performance or improve the efficiency of feedAdded in very small quantitiesAntibiotics, antifungals, antimicrobialsProbiotics, buffersColors, flavorsHormones, enzymesEstimating Nutritional Value of a FeedGoal: estimate how well nutrients in feedstuff matches the animals needsThree methods for estimatingChemical analysisDigestion and balance trialsFeeding trialsChemical AnalysisSubdivides the components of the feedstuff into general groups ( protein, water, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins) to estimate the relative amount presentProblem: doesnt estimate how well the animal utilizes the feedDigestion and Balance TrialsMeasures the digestibility of feedFeed consumption and fecal excretion are measured over period of timeProblem: not a true measure because feces contain sloughed cells and tissueFeeding TrialsUsed extensivelyUsually done before chemical analysis or digestion and balance trialsCan evaluate growth, egg production, wool or milk productionBreak Time!!http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r6Jw7ml7s8Q

Swine Nutrition- WaterNeonates- 80% water, finishing pigs 55% waterRequirement is influenced by many factors ( environment, moisture content of food, urine output etc)General guidelines- 1-1 quarts of water per 1 lb of feed consumedLactating sows require more waterSwine Nutrition- EnergyRequired for buildup of lean and fat tissueNursing pigs- most energy from fat and sugar in milkGrowing pigs- most energy from cereal grainsSows and finishing pigs- some energy from VFA ( volatile fatty acids) from large intestineAmount of feed consumed ad libitum is controlled by energy content of dietEnergy Source Feedstuffs in SwineCereal grains ( especially corn)Damaged grainsGrain by-productsPurified sugars ( sucrose, lactose for piglets)Fat (animal and vegetable fats)Swine Nutrition- protein and amino acidsPigs need 10 essential amino acids to maintain tissuesMost porcine diets are based on corn and soybean meal, corn is low in lysineAmino acid requirements for protein accretion is higher than for maintenancePlant protein sources: soybeans

Swine MineralsCa/P- limestone and oyster shellsNaCl- inadequate amounts suppress feed intakeI- require supplementation, soybean and grain deficientFe- injected in piglets, milk deficient, lasts 3 weeksMg- usually present in dietZ supplemented to prevent parakeratosisSwine VitaminsVit A- supplemented due to def. in corn, breaks down with processing, dehydrated alfalfa is a good sourceVitD absent in feedstuffs, expose to sunlight or use sun-cured hays or fish oils in dietVit E- req throughout life, legume hay, green forage, cereal grainsVit K- synthesized in hind gut fermentation (need access to feces), supplement in confinementWater requirements1 gallon per 4 lbs of dry feed consumedMore water when air temp is > 70FLess intake if water temp is 50FLower requirement with daily rain, heavy dew or soft wet snowLower requirement when eating silage, succulent or range forage

Energy for SheepInsufficient energy from low intake or poor quality feedEnergy deficiency reduces growth, fertility, wool quality, deathHigh energy needs:Immediately before and after lambing Flushing ewes and rams for breedingFinishing lambsSheep nutrition- proteinUsually quantity is more important than quality due to bacterial conversion in rumenMicrobial protein synthesis supplies protein needs except when lactating or very young lambsGreen pastures, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, alfalfa hay, urea ( sometimes)

Minerals for sheepNaCl- usually provided to lb per ewe/monthCa/P- highest need during lactation, provide leafy legumes for Ca, grains for PI in salt, Co in legumesSe- narrow margin of safety, deficiency leads to white muscle diseaseZinc- needed for normal testicular developmentVitamins for sheepVit A- can store excess for 6-12 monthsVit D- fast growing lambs kept inside may show problemsVit E- low selenium leads to Vit E deficiencyVit K- synthesized in rumenVit C- synthesized by tissuesGoat feeding behaviorConfinement feeding- will pick and chooseGoats will eat more if they have more to select, so offer less feed to force them to choose more of the desired dietRange feeding- active forager, browses all plant types including trees, shrubs, grasses. Will sometimes defoliate one type of plant. Goat nutrition- waterRequirementsIntake is related to feed intake and feed intake correlates to productivityFree access to good quality waterMore sensitive to water qualityLactation increases needsGoat nutrition- energyMostly from carbs and low levels or fat ( high fat inhibits rumen fermentation)Excess fat is stored in the body around internal organsConsume more dry matter than other livestock species

Goat nutrition- proteinMost expensive component of dietNeeded to support rumen fermentation and supply amino acidsUnlike fat, excess is not storedVary with developmental stageProtein feedstuffs for goats: soybean meal, fish meal, cottonseed meal, sunflower mealGoat nutrition- mineralsCa/P needed for bone and milk productionPhosphorus is met with high diet selectivityOnly salt should be provided free choiceLush pasture deficient in magnesiumGoat nutrition- vitaminsOnly vitamin A is likely to be deficientOccurs in confinement fed goats in dry cold weatherOccurs in range fed goats when vegetation contains little or no green plant material

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