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Feedstuffs Used in Livestock Diets (Their Classification, Descriptions and Nutrients Content)

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  • Feedstuffs Used in Livestock Diets (Their Classification, Descriptions and Nutrients Content)

  • 1. ObjectivesObjectives:

    Understanding of feeds grouping and their general nutritional properties

    Identification of various feeds and their nutrient content

  • Feedstuffs ClassificationFeedstuffs are generally grouped into two groups:


  • 1. RoughagesRoughages are also called as forages

    Characteristics of Roughage FeedstuffsBulky (Low weight per unit volume)High content of cell wall material (25-30% crude fiber)Mostly for ruminant animals

  • Generally low in energyHigher in fiberHigher mineral contentExtremely palatable to ruminantsNutritive value can be extremely variable (species, age, parts)Must be present in ruminants rations to maintain health rumen and milk fat contentLimited inclusion in beef finishing diets, excluded from swine or non ruminants rations

  • Roughages classification based on nutrients:1. Proteinaceous RoughagesCP content 15 30 %Source of proteinHighly digestibleSome contain anti nutritive factorsLeguminous trees/shrubs

  • 2. Carbonaceous RoughagesCP content 18%Source of fiberNon-legume forages, low quality roughagesGrassesCrop residues

  • Roughages classification based on physical condition:

    Pasture, Range Plants, & Fresh Fed ForagesHay/Dry Forages & RoughagesSilageCrop residues

  • Pasture, Range Plants, & Fresh Fed Forages:

    Pasture grassForages that are not allowed to ferment before feeding

  • 2. Hay or Dry Forages & RoughagesAll feeds that are cut and curedCarbonaceous RoughagesGenerally low in proteinStrawStalksWeathered grassProteinaceous RoughagesLegume haysSome grass haysLegume/grass mixtures

  • 3. SilagesEnsiled foragesCarbonaceousCorn silageGrass silageProteinaceousAlfalfa silageClover silage

  • 4. Crop ResiduesParts of a crop after the main product was harvestedStrawSugarcane/maize top

  • 2. ConcentratesFeedstuffs containing high concentration of nutrients (energy, protein, mineral or vitamin or their combination)

  • Concentrates classification based on nutrients:

    1. Energy Concentrate Feeds

  • 2. Protein Concentrate Feeds>20% CPVegetable OriginSoybean MealCottonseed MealCorn Gluten MealBrewers Dried GrainsAnimal OriginAnimal tissuesMeat & Bone MealBlood MealMost are banned/restricted from livestock dietsFish ProductsFish MealMilk ProductsWhey proteinFeather Meal

  • 3. Mineral SupplementsCalcium CarbonateLimestoneOthers

    4. Vitamin SupplementsFish OilOthers

    5. Feed Additives

  • Characteristics of Concentrate Feeds

    Carbonaceous Concentrates

  • ExamplesCorn80% TDN8-9% CPMed P, low CaRecent technologies high lysine corn, waxy corn, high-oil cornAlternative feeding formsOats65-70% TDN12% CPVery palatable, more expensive to feed

  • Dried Beet Pulp65-70% TDN8-10% CPByproduct of sugar beet processing~18% CFMolasses55-75% TDN3-7% CP (mostly NPN)Byproduct from same industry as aboveUsually fed in what form?What are the advantages to feeding?

  • Animal FatByproduct of renderingTreated w/ antioxidant to prevent rancidityWhy do we feed it?5% max in ruminant diets, 10% in nonruminantsDried Bakery ProductWhat might this include?Similar to corn in energy, higher in fat, and salt?

  • Proteinaceous ConcentratesQualityKinds, amounts, compositions of amino acidsEssential Amino AcidsMust be supplementedPVT TIM HALLPhenylalanine, Valine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Methionine, Histidine, Arginine, Leucine, LysineNPN may be used as a protein source (only in ruminants)

  • ExamplesUrea281% CPUse only in very small amountsVery effective for feeding rumen bacteriaSoybean MealMost commonly used plant protein supplement44% or 48% CP available (depends on how much its diluted w/ soyhulls)71-80% TDNVery low in fiberVery broad amino acid profile

  • What other forms are used?Animal/Marine protein supplementsDerived from meat/poultry packing/rendering, or from the marine industry, or surplus milkUsed only to improve the CP of basal feeds and improve amino acid profileBalances protein sources (plant vs. animal)Blood Meal80+% CPHighly unpalatableHigh rumen undegradable protein for ruminants

  • Fish Meal35-70% CPExcellent protein quality and good source of B vitsWhey protein11% CP, 61% lactoseUsed in milk replacers or pig starter dietsHighly palatable, excellent source of proteinAnimal WasteNutrient content variesUsed primarily in ruminant dietsUsually high in NPNHas proven to be fairly effective, in certain diets

  • Feed Grain ByproductsCorn byproductsCorn Gluten MealDried residue remaining after removal of most of the starch, germ, and bran46-60% CPCorn Gluten FeedDried residue remaining after removal of most of the starch, germ, gluten, but contains bran20-25% CP

  • Distillers Dried GrainsByproduct of the alcohol brewing industry25-27% CP, 9-11% CFDistillers Wet GrainsByproduct of ethanol productionUse usually restricted to geographical area close to the distillerWill ferment if not used quicklyWheat byproductsWheat middlingsFine particles of bran, germ, shorts, tailings

  • 16-18% CPMore commonly fed in swine diets, unpalatability makes its use limited in ruminantsSoybean Hulls12% CP, 78% TDNVery good for replacing other high fiber feeds, without losing too much fiberVery palatable

  • Small Grains (wheat, oats, etc.)Generally same seeding rate as for grain, may increase if going to cut for silageEffective in the pastureHarvesting for silage should occur around boot stage10-22% CP, 62-72% TDNIf harvested early, can mimic corn silageBe cautious of low Mg levels, may see grass tetany

  • Corn SilageMost popular silageExtremely palatableModerate to high energy, low in proteinMay not be most efficient in a finishing dietMany varieties availableHigh grain content is desirableCorn Stover (Stalklage)Harvested at or just after grain harvestEnsiledShould be fairly fine-chopped to ensure packingGood for wintering cattle, somewhat high in energy

  • Feedstuffs, their description and nutrients content(see also Table of Nutrients Content in Folder Table of Nutrient Content)

  • Is produced from wet milling of corn for starch and syrup. yellow or yellowishTwo corn gluten meals are produced, a 40 percent and 60 percent CP supplement, with the 60 percent being the most common. Are good sources of UIP. Energy content of corn gluten meal is only slightly less than corn grain. It is an especially good source of the amino acid cysteine, but must be balanced with other proteins for lysineLimit amounts to 5 pounds per cow per day because of palatability problems.

    Corn Gluten Meal (CGM)(feeding the dairy herds feedstuffs, feeding recomm, limits use of feedstuffs)

  • Appearance: Yellow powder Protein 63%-70% (wet basis) Fat 4.5 % Crude fiber < 2 % Ash < 2 % Phosphorus 0.5 % Total digestible nutrients 85 % Moisture < 10% Digestible protein 98 % Methionine 1.6% Xanthophyll 225 mg. Lb. Calcium 4.5 % Acid detergent fiber 6.2 % Net energy 84.1 mcal/100 lbs Metabolize energy 1,756 calories/lb. Neutral detergent fiber 12.6 % Corn Gluten Meal (CGM)

  • Corn Gluten Feed (CGF)

  • Soybean meal is the product remaining after extracting most of the oil from whole soybeans. The oil may be removed by solvent extraction or by an expeller process in which the beans are heated and squeezed. The nutrient composition of the oil extracted soybean meal 48 is shown in the table below. Soybean meal is high in protein and energy and is one of the most commonly used protein supplements in North America. It is a palatable feedstuff and may be used as the major protein supplement in rations for dairy cattle.

    Soybean MealSoybean meal

  • also called Brewer's grain or Draff, Beer meal)a byproduct of beer brewing consisting of the residue of malt and grain which remains in the mash-kettle after the mashing and lautering process.consists primarily of grain husks, pericarp, and fragments of endosperm. By mass, brewers grains consist of about half carbohydrates, and the rest being mostly proteins and lignin. Carbohydrates include traces of starch, cellulose, -Glucans, and arabinoxylans. Brewers grain is considered to be a good source of un-degradable protein and water-soluble vitamins in animal feed. It can be fed as wet brewer's grains or dried brewer's grains. It is quite palatable and is readily consumed by animals.Brewers Grain

  • Dried Destiled Grain with Solubles (DDGS

  • Dried Destiled Grain with Solubles (DDGS

  • Dried Destiled Grain with Solubles (DDGS

  • Dried Destiled Grain with Solubles (DDGS

  • Wheat Gluten

    Wheat Gluten is also called vital wheat protein,is a good modifying agent of dough,is a high-protein polymer separated from the wheat,made up of all kinds of of aminophenol,is rich in vegetable protein nutritional resources.Because of their unique viscoelastic,extension,coagulation and film,emulsion liposuction,is widely used in the food industry as the basis raw materials,and,it is used in the production of high-quality and diverse food.At the same time,it is also widely used in animal feed,packaging, clothing and other industries.AppearancePale yellow powderTaste and smellNeutral,No special smellMoisture Max.8%Protein(%)Min.75%AshMax.1%FatMax.0.2%Water absorptionMin.170%FinenessMin.99%Total plate countMax.1000 cfu pre gramColiformsMax.30MPN per 100gramsPathogenic bacteriumNegative

  • it is refined by high quality sea fish through braising, cooking, grinding, drying and crushingSPECIFICATIONS Protein: 65% min. Moisture: 10% max. Fa

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