INTRODUCTIONWETprogramisthenewtrainingforthefutureTEPIwellengineer.Astheengineer,themain jobisdesigningandcalculatingtheprogram,bothdrillingandwellinterventionprogram.Tohavea logicandeffectiveprogram,engineermusthavethefieldknowledge.Notonlythegeologicaldata andinformationaboutrockformation,butalsotherealandactualconditioninthefield,including theknowledgeabouttheequipment,theServiceCompany,etc. Thesitevisitprogramcanbethemediatoinsertthatculture.Theknowledgeaboutthewhole productionareamakethetraineeknowmoreabouttheircompanyandexpectedtoknowaboutthe teamworkmechanisminterdepartmentinTEPI.Sharingexperiencefromthesenioremployeecan beamotivationandaverygoodlessontofacetheworkinthefuture.Thelast,thetraineecanfeel the work atmosphere in TEPI both in office and field, and learn about the company culture to increasethesoftskillforthetrainee.
OBJECTIVES1. WETtraineehasagoodknowledgeaboutthewholebusinessprocessesinTOTALEP Indonesie. 2. WETtraineehasageneraloverviewabouttheirjobinthefuture. 3. WETtraineeunderstandsabouttheinterdepartmentrelationrelatedtotheirwork.
TABLEOFACTIVITIESNO 1 DATE AREA LOCATION DESCRIPTION Pechiko Processing Area is the gas processing facility of TOTAL EP Indonesie which covers the Pechiko and South Mahakamproductionfield/well.Thereareabout123wellsin bothofthefields,goingtobe7platformsthatareconnected toPPA.ThoseareconsistofMedium(MP)andLowPressure (LP)channels.Eachofthemhasadifferenttreatment. LPchannelsgotoLPSeparatorfirst.Theseparatorsystem in this processing area use Slug Catcher and Tube Separator  to separate the gas from the slug, caused by the different velocity of each fluidphase pass through the PPA samepipethathascurveshapeinsomeareas,fromoiland of course from the water. The Oil and Condensates that is produced from the separator will be transferred to TLA (Terminal Loading Area) to be saved in the tank. The water goes to water treatment unit, which will treat the water to begoodenvironmentalcondition. After the LP gas passes the separator, it will go to the Medium Pressure Compressor (MPC). MPC will change the pressure level of the gas, from LP (5 7 Bar) to MP (20 22 FieldSiteVisitReportWETTOTALEPIndonesieIGedeSuryanaS.|2
Bar).Afterreachingtheexpectedpressure,thegaswillgoto High Pressure Compressor (HPC) together with MP gas that hasbeenseparatedfromoilandwaterinMPSeparator.All ofthegaswillbeconvertedtoHPgas(5560Bar)inHPC.As the effect of the increasing pressure, the gas temperature will also rise. This will support the treatment gas process. After being the HP gas, these gases will go to the Gas TreatmentUnit.Inthisunit,thegasistreatedtobeadrygas. Thatmeanseliminatingthewaterelementinthegasaslow aspossible.ThisprocessuseabsorptionmethodwithGlycol asthematerialtoabsorbthewaterfromthegas.Inthisunit, the moisture and properties of the gas will be controlled basedonthecustomersspecifications.Thepressurewillbe conditioned too, therefore the gas can be transported to Badakasthemaincustomerofthecompany. Terminal Loading Area is located near the PPA. It is the liquid storage facility of TEPI. It Covers all of liquid (oil and condensate) products from all production fields under TEPI after processed in TPA (Terminal Processing Area). In this TLA, there are utilization facility and the mixing facility for somespecialcustomerrequestedliquid.Theliquidismainly come from the separator system in every processing area owned by TEPI. The liquid will be sold in the oil supermarket because TEPI does not have longterm contractforoilandcondensateselling.Thebestqualityand ofcoursethemostexpensiveoilisfromBekapai,thesecond oneisHandilMix,andthelastisoilfromHandil. TLAhas6tankstostoretheliquid.2tanksserviceHandil areaproducts,2tanksforBekapaiareaproductsandthelast 2 tanks store Condensate products. Each of the tank has a capacity about 50000 barrel. It uses floating system, which meansthecoverofthetanksriseupanddownaccordingto theliquidlevelinsideit.Thissystemisusedtominimizethe airandgascontainedthatusedtobestoredabovetheliquid inthetank.TLAisconnectedtothemanifoldandthepump totransfertheliquidtothetankerattheJetty.Italsohasa PigLauncherSystemthatwillbeusefultocleanthepipe ortoborder2differentliquidwhentransferredinthesame system. Terminal Processing Ares is the liquid processing facility ofTEPI.Allofliquidproductisprocessedherebeforestored inTLA. TPA get its input from CSU (condensate stability unit), therefore the entire liquid product from all production area goingtoCSUfirstandthencometoTPA. Inthisareathecondensate,producedfromtheseparator system, run in to 3 phase separator. The separator will separatethegascontainedinthecondensate.Thisseparator system also called Degasser. These gases occur in bubble
forminsidethecondensates,calledCavitation.Thiscondition isnotgoodforthepumpandconfusingthemeteringsystem. So the gas will be removed from the condensate. The gas that is formed from the process is sent back to PPA for treating.Afterthat,thecleancondensateandtheoilwillbe storedinTLA.Waitingforthecustomer. CondensatesStabilityUnitisTEPIsfacilitywhereallofthe unstablecondensatescomesfromothersprocessingunit.( SenipahistheonlyoneprocessingareaforliquidinTEPI,so itwillreceiveliquidfromthewholeprocessingareaofTEPIin EastKalimantandistrict).Condensatesisalowdensity mixtureofhydrocarbonliquidsthatarepresentasgaseous componentsintherawnaturalgas.Itisusuallybroughtby theoilorgaswhenitisliftedupinproductionline. Condensatesisveryunstable,becauseItispresenceasa liquidphasedependsontemperatureandpressure conditionsinthereservoirallowingcondensationofliquid fromvapor.Itchangestovaporeasily.Therefore,inthisunit itmustbestabilizedbeforetreatedinTPA.Tokeepitstable astheliquid,andeliminatethegasfromit. This room is like the brain of the whole processing activities in Senipah Area including PPA, TLA, TPA and CSU. Fromthisroomalloftheactivitiesandconditiononthefield are inspected. From this room too, the command comes from. Theroomisinstalledwithalotofmonitordisplayedthe dataandtheconditionwhichdescribethemovementofthe process. The monitor show the condition of the flaring system when the control room is visited. Because now, all activities in processing area mainly have the electronic controlsystemandconnectedtocontrolroombytransmitter system. The control room can manage the process in the area,ifneeded,bypushingthebuttononthecontrolpanels. Theoperatorcancontrolthevalve,controlthepressure, launchthe pig,controlthepumpingsystem,executesliquid mixing process, and drive the oil and condensates to the tanker. Those processes can be safer, because less people are involvedintheriskyprocessinthefield. ThiscontrolroomisplacedinthemainofficeofSenipah areaandruns24hoursaday.Usingcomputerbasedcontrol systemthatconnecttothehydraulicandpneumaticsystem as actuator, the whole actions are controlled by the 3 main panels(eachofthemhandledifferentprocessingareas)and operatedby2operatorin2shifts. In Senipah Area, TEPI has a warehouse area. It is under the command of MLO, especially the logistic division. It is utilized as the storage center of the logistic needs of the productionprocessinPPA,TLA,TPACSU,andAfewthings fordrillingdivision.
WLIAND DRILLING WORKSHOP
The storage area is divided into 2 general area. Open area and the storage building. The open area consist of the pipe yard, where the stock pipes for production line and several tubing and casing for drilling placed, the chemical storage, the special building to store any chemicals that is needed in production. It is special designed with the high security level to avoid the accident. Only authorized officer can enter the building with a complete PPE (Personal ProtectiveEquipment)andbreathing apparatus.It theopen area, there are also the place for the special garbage, like electronic thing, the radioactive waste and the unused machine/engine.Thewarehousealsohasthepackagingand maintenancefacility,tomaintainthestockofthematerialso itwillbeingoodconditionifneededtouse. The storage building is the place to store the components, spare part of the engine, and smallsized equipment. It has some long and great shelfs /cabinets to store a lot of equipment which have a unique number for each of them. The number is the method for manage the tool/equipment,soitwillbeeasier totrace thelocation,to knowthenumberofthestockandforthedatabase All of the materials and equipments are sorted by its utilityoritscompany/manufacturer. HandilDuaBaseisthecenterbaseoflogisticsupportin TEPI. It provide logistic for the whole activities in Mahakam Deltariver,andofcoursethetransportation/traffic.Notonly landtransport,butalsomarineandairtraffic. As the main logistic support, it is attached with warehouse and workshop, especially for drilling activities in Delta. Thewarehouseispositionednearthejetty.Itconsistsof the open area, where mainly the pipe for drilling activities storedandtheworkshop. Many types of drilling pipe are stored there. Such as Tubing, casing, drill collar and any other drillingrelated materials. It also use as the temporary storage for the idle Christmastree,thatisremovedfromthemaintainedwell.All of them are sorted neatly by the size and dimensions. It usuallycalledpipeyard. Italsohaveachemicalstoragefacility,alargeequipment storagefacility,and the maintenancefacilitytotakecareof thepipe(becausestoredinopenarea,itmakesthecorrosion occurs on the pipes). The role of this warehouse is very important for the entire activities in the Delta, all of the materialandequipmentthatisrequiredintheactivitieshave to transfer to this warehouse from its manufacturer, stored there a while, and distributed to the precise activities location (generally, the drilling activities are in the isolated area,soitdonothaveastoragefacility).
WellConstructionandCompletionWorkshop To support the well construction / drilling activities around the Mahakam Delta, there is a workshop in Handil Dua Base. Its main role is to provide the needed of the drilling activities as soon as possible. Including the tubing, casing,drillcollars,jointingpipeactivities,andothers. Drilling activities mainly execute by Service Company. Theyarealsoresponsiblefortheirneededbytheirself.But occasionally there are some troubles in the field, and they arelackofsupplies,thewarehousewillusethestockinthe warehousetoaccomplishit.Sometime,theyalsoneedtocut thepipesorconnectedtwopipestomeetthespecifications ofthewell,thewarehousealsotcandothejob. Themainfunctionoftheworkshopisthetestingfacility. Ithasatestingbunkertosimulatetheconditionofthewell, including the pressure and the flowing fluid, to the equipment. The bunker used Helium and Hydrogen as the fluid before, but according to the environmental regulation, now it use Hydraulic system to detect the leakage on the pipe. Theworkshopisledbythewellexperiencedemployee, Mr.Shobari WellInterventionWorkshop Wellintervention,knownbeforeaswellservice,isavery important activity in this business due to the decreasing of maturewellquality.Tosupporttheimportantjob,especially for the activities in Delta, The Well Intervention Workshop wasestablishedinHandilDuaBase. The main job of this workshop is manufacturing, supporting and testing well interventions equipment. This place is also divided into two section, the equipment workshopandgasliftlaboratory. Theequipmentworkshopistheplacetoaimallrolesof the workshop. This workshop employs some engineer and technicianstomanufacturingandsupporting.Manufacturing means design and create supporting tool to execute well interventionprogram.Accordingtouniquecharacteristicsof some wells, it need special tool to doing the action. This functionalsohasacloseconnectiontoservicecompany.For executing the well intervention program, TEPI use service companyincludingtheirtechnologyandtools. Before implementing the tools and technology, the service company will order some equipment from its headquarter/manufacturerandtransitingitforawhileinthis workshop because they do not have any logistic or marine support to distribute it. Seeing that condition, TEPI make somepolicytotheservicecompanytotesttheirequipment in this facility. The workshop have an artificial platform to simulate the well condition, therefore, they must assembly FieldSiteVisitReportWETTOTALEPIndonesieIGedeSuryanaS.|6
and setting up their equipment then test it. During this process,TEPIcrewscanstudyaboutthetechnologyandthe product, like technologytransferring session (every service companyhavetheirowntechnologyanddeveloping,soalot ofthinganddevelopedequipmentcanbelearnt). Duringthevisitingsession,thisworkshoppreparedsome DHSV.Thetestingtimealsousetoensuretheequipment workwell,sotheprogramwillruneffectively. The Workshop also support the lack of drilling tool, neededbytherig,insmallamount,andthelastessentialjob isobtaintheexdrillingequipment,thatcanberecycled,like warehousingactivities. Occasionally,theexdrillingequipmentarrivenotingood condition,theworkshopcanmakeajustification,andrepair it,ifrequiredandabletodo. In Gas Lift  laboratory, there are several tests to ensurethetoolsthatusedtothegasliftprocesscanbeused inthetubing.Gasliftiscommonlytypeofartificiallifttohelp the oil lifted from the reservoir. It uses one type of nozzle namedSMP(SidePocketMandrel)asthegaswaysfromthe annulustothetubing.Inthelab,theytestthefunctionofthe SMPusingpneumaticsystem. PendinginAreaisthedrillingliquidinstallationofTEPI.It is operated by Halliburton, and exclusively services the operationinMahakamDelta. The facility was established in 2006 and consists of 2 mainsections,BaroidSurfaceSolutionandLiquidMudPlant. Themainjobofthisfacilityistoproducethemud,supplythe water based mud material for drilling (done by LMP), to process the cutting from rig to be more environmentally acceptedtobewasted,andextractstheoilbaseasthebasic materialofOBM/OilBaseMud(donebyBSS). Theneedofremovinghydrocarbonsfrom drillingcuttingsforenvironmentallyacceptable disposalofthecuttingswasrecognizedintheearly 1990s. Indonesian government stated the maximum BSSPENDINGIN hydrocarboncontainedincuttingbeforewastedtotheseais 1%or10000ppm.TEPIastheenvironmentallycarecompany ruledthemaximumnumberofoil/hydrocarboninthecutting is2000ppm,lowerthanthegovernment. To remove these hydrocarbonbased fluids from the cutting,BBSPendinginfacilityuseatechniquecalledthermal desorption. Using TDU (Thermal Desorption Unit) , it processes the cutting and extracts the oil base that will be usedtomakeafreshmudinthefutureoperation. InBSS,thewholemudcomesfromtherigbythebarge. Beforeprocessed,themudentersthepitwaitingforthenext step. First, the crew gets some samples of the mud to be tested in laboratory. This facility has 2 laboratories, FieldSiteVisitReportWETTOTALEPIndonesieIGedeSuryanaS.|7
Halliburton and third party services, ALS. The sample called retord is tested here to the material and properties of the mud. TDU need special mixture between water, oil and other materialtobeoperatedwell.Therefore,ifthemuddoesnot reach the exact mixture, they must be treated first. CentrifuginginLMPisthecommontreatmentmethod. Thesecondstepistransportingthemudfromthepitto theTDU.Thisstepautomaticallydonebytheconveyerbelt. The next step is thermal desorption by TDU. TDU consistsofrotatingchambers,andcondensersection. The spinning chamber formed as the drum. It has 2 chambers for optimum product. The first chamber has maximum temperature 10500 F and the main chamber has 11500Fmaximumtemperatures.Avoidingexplosionaccident in the chamber, the drum is planned to segregate the mud inside from the outerair , which is contain oxygen (rememberthefiretriangle,inthedrum,thereareheatand fuel/oil contained by the mud, so eliminating the last element, oxygen, is expected to decrease the possibility of theexplosion) The mud run inside the rotating heating drum from the first chamber to the main chamber and after that the solid cuttingwillgotothedisposaltank.Duringmudrunthrough the drum, the liquid will evaporate through the gasway at the top of the drum. The gasways are present in every chamber to catch the vapors. After passing 2 rotating chamber, the cutting expected to be dry, and contain oil maximum2000ppm. The vapor comes into the condenser unit by the pipe. The condenser consists of 3 tanks. First, vapor come to the oiltank.Inthistankthevapor,whichcontainedsomeoil,will besprayedbyoiltocondensetheoil.Thisoilwillbestocked asoilbase.Then,thevaporwillgotonexttank.Inthistank, vapor is sprayed by water to condense water. This water goes to water treatment system. The output will use as hydrant system for fire emergency system, and the rest disposed to the sea. Even passing 2 condensing process by water and oil, some vapor still have a little water and oil inside.Therefore,thethirdtankexists.Inthistank,therest ofvaporissprayedbythewateragain,tocontroltheoiland waterinthevapor.Theliquidwillgotothewatertreatment systemanddisposedattheend. Therestlittlevaporwillreleasetotheopenairbecauseit just contain a little number of hydrocarbon materials. The drycuttingwillbedisposedonthesea.Thegovernmenthas determined the authorized location to dispose it. Every oil companyhastheireachlocationtoreducethebadimpactof hydrocarbononthewatersea. This facility is fully controlled by Halliburton under FieldSiteVisitReportWETTOTALEPIndonesieIGedeSuryanaS.|8
supervision of TEPI. There are 2 representatives of TEPI. It alsohasALSlaboratorytotestthemud.Itisusedthemakea fairtestingresultforTEPI,becauseifthecuttingstillcontain hydrocarbon/oil above 2000 ppm, the cutting must be reprocessedfreely. All drilling operation will require a blend of chemicals whicharemixed(drillingfluids)commonlyknownasdrilling mud, Itisusedincirculatingsystemoftherig.Theliquidhasa very important role in drilling activities. Drilling can be simplified as the activities to dig a deep hole on earth. Because its depth, it will run through rock formation and porous rocks. To keep the rock formation do not fallen, the higher pressure must be applied inside the whole the press the formation back. This mud is the material to do this job. Thereforethemudmusthaveaspecificdensitytoensurethe pressure,aspecificviscositysoitcanbewellcirculatedinthe bore hole. It also used to lift cuttings from the well, sealing permeableformationuntilthecasingiscementedinthewell bore,coolingandlubricatingthedrillbit. Drilling mud consists of a continuous liquid phase to which various chemicals and solids have been added to modifytheoperationalproperties. Depending on the geological formation, environmental, application and well objectives, the drilling mud system are eitherwaterbasedoroilbased.Thewaterbasedcommonly usedintopsectionoftheborehole,becausethissectionhas moreunstablerockformationthanthelowersection. For environmental reasons and restriction especially in land drilling operation, the drilling mud must be handled in an environmentally safe condition. Therefore instead of storing and mixing the chemicals at individual rig site, majority of the oil companies are now adapting to have a central Liquid Mud plant, where the storage, handling and mixingandliquidstoragearekept. InLPMPendingin,thefacilityonlyproduceoilbasedmud thatwillbesenttotherig.Waterbasedmudusuallymadein therig,becausethemainmaterial,water,iseasilyobtained in the swamp. The LMP only supply the raw material, like Bariteandsomechemicalifneeded. TheOilbasemudismadefromtheoil,waterandother addictive.Inthisfacility,theoilthatusedtomakethemudis come from the recycled oil base. The original imported oil base only use as the backup, if the recycled oil base is running out. To mix oil base and water, some emulsifier is used. To meet the weight specification some addictive is needed.ThecommonusesaddictiveforOBMarebariteand calcite. After all of the material is obtained, the process to make the mud is started, there are filtering, mixing
processes,centrifuging,andaddingchemicalattheend.The processescanbesimplifiedlikethis.First,themudfromrigis come. It goes to the pit like the processes in BSS, it will be filtered by 2 shelshakers and run into centrifuge machine. ThesolidoutputofthecentrifugeunitgoestoTDU,andthe clean mud got to mixing tank. In the mixing tank, the refreshing process is executed by inserting some chemical likebarites,calcite,andgeltone.Afterbeingthefreshmud, itwillmovetothestoragetank,andreadytouse. TEPI supervising the whole process by give some requirement form to the LMP, including the volume, the density,therheology,etc.Afterfinishingcomposesthemud, some sample will be reserved to the ALS laboratory, to examinethepropertiesofthemud.Afterreceivingapproval fromthecompanyman,thebargewilltakeittotherig. This facility has a warehouse and 4 tanks to store the mud. Handil is the oldest production area of TEPI. In this area, there are about 660 wells, both producing and unproducing. Becausefoundedforalongtime,manydevelopedwells aremadethere.Severaladjacentwellsmakeawellcluster. During the visiting time, one of the well clusters in Handil area was showed to know the real shape of the oil well. The cluster consists of about 8 wells, mostly oil well with free gas type. Every wells has its own platform, but sometimes in one Well Platform  there are 2/3 wells for efficiencyreason.Ontheplatformsurface,Awellconsistofa wellhead,alsoknownasChristmasTree,theproduction line, gin pole (the yellow high bar for hanging the interventionwelltools),andcontrolpanel. Christmastreeislikethecoverofthewell.Madefrom thick steel to treat the pressured fluid from bottom, It has some valve as safety mechanism for the well. The master valve and wing valve. The master valve consists of lower valve,uppervalve,andswabvalve.Loweranduppervalveis normallyopen valve and the swab is normallyclose valve, wheninproductionsession.Theswabandlowerareusually controlled manually by hand, and the upper is driven by hydraulicsystem/pneumaticsystem. The oil well head have 2 strings inside, the lower and higher string. It is possible to gather the oil from two differentlayerinsubsurface. The swab valve is only opened when the well intervention department wants to make some intervention to the well, like testing, snubbing, and others. Before insertingtheirtoolbythestring/tubing,theymustopenthe swab valve first. The well operator, who accompanied us in the visiting, said the order of safety action when gas leak
happened.Thefirstvalvetobeopenedislowervalve,ifthe gas can pass the valve, the upper valve controlled by hydraulicwillautomaticallyclose.Ifthepassing(thegascan passthroughthevalve/orsafetyvalvefailure)stilloccur,the lastdefenseisDHSVinthetubing. All wells in Handil area are mostly mature oil well, therefore the pressure is categorized as low pressure (LP, around7bars).Atthefirst,thewellisdug,ithasamedium pressure around 20 bar, but it decreased in line with the maturityofthewells. The wing valve is connected to the choke system (system for controlling the amount of the oil flow through the production line, controlled by hydraulic/pneumatic system)andproductionline. Severalwellsproductinsameclustergointomanifold, tobemergedintosinglehigherdiameterproductionpipeto theprocessingarea.Inthismanifoldthereare2production pipesforMPandLP,sotheproductwillbecategorizedinthe manifold.Inthismanifold,thereisalsothetesthead,usefor testingwellpurpose. Thearticialliftmechanismisneededforthematureoil well to keep up its productivity. In this cluster, there are 2 types of artificial lift applied to the wells, the gas lift (pumpingthepressuredgastotheannulustohelpliftingthe oilintubing)andESP(electricalsubmersiblepump,placinga centrifuge tubingshape pump inside the tubing to help liftingtheoil). Besidetheoilwell,thisclusteralsohasagasproducer well and water injection well. Gas producer well have two main utilities, to get the gas for product and as the gas supplyforartificialliftmechanismandthegasinstrumentfor pneumatic system. The well surface structure between the oil well and the gas producer is comparable, but the gas producer and gas well in general, only has 1 string in their wellheadbecauseusingthetubinglessarchitecture.Thegas producedfromthewellgointoScrubber,thedevicetosplit upthegasfromwaterandcondensatecontained.Becauseit has a high pressure, the gas will be merged with the pressured lifting gas from the compressor in CPA going into annulusandexecutethegasliftsystem.Thesegaseswillbe broughtbytheoiltotheCPA. Thewaterinjectionwell,isthewellforinsertingwater to the reservoir. It is one of the HEOR (Handil Enhanced oil recovery) methods. This well is deeper than the oil well, because the water layer is the bottom layer. The water is expectedtopushtheoil,whichhasalowerdensitythanthe water,togooutfromthereservoirtotheoilwell.Tosupply thewaterneededinthewaterinjectionprocesses,thewater well producer is produced. In Handil area, there were 8 waterwells,7forsupplyHEOR,andtherestisfordailyuse FieldSiteVisitReportWETTOTALEPIndonesieIGedeSuryanaS.|11
potablewater.Thewaterwellonlyhasabout300mdepth. CentralProcessingAreaistheprocessingfacilityforthe productofHandilproductionarea.Handilareahasabout660 wells,mostlyoilwellfreegastype.Only374wellsareactive. 8stringMediumpressure,and123stringLowPressurewell (usinggaslift.BecauseHandilistheoldestproductionareain TEPI,almostwellinthisareaisamaturewell,andneedtobe maintained. Handil CPA Field characterized as oil field with some free gas. The main product of this CPA is paraffinic oil with pour point at 260 C. The reservoir is deltaic multilayer sand reservoir type. It has average oil production capacity 18910 BOPD (Barrels of Oil per Day) and gas 60 MMSCFD (Million MetricStandardCubicFeetperDay) CPA is divided into several sections. Such as power generator,fieldsseparator,LPseparator,LPC,MPseparator, HPC,contactor,Oilandcondensatepumpingsystem,HEOR, HydrocarbonWaterTreatmentSystem. Power generator plant is the main electrical power source for the CPA. Consisting of 2 Gas Turbines, which has 1.5 MW capacities each. The electrical will go to the switchgearaftergeneratedtobedistributedintheCPA. The Handil area has 3 production zones, M1, M2 and M3. In every zone, there is a manifold for collecting the oil fromthewells.BeforeinserttheCPA,oneachmanifoldzone, theoilistreatedinFieldseparatortoreducethewater.This process will make the CPA compressor load lightly. After separated in the manifold, M1 and M2 will go to LP SeparatorinCPA,andM3willgotoMPSeparator. LP separator handles the crude oil from M1 and M2 zones. CPA has 2 3phases LP Separator. The gas will go to the LP Compressor, the water goes to Water Treatment System,oilandcondensatesaredriventopumpingsystem. Low Pressure Compressor (LPC) is utilized to convert thepressurelevelofLPgastoMPgas. MP Separator has similar role with LP separator, but theinputisfromM3zoneandtheoutputwillgototheHPC. CPAhas22phaseLPSeparators. ThegasfromLPCandMPseparatorwillbemergedto onelineandwillbedividedinto2lines,HPCandHEOR.Most of the gas is going to the HPC (High Pressure Compressor), compressed to HP gas (around 50 bar) to meet PT. Badaks requirementsandabletotransporting.Therestgaswillgoto Handil Gas Lift Unit (HGL) because HEOR is stopped operatingat2007. HGL consists of Compressor to compress the gas until rich the proper pressure for gas lifting activities, also considering the pressure loss when transporting. After compressedthegaswillgotothemanifoldanddistributedto thewellswithgaslift.
CPACONTROL ROOM 5
ThegasfromHPCwillgotothecontactor.Contactoris the tube where the water absorption process is applied to the gas by spraying glycol to the gas. After reach the water contained specification, the gas will go to the PT. Badak as theCustomer. Pumping system receive oil and condensate from all separator.AndpumpingtheoilandcondensatetotheCSUin Senipah.Ithas4pumpsworkparalleltodothejob. Waterfromtheseparatorgoestothewatertreatment system. It will be processed to be more environmentally acceptedbeforedisposedtothesea. IngeneralCPAhasasimilaractivitywithPPA,butCPA doesnothaveSlugCatcher. This room has the highest authority to manage all the activitiesinCPA.Ithasthesamefunctionwithothercontrol room. Using the computer based controlling system; the wholeactivitiesinCPAcanbecontrolledbytheoperatorin charge,24hoursin2shifts. GatheringTestingSatelliteisfieldtestingfacilityforgas wellinTamboraandTunuproductionarea,productionarea covered by CPU. In Tambora and Tunu, there are 5 GTSs; GTS1,GTS2,GTS2X,GTS3,andGTS4.Allofthemcanbe remotefromthecontrolroominCPU. GTS consists of manifold gas well unit and testing facility. The manifold role ids for collecting the gas from severalgaswellsandconnectedtoTCPinCPUbytrunkline. Beforegoingtothetrunkline,thegaswillbedirectedbythe switchinglineeithergototheproductionlineorthetesting line. In GTS, there are separator, KO drum, metering instrument, and CCVT. The GTS only can test 1 well in the time. So the role of the switching unit is very important to ensurethegasthatwillbetestedisfromtheselectedwell, notfromtheother. Incommonoperation,GTSonlyteststheflowingrateof the gas for each well. If needed to know more about the properties,thetestcanbedonelaterinlaboratoryfacilityby takingsomesamplesfromtheGTS. In the testing time, the switch will allocate gas from selected well to go to the separator. In this separator, the water is eliminated from the gas. The water will go to the some tanks placed under the platform. The type of the separatorisdifferent betweenthewholeGTS.GTS1,2and 2X have 1phase separator, GTS 3 and 4 have 2 phase separator.Thetypeischosenbythegascharacteristicfrom everyGTS.Ifthegasrichinfluid(condensateandwater),it willuse2phase,butifcontainonlyalittleamountofliquid, 1phaseseparatorwillbeused. Thenthegasgoestothemeteringtool,tobemeasured. The Flowing rate data will be acquired and sent to the
controlroom.Theflowingratewillrepresenttheintegrityof thewell. KO drum (Knock Out Drum) has a same function with Separator. It use as the backup for the separator, if the separator failure. The GTS also has a venting system to release the gas to open air if the emergency/critical conditionhappened,likeoverpressureintheseparatorand KOdrum. GTSispoweredbyelectricalpowergeneratedbyCCVT (Closed Cycle Vapor Turbogenerator). It works alike the steamgenerator.Bycombustingthegastogettheheatand boilwater.Fromtheboilingwater,thevaporwillbeusedto movingthegeneratorandgeneratingpowerfortheGTS. This unit is dangerous for the GTS, because it have combustion processes inside. Therefore, CCVT is positioned intheroomwithpositivepressure(thepressureoftheroom ishigherthantheopenairandthegaspressure),sothegas canbeabletoentertheroom. AftervisitingGTS,thegaswelladjacenttoGTSwould be the next objectives. As mentioned above, gas well has similar structure with oil well. But only has one string because of the Tubingless architecture. The wellhead is connectedtothechokingsystembeforegototheproduction line. The choking system is the method to control the gas outputofthewell. BecausetheshutdowningprocessesinCPU,thevisitto the CPU was cancelled. But, the visit to the control room is expectedtocovertheinformationoftheCPU. Control Room in CPU is more complicated than the other,becauseithandlesseveralfacilities,suchasCPU,GTS, andTRF(TotalReceivingFacility). CPUitselfconsistsofCPU1,CPU2,TCP,NOWT,STP1, STP2,andSTP3. CPUisinitiallydesignedtohandleHPgasproduct,butin line with the age of the well, the pressure is decreased to MP,moreoverLPforthematurewell.SotheHPseparatorin CPU 1 and CPU 2 are idle. They just doing liquid processing nowbeforetheliquidsenttotheSenipah. For handle the MP gas, TCP (Tunu Compressor Plant) was established. TCP has MP separator and HP compressor to convert the gas become HP gas and sent to TRF. In TCP, there is also gas dehydration facility and of course the meteringunittomeasuretheamountofthegasexportedto PT.Badak. To Handle LP gas well, SPU is built. There are some utilitytoprocessthegastotheMPgasandsenttotheTCPin CPU. ThecentralprocessofthegastreatmentisinTCP.TCP isconnectedto2channels,TMP1forMPgasfromthewell with30diameterpipeandTMP2forMPgasfromtheSPU
with 36 diameter pipe. Totally, CPU and SPU can produce average1300MMSCFDofgas. NOWT (New Oiled Water Treatment) receive the oiled water from the MP separator, and then treat the water beforewasted.Itisforbidentodisposethewater,becauseit containhydrocarbon. STP is equipment placed in a pipeline for inserting or retrievingapipelinescraper(pig). All of the products are sent to the TRF for metering purpose together with the gas from NPU. TRF is fully controlledfromtheCPUcontrolroom.Ithasaflaringfacility, incaseoverload/overcapacity. Thewellinterventionactivitiesaretheimportantjobin TEPI. It maintain wells integrity by make an intervention to thewell. Thewellinterventiondepartmenthas3mainfunctions; first, testing the well productivity, second, designing and executing well intervention program, and well data acquisitions. To support the activities, almost 33 barges are operated. The barges contain the specific equipment for doingspecialoperation. Kharisma is one of the well interventions barges. This barge specialty is electric line operations, especially perforatinganddataacquisitions. This Barge is operated by Schlumberger as the service companyundersupervisionofTEPIrepresentative(company man). Whenvisitingtime,thisbargeispositionedinTNAX148 wellandpreparingtosetthecasingpatchinthetubing.This operationappliedbecauseaftertheperforatingoperationin thewell,thereisnogasesgooutbutwater.Ifitignored,the willbeabandoneditself. Ingeneral,thewellinterventionoperationhasasimilar procedure. First, slick line operation, testing and setting up thetools,thendataacquisitions,matchingtheplanneddata withtheactualdata,andactingtheoperation. Slicklineoperationisinsertingaspecialtoolattheedge of the slick steel cable to clearing the well. The main challengeofwellinterventionoperationiswiththepressure, so to attach the tools need special equipment named PCE, Pressure Control Equipment. The device function is to hold the pressure from bottom by applying the higher pressure from the top of the well. This device also can isolate the boreholeortubingfromopenair.Beforeattachtheslickline unit, the unit must be tested with 5000 Psi pressure in 15 minutes, then the well cap must be removed. Using the gin poleandcranesystem,theunitisattachedtothewellbythe string.Afterthatthepressureisappliedtotheunit,andthe crew will open swab valve. The clearing operation will be
04/05/2012 Mahaka mDelta
started. Aftertheclearingoperation,theelectriclineunitmust be tested in 5000 Psi too. In Kharisma barges, the PCE in ElectricLine unitusingFlowTubemethod.Ituses greaseas thepressuremedia.Theminimumpressureappliedmustbe 1.2 times higher than the well pressure, but in the actual operation the applied pressure is around 1.5 times. Electric line operation is inserting the special tool with a conductor/wire line that can send electrical current to control the tool down hole from the surface. The line not onlyusedasthehangerbutaloethecontrolline.TheElectric lineunitcanusetoperforationanddataacquisition. Aftertested,theelectriclineunitisattachedtothewell inthesamewaylikeslicklineunit.Fordataacquisitions,CCL (CasingCollarLocator)andGamareMethodcommonlyused. GamareismoreprecisethanCCLbutneedextracost. After get the actual data, then matched planned data withtheactualoneisneededtoensuretheconditionofthe wellandrightlocationfortheaction.Thentheoperationcan bedone. The specialty of this barge is perforation operation. Perforation is the method to connect the production string with the reservoir by making a hole using explosions. The perforation operation use electric line unit to control the detonator. There several types of gun carrier (the tube to carry the explosion material, and functioned as a gun down hole) such as Strip Gun and HSDG (High Shot Density Gun). Strip Gun is chosen because of mobility and restriction characteristic. Drilling Rig is the most important equipment in drilling process.Itisaplace/machinetoplacealldrillingtools. One of the rigs operated in TEPI is Maera. It is Swamp RigtypesownedandoperatedbyAPEXINDO. Itlookslikeagiantbargeswithahightoweronit.Allof drilling activities central there. The Crew is consisted of APEXINDO for the driller position and the position above it, Brahmana as the subcontractor for the position below the driller like roughneck, painter, etc., Schlumberger for cementing and wire line operation, and Halliburton for the mudoperation.AllofthecrewisledbyRigSuperintendent. TEPIplaceitsrepresentativethereascompanyman,tomake supervision, an ensure the drilling program run well. The CompanyManinchargewasMr.ValentinLara. MaeraisconsistsofcrewAccommodation,Office,main deck, cantilever, drilling floor, hoisting system, rotating system,circulatingsystem,BOP,andengineroom. Crewaccommodationlocatedinupperdeck.Thereare the bedrooms for the crew, office, recreation room, radio room,meetingroomandgalley. Maindeckistheplaceforstorethematerialandtools
for drilling. The drill bit that has been used before can be seenthere.Forthiswell,twotypesofdrillbitwereused.For top section, tricone drill bit was used, considering the rock formation is softer than the bottom. That can be seen the drill bit still in good condition, can be used in the further operation. For the bottom section PDC (Polycrystalline diamondcompact)isused,thebottomrockformationisthe strongest formation so need the stronger bit. Even use the strongermaterialasthebit,thelastPDCbit,thatusedtodig theopenhole,hasbrokenitsteeth. Thatcantileverisconnectedthemaindeckwithdrilling floor.Cantileveruseasthepipeyard,becausethepositionis nearthedrillingfloor.Whenvisitingoccur,thewellhasbeen dug, and they prepared to set the tubing up. Before setting up in the casing, the tubing is attached with Centralizer, to helppositioningthetubingincementingoperation.Thereis alsosomejointpipewithseveraloflength.Thepipeisuseto mark the perforating location, because have a different lengthwiththeotherpipe. Drillingflooristhecentralplaceofdrilling.Itconsistsof the hoisting system. The system function is lifting, holding and putting down the string, drill bit, and other tools for drilling.Thissystemisbuiltbyaderrickastheholder,block and tackle as the updown mechanism, and 3000 Hp draw work as the torque source for lifting activities. Blocktackle anddrawworkisconnectedby1.625drillingline. The rotation system use Top Drive System, therefore thebitwasdrivenfromthetopnotfromrotatingtableagain. This technology can accommodate rotating and circulating system. The circulating system uses the technology from Halliburton.Mudpitconsistsof6tanksandmanagedbymud engineer and pumpman. They create the mud here. 2 type mud is used, WBM (made from HCL polymer) used for top section and OBM is used for lower section. This mud must keep the stability of rock formation, so it must make weightierthanthepressurefromrockformation.Theweight of OBM is commonly 1.5 SG. It was pumped by a Triplex 3 PistonSingleActPump. Power system is consisting of diesel engine that generates electrical power for draw work and TDS. Cementing unit use the technology from Dowel Schlumberger.Ithasaspecificpump,becauseitneedshigher pressure to pump the cement out from casing to outside between the casing and the rock formation. In cementing, some item must be considered, like pumping time and thickening time. To modify them some chemical can be addedastheacceleratorandretarder. BOP(BlowOutPreventer)isthesafetydevicetohandle kick/blowoutfromthehole.TheBOPintherighas4ramps FieldSiteVisitReportWETTOTALEPIndonesieIGedeSuryanaS.|17
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1 annular that driven by hydraulic system. The BOP can handle10000Psipressure. The wellconstructed there use Optislim architecture with 4500 m depth. First they hammed the 24conductor pipeanddrillinsideit.Then10.75surfacecasingsettotop section,thenthe7productioncasingforthelowersection. Ituses3.5productiontubing. ToMonitorthedevelopmentofthedrillingprogram,a mud logging was acted by the Geoservice. It has a lot of sensor set in every drilling tools, so the movement of the tool,thedevelopmentofdrilling,andthedangercoundition canbeknownandnoted. Now, the drilling and production activities not just limited in swamp area in Delta. A lot of developed well in SouthMahakamwillbeexecutesoon.Toprovidethelogistic needs of the off shore platform and drilling activities, TEPI rent logistic service in Petrosea Off shore Supply Base, Tanjung Batu. Including the warehouse, the jetty, water treatmentserviceandLiquidMudPlant. It is in strategic location near the sea, not like Handil DuaBase.Soitcancoverthebiggervesselbecausehave8m deepwater. The facility is managed by logistic department of TEPI led by Mr. Fahril. There are also some representatives of variousdepartments,likefromdrilling,fluidandcementing, warehouse,andassetmanagement. POSB base operates 24 hours x 7 a week. The main operation of this base is Handling and lifting (moving and placing all the drilling material), warehousing, LMP (OBM mud producer, and WBM raw material stocker), Vessel and Jetty, and tubular service (maintain the tubular from the POSBPETROSEA corrosion,etc.) I also utilized as the transit terminal for the service companysequipment,becausethewholemarineoperation (AHTS,transportation,tugsupply)toorfromtherigprovided here. Now the base services 2 rig and going to be 5 rig this year. Totally,thebaseareainPOSBreaches22000m2.20000 m2 for pipiyard, 1500 m2 for transit area and 500 m2 is coveredwarehouse. The LMP is operated by IM swaco and the cementing plant is operated by Halliburton. Beside send the mud and material, the base also provides the potable water for the offshore platform and rig. The mud from the rig also processed here (centrifuging) and the cutting send to BSS Pendinginbeforedisposed. The Cementing plant prepared the mixture of the cement based on the fluid engineer from TEPI. They have 3 mainproducts,SSH1,MicrobonM(medium),andMicrobon Addictive. The base material from the entire product is G FieldSiteVisitReportWETTOTALEPIndonesieIGedeSuryanaS.|18
classcementprovidedbyIndocement.Tomeettheproduct specification some chemical was added (like silica flour, spherelite,etc.)usingsandwichmethod.Theyhave2mixing tankstodothejob.
CONCLUSIONAfterfinishingthesitevisitprogram,thetraineecanconcludeseveralthings,suchas: 1. ThetraineehasagoodknowledgeaboutthewholebusinessprocessesofTEPI,fromthe exploration,development,drilling,andproductionoftheoil,gasandcondensate. 2. WETtraineehaveabriefknowledgeaboutthefieldoperation,therelationandthe organizationofseveraldepartmentrelatedtoWCI,knowtheroleofthewellengineer,and thewayotherdepartmentsupportourjobinthefuture. 3. TraineelearnandgetseveralexperienceaboutCompanycultures,haveaninspirational experience,constructivecriticism,andalotofmessagetobuildthesoftskillandaboutthe engineerworkfromsenioremployee. 4. TheSiteVisitprogramisveryusefulforthenewhiredemployee/traineetohaveagood adaptationtotheirworkatmosphereandenvironment FieldSiteVisitReportWETTOTALEPIndonesieIGedeSuryanaS.|19
APPENDIXSlugCatcher Slugcatcheristhenameofaunitinthegasrefineryorpetroleumindustryinwhichslugs attheoutletofpipelinesarecollectedorcaught.Aslugisalargequantityofgasorliquidthat exitsthepipeline.Itworksusingtheinfluenceofgravity.Theliquidswilltendtosettleonthe bottomofthepipeline,whilethegasesoccupythetopsectionofthepipelinebecausehavea weightier mass. Under certain operating conditions gas and liquid are not evenly distributed throughoutthepipeline, but travelaslargeplugswithmostly liquidsormostlygasesthrough the pipeline. These plug is called slug. Slugs can be generated by different mechanisms in a pipeline: Terrainsluggingiscausedbytheelevationsinthepipeline,whichfollowstheground elevationortheseabed. Hydrodynamicsluggingiscausedbygasflowingatafastrateoveraslowerflowing liquidphase.Riserbasedslugging,alsoknownassevereslugging,isassociatedwith thepipelinerisersoftenfoundinoffshoreoilproductionfacilities. Piggingslugsarecausedbypiggingoperationsinthepipeline. The slugcatcher is located between the outlet of the pipeline and the processing equipment.Thebufferedliquidscanbedrainedtotheprocessingequipmentatamuchslower ratetopreventoverloadingthesystem.Asslugsareaperiodicalphenomenon,theslugcatcher shouldbeemptiedbeforethenextslugarrives.
Separatorisapressurevesselusedforseparatingwellfluidsproducedfromoilandgaswells into gaseous and liquid components. A separator for petroleum production is a large vessel FieldSiteVisitReportWETTOTALEPIndonesieIGedeSuryanaS.|20
designedtoseparateproductionfluidsintotheirconstituentcomponentsofoil,gasandwater.A separating vessel may be referred to in the following ways: Oil and gas separator, Separator, Stageseparator,Trap,Knockoutvessel(Knockoutdrum,knockouttrap,waterknockout,orliquid knockout). The proceses can be described like this, natural gas is lighter than liquid hydrocarbon. Minuteparticlesofliquidhydrocarbonthataretemporarilysuspendedinastreamofnaturalgas will,bydensitydifferenceorforceofgravity,settleoutofthestreamofgasifthevelocityofthe gasissufficientlyslow.Thelargerdropletsofhydrocarbonwillquicklysettleoutofthegas,but the smaller ones will take longer. At standard conditions of pressure and temperature, the dropletsofliquidhydrocarbonmayhaveadensity400to1,600timesthatofnaturalgas
Pigging Pigging refers to the practice of using pipeline inspection gauges or 'pigs' to perform variousmaintenanceoperationsonapipeline.Thisisexecutedwithoutstoppingtheflowofthe productinthepipeline. These operations includding cleaning operation and inspecting of the pipeline. This is accomplishedbyinsertingthepigintoa'piglauncher'(or'launchingstation')afunnelshapedY section in the pipeline. The launcher / launching station is then closed and the pressure driven flow of the product in the pipeline is used to push it along down the pipe until it reaches the receivingtrapthe'pigcatcher'(orreceivingstation).
DHSV(DownHoleSafetyValve) A downhole safety valve is a device placed inside the tubing, which acts as a valve to prevent the uncontrolled release of reservoir fluids from the bottom hole. It is almost always installedasavitalcomponentonthecompletion. In DHSV tube there are some valves. These valves are commonly unidirectional flapper valves which open downwards, such that the flow of wellbore fluids try to push it shut, while pressurefromsurfacepushesitopen.Thismeansthatwhenclosed,itwillisolatethereservoir fluidsfromsurface. Most downhole safety valves are controlled hydraulically from surface, can be opened using a hydraulic connection linked to a well control panel. When hydraulic pressure is applied downacontrolline,thehydraulicpressureforcesasleevewithinthevalvetoslidedownwards. Thismovementcompressesalargespringandpushestheflapperdownwardstoopenthevalve. Whenhydraulicpressureisremoved,thespringpushesthesleevebackupandcausestheflapper toshut.Inthisway,itwillisolatethewellboreintheeventofalossofthewellhead
GasLift Anartificialliftmethodinwhichgasisinjectedintotheproductiontubingtoreducethe hydrostaticpressureofthefluidcolumn.Theresultingreductioninbottomholepressureallows the reservoir liquids to enter the wellbore at a higher flow rate. The injection gas is typically conveyeddownthetubingcasingannulusandenterstheproductionstringthroughaSMP(Side PocketMandrel).TheSPMposition,operatingpressuresandgasinjectionratearedeterminedby specificwellconditions.
TDU(Thermal) Thermal desorption is one of many methods used to clean up soil that has been contaminated with hazardous chemicals. By heating these soils to temperatures of 2001,000 degrees F, contaminants with low boiling points will vaporize or turn into gas and separate fromthesoil.Thesevaporizedcontaminantsarethencollectedandtreated.Inthiscase,thesoil isthecuttingandthecontaminantwaterandoil.Thermaldesorptionisadifferentprocessthan incineration because it uses heat to physically separate the contaminants from the soil. They willthenrequirefurthertreatment.Incinerationusesheattodestroythecontaminants. Thedesorptionunitisusedtoheatthecontaminatedsoiltoahighenoughtemperaturefor alongenoughtimetodryitandvaporizethecontaminantsfromit.Acommondesignforthis unitisarotarydesorber,whichhasarotating,cylindricalmetaldrum.Inadirectfiredrotary desorber, the contaminated soil enters the rotating cylinder and is heated by direct contact withaflameorthehotgassescomingoffaflame.Inanindirectfiredrotarydesorber,thesoil does not come into contact with a flame or combustion gases. Instead, the outside of the cylinder is heated and the hot metal indirectly heats the soil tumbling inside. As the soil is heated,thecontaminantsvaporizeandbecomepartofthegasstreamofairandcontaminated vaporsflowingthroughthedesorbertowardtheposttreatmentsystem. The goal of any thermal desorption technology is to produce oilfree or ultralow Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) solids for disposal by distilling the oils from cuttings and recoveringittobereusedasdrillingfluid.
ChirstmasTree AChristmastree,isanassemblyofvalves,spools,andfittingsusedforanoilwell,gaswell, waterinjectionwell,etc. It is installed on the casing head to seal the annular space between casing and tubing, controlwellheadpressure,adjustwellflowrateandtransportoiltopipeline.throughaflowline. This leads to a processing facility, storage depot and/or other pipeline eventually leading to a refineryordistributioncenter(forgas).Thestructureofthechristmastreecanbeshownbelow. FieldSiteVisitReportWETTOTALEPIndonesieIGedeSuryanaS.|24
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