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Film Deposition Part VI: Wet Process · 2021. 1. 4. · Solution based Deposition 3 'wet' process....

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Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua 1 Xing Sheng 盛兴 Department of Electronic Engineering Tsinghua University [email protected] Film Deposition Part VI: Wet Process Principles of Micro- and Nanofabrication for Electronic and Photonic Devices
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  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    1

    Xing Sheng盛兴

    Department of Electronic EngineeringTsinghua University

    [email protected]

    Film DepositionPart VI: Wet Process

    Principles of Micro- and Nanofabrication for Electronic and Photonic Devices

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    2

    Film Deposition

    PVD: Physical Vapor DepositionCVD: Chemical Vapor Deposition 'dry' process

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Solution based Deposition

    3

    'wet' process

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Copper - electroplating

    Silver - electroless plating

    Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE)

    Spin-on glass

    Organics / Quantum Dots

    Examples

    4

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Interconnects for CMOS

    5

    copper replaces aluminum below 130 nm

    Q: why?

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Interconnects for CMOS

    6

    Aluminum

    conductive reliable and stable easy deposition easy etching low diffusivity in Si

    and SiO2 good adhesion with

    Si and SiO2 low cost ...

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Interconnects for CMOS

    7

    Copper

    more conductive

    Aluminum

    conductive reliable and stable easy deposition easy etching low diffusivity in Si

    and SiO2 good adhesion with

    Si and SiO2 low cost ...

    Copper wins!

    vs.

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Interconnects for CMOS

    8

    Reduces RC circuit delay, reduce power consumption

    - Al is cheap and easy to deposit- Ag and Au are expensive- Cu is cheap and conductive- Carbon (graphene) is the best

    what is next, Ag or Carbon?

    above 130 nm

    below 130 nm 60Copper (Cu)

    43Gold (Au)

    38Aluminum (Al)

    63Silver (Ag)

    100Graphene (C)

    Conductivity (106 S/m)

    Materials

    RIP

    RCt2~

    ~

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Step Coverage

    9

    CVD is preferred for via fillingAl, W can be deposited by CVDbut CVD Cu is very difficult ...

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Copper Electroplating (电镀)

    10

    Printed Circuit Board

    五毛

    Video

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Copper Electroplating (电镀)

    11F. Wang, et al., Sci. Rep. 7, 46639 (2017)

    Cu

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Damascene Process for Cu

    12P. C. Andricacos, et al., IBM J. Res. Develop. 42, 567 (1998)

    Cu

    SiO2

    ancient art work

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Damascene Process for Cu

    13

    Electroplating + CMPdirtiest process for the most advanced IC

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Electroless Plating

    14

    silver mirror reaction

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) 2Ga (l) + 2AsCl3 (l) = 2GaAs (s) + 3Cl2 (g)

    LPE - Liquid Phase Epitaxy

    15

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Spin-on Glass (SOG)

    16

    form SiO2 from solvent

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Porous SiO2 for Low Dielectric

    17

    SiO2 = 3.9

    air = 1.0

    prepared by spin-on methods

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Organic Solar Cells

    18

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    OLEDs

    19

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Fully Solution Processed Devices

    20J. Choi, et al., Science 352, 205 (2016)

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Colloidal Quantum Dots

    21J. Bao and M. G. Bawendi, Nature 523, 67 (2015)

  • Xing Sheng, EE@Tsinghua

    Perovskites (钙钛矿)

    22

    deposit by spin coating or evaporation

    > 20 Nature/Science papers every year

    solar cells LEDs


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