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Final Dsp Lab Manual

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    DSP Laboratory Manual

    DSP Laboratory Manual

    EXPERIMENT No. 1

    ARCHITECTURE AND INSTRUCTION SET OF

    DSPCHIP-TMS3!C"#13

    FEATURES OF HI$HEST-PERFORMANCE FLOATIN$-POINT

    DI$ITAL SI$NAL PROCESSOR TMS3!C"#13

    Enhanced Harvard Architecture

    VLIW Parallel Architecture

    Rich Addressing modes

    Two general purpose Register files(A!A"# $ %!%"#&

    ')*+! %it ,ata Word

    Rich Instruction set

    Eight '!%it Instructions)-.cle

    ')*+!%it ,ata Word

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    "

    "

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    +0+!1 *02!ns Instruction -.cle Time

    "3 /IP4)"'# /5L6P4

    Rich Peripheral 4et1 6ptimi7ed for Audio

    Highl. 6ptimi7ed -)-88 -ompiler

    TMS3!C"#13 ARCHITECTURE

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

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    DSP Laboratory Manual

    INSTRUCTION SET FEATURES

    9 4ingle! and ,ou:le!Precision Instructions

    9%.te!Addressa:le (3!1 "*!1 '!%it ,ata&93!%it 6verflow Protection

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

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    '

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    DSP Laboratory Manual

    94aturation; %it!5ield E

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    DSP Laboratory Manual

    TMS3!C"#13 DSP FEATURES

    Highest!Performance 5loating!Point ,igital 4ignal Processor (,4P&>

    Eight '!%it Instructions)-.cle

    ')*+!%it ,ata Word

    '!1 %!1 !/H7 (?,P&1 and %-1 !1 "*2!/H7 ([email protected]& -loc Rates

    '0'!1 +0+!1 #!1 *!Instruction -.cle Times

    +)"31 "3)"'#1 "*)"1 and "''*)" /IP4 )/5L6P4

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    #

    #

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    DSP Laboratory Manual

    Rich Peripheral 4et1 6ptimi7ed for Audio

    Highl. 6ptimi7ed -)-88 -ompiler

    E HPI1 3!1 "*!1 '!%it R6/ %oot

    Endianness> Little Endian1 %ig Endian

    '!%it E

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    DSP Laboratory Manual

    Enhanced ,irect!/emor.!Access (E,/A& -ontroller ("* Independent

    -hannels&

    "*!%it Host!Port Interface (HPI&

    Two /ultichannel Audio 4erial Ports (/cA4Ps&

    Two Independent -loc Fones Each (" TG and " RG&

    Eight 4erial ,ata Pins Per Port>

    Individuall. Assigna:le to an. of the -loc Fones

    Each -loc Fone Includes>

    Programma:le -loc ?enerator

    Programma:le 5rame 4.nc ?enerator

    T,/ 4treams 5rom !' Time 4lots 4upport for 4lot 4i7e>

    31 "1 "*1 1 +1 31 ' %its

    ,ata 5ormatter for %it /anipulation

    Wide Variet. of I4 and 4imilar %it 4tream 5ormats

    Integrated ,igital Audio Interface Transmitter (,IT& 4upports>

    4)P,I51 IE-*#3!"1 AE4!'1 -P!+' 5ormats

    Cp to "* transmit pins

    Enhanced -hannel 4tatus)Cser ,ata

    E

    4erial!Peripheral!Interface (4PI&

    High!4peed T,/ Interface

    A-2 Interface

    Two '!%it ?eneral!Purpose Timers

    ,edicated ?PI6 /odule With "* pins (E

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    DSP Laboratory Manual

    Pacage 6ptions>

    3!Pin PowerPA,B Plastic (Low!Profile& uad 5latpac ([email protected]&

    2!%?A Pacages (?,P and F,P& 0"'!Jm)*!Level -opper /etal Process

    -/64 Technolog.

    '0'!V I)6s1 "0 !V Internal (?,P $ [email protected]&

    '0'!V I)6s1 "0+!V Internal (?,P&(' /H7 onl.&

    &LOC' DIA$RAM

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    3

    3

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    TMS3!C"#13 DS' O()r(*)+ &lo, D*ara/

    INTRODUCTION TO CODE COMPOSER STUDIO

    -ode -omposer is the ,4P industr.Ks first full. integrated development

    environment (I,E& with ,4P!specific functionalit.0 With a familiar

    environment lied /4!:ased -88T/1 -ode -omposer lets .ou edit1 :uild1

    de:ug1 profile and manage proects from a single unified environment0 6ther

    uniMue features include graphical signal anal.sis1 inection)e

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    Host (P-& with windows (#)3)/e)GP)=T)&0

    T/4'-*2"' ,4P 4tarter Dit (,4D).

    INTRODUCTION0

    Linear -onvolution involves the following operations0

    "0 5olding

    0 /ultiplication

    '0 Addition

    +0 4hifting

    These operations can be represented by a Mathematical

    Expression as follows:

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    Where> n+1 +0 ;Values of n $ should :e a multiple of +0

    If n $ are not multiples of +1 pad with 7eroSs to mae multiples of +

    r n8!" ; 4i7e of output seMuence0

    +8+!"

    20

    r " ' + # *

    n UtiUm.proects& with name lconv0pt0

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ""

    ""

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    DSP Laboratory Manual

    Add the source files conv0asm0

    to the proect using Proectadd files to proectS pull down menu0

    Add the liner command file hello0cmd0

    (Path> c>UtiUtutorialUds*2"'Uhello"Uhello0cmd&

    Add the run time support li:rar. file rts*20li:0

    (Path> c>UtiUc*UcgtoolsUli:Urts*20li:&

    -ompile the program using the Proect!compileS pull down menu or :.

    clicing the shortcut icon on the left side of program window0

    %uild the program using the Proect!%uildS pull down menu or :.

    clicing the shortcut icon on the left side of program window0

    Load the program (lconv0out& in program memor. of ,4P chip using the

    5ile!load programS pull down menu0

    To View output graphicall.

    4elect view graph time and freMuenc.0

    PRO$RAMMIN$ FOR LINEAR CONOLUTION IN 4C5 LAN$UA$E0

    includestdio0hX

    main(&

    Q int m+; )9Lenght of i)p samples seMuence9)

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

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    int n+; )9Lenght of impulse response -o!efficients 9)

    int i1;

    int

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    DSP Laboratory Manual

    Note:

    "0 To e

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    20 What us the length of linear convolution if length of input $ impulse

    responses

    are ="$ =respectivel.]30 What is the difference :etween continuous and discrete convolution]

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    "#

    "#

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    EXPERIMENT No. 3

    AIM0

    To verif. the circular convolution operation Csing ,4D -ode composer

    studio0

    EUIPMENTS NEEDED0

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    "*

    "*

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    Host (P-& with windows (#)3)/e)GP)=T)&0

    T/4'-*2"' ,4P 4tarter Dit (,4D&0 -R61 5unction ?enerators1 -onnecting wires

    INTRODUCTION:

    Steps for circular Convolution

    4teps for circular convolution are the same as the usual convolution1 e Y4pinY hN^mOntimes Anti -loc Wise (counter!clocwise& to get hNn!

    mO

    (i0e0 4impl. rotate the seMuence1 hNnO1 clocwise :. nsteps&

    5igure > 4tep

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    "2

    "2

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    4tep '> Point wise multipl. thefNmO wheel and the hNn^mO wheel0 sumyNnO

    4tep +> Repeat for all _n_N "

    E Two discrete!time signals to :e convolved0

    hN^mO

    5igure +

    /ultipl.fNmO and sum to .ield>yNO '

    hN"^mO

    5igure #

    /ultipl.fNmO and sum to .ield>yN"O #

    hN^mO

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    "3

    "3

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    5igure *

    /ultipl.fNmO and sum to .ield>yNO '

    hN'^mO

    5igure 2

    /ultipl.fNmO and sum to .ield>yN'O "

    PROCEDURE0

    6pen -ode -omposer 4tudio; mae sure the ,4P it is turned on0

    4tart a new proect using Proect!new pull down menu1 save it in a

    separate director.(c>UtiUm.proects& with name ,*r,on(.26t.

    Add the source files C*r,ular Con(olut*on.C.

    to the proect using Proectadd files to proectS pull down menu0

    Add the liner command file 7)llo.,/80

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    "

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    (Path> c>UtiUtutorialUds*2"'Uhello"Uhello0cmd&

    Add the run time support li:rar. file rt9"#!!.l*b

    (Path> c>UtiUc*UcgtoolsUli:Urts*20li:&

    -ompile the program using the Proect!compileS pull down menu or :.

    clicing the shortcut icon on the left side of program window0

    %uild the program using the Proect!%uildS pull down menu or :.

    clicing the shortcut icon on the left side of program window0

    Load the program(lconv0out& in program memor. of ,4P chip using the

    5ile!load programS pull down menu0

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

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    PRO$RAMMIN$ FOR CIRCULAR CONOLUTION IN 4C5 LAN$UA$E0

    :*n,lu8);9t8*[email protected][email protected][email protected]=*=6=t)/[email protected]==>[email protected][email protected]

    (o*8 /a*nB

    2r*ntB )nt)r t7) l)nt7 o t7) *r9t 9)Gu)n,)n

    9,anB8=J/

    2r*ntB )nt)r t7) l)nt7 o t7) 9),on8 9)Gu)n,)n

    9,anB8=Jn

    2r*ntB )nt)r t7) *r9t 9)Gu)n,)n

    orB*K!*;/*

    9,anB8=J>?*@

    2r*ntB )nt)r t7) 9),on8 9)Gu)n,)n

    orB6K!6;n6

    9,[email protected]

    *B/-nK! I l)nt7 o bot7 9)Gu)n,)9 ar) not )Gual

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    "

    "

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    *B/?*@K!

    /Kn

    Q

    [email protected]!

    [email protected][email protected]

    orB6K16;n6 ol8*n 7Bn to 7B-n

    [email protected][email protected]

    C*r,ular ,on(olut*on

    orB*K!*;n*

    [email protected]>?*@a?*@

    orBK1;n

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

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    [email protected]!

    ,*r,ular 97*t

    orB6K16;n6

    >[email protected][email protected]

    >[email protected][email protected]

    orB*K!*;n*

    a?*@K>?*@

    [email protected]>?*@>?*@

    Q

    Q

    8*92lay*n t7) r)9ult

    2r*ntB t7) ,*r,ular ,on(olut*on *9n

    orB*K!*;n*

    2r*ntB8 t=y?*@

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    '

    '

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    RE4CLT>

    IN PUT0

    E0 >[email protected]= = 1=!Q

    [email protected]= 1= !=!Q

    OUT PUT0 [email protected]= %= 3=!Q

    CE4TI6=4

    "0 Wh. we need circular convolution]

    0 What is the difference :etween circular $ linear convolution]

    '0 What is the length of output seMuence after circular convolution if the lengths of

    input $ impulse responses are /" $ / respectivel.]

    +0 4tate the circular convolution propert. of ,5T]

    #0 Where we reMuired convolution propert.]

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    +

    +

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    *0 What does 7ero padding mean] Where we reMuired this concept]

    20 What is difference :etween linear shifting $ circular shifting of signal] 4howwith e

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    EXPERIMENT No.

    AIM0

    ,esign 5IR filter(LP)HP&and verif. with different cutoff freMuencies usingmatla: software0

    EUIPMENTS0

    Host (P-& with windows (#)3)/e)GP)=T)&1 matla: software

    AL$ORITHM0

    ". $)t t7) 2a99 ban8 an8 9to2 ban8 r*22l)9.

    . $)t t7) 2a99 ban8 an8 9to2 ban8 )8) r)Gu)n,*)9.

    3. $)t t7) 9a/2l*n r)Gu)n,y.. Cal,ulat) t7) or8)r o t7) *lt)r.

    %. F*n8 t7) +*n8o+ ,o)*,*)nt9.

    ". Dra+ t7) /an*tu8) an8 27a9) r)92on9)9.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    *

    *

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    PRO$RAMME0

    Prora/ or FIR LPF u9*n bla,/an +*n8o+nK!

    2K!!

    GK3!!

    9K1!!!

    nK29

    +*n8o+Kbla,/anBn1

    bK*r1Bn=n=+*n8o+

    ?H @Kr)GBb=1=1

    9ub2lotB=1=1

    2lotB2*=ab9BH

    t*tl)B/an*tu8) r)92on9) o l2

    ylab)lBa*n *n 8b--------lab)lBnor/al*)8 r)Gu)n,y------

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    +*n8o+ K

    -!.!!!! !.!!V !.!! !.1!1 !.!! !.3!! !.%!V !."V

    !.V

    !.V"! 1.!!!! !.V"! !.V !."V !.%!V !.3!! !.!!

    !.1!1

    !.!! !.!!V -!.!!!!

    b K !.!!!! -!.!!!3 -!.!!!V !.!!# !.!1!1

    -!.!!!! -!.!3" -!.!3! !.!#V !.V!"

    !.3VVV !.V!" !.!#V -!.!3! -!.!3"

    -!.!!!! !.!1!1 !.!!# -!.!!!V -!.!!!3

    !.!!!!

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    3

    3

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    FIR LO PASS FILTER DESI$N USIN$ RECTAN$LE INDO0

    Prora/ or FIR LPF u9*n r),tanular +*n8o+

    nK!

    2K!!

    GK3!!

    9K1!!!

    nK29

    +*n8o+Kr),t+*nBn1

    bK*r1Bn=n=+*n8o+

    ?H @Kr)GBb=1=1

    9ub2lotB=1=1

    2lotB2*=ab9BHt*tl)B/an*tu8) r)92on9) o l2

    ylab)lBa*n *n 8b--------lab)lBnor/al*)8 r)Gu)n,y------

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    RESULT0-

    +*n8o+ K

    -!.!!!! !.!!V !.!! !.1!1 !.!! !.3!! !.%!V !."V

    !.V!.V"! 1.!!!! !.V"! !.V !."V !.%!V !.3!! !.!!

    !.1!1

    !.!! !.!!V -!.!!!!

    b K

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    '

    '

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    !.!!!! -!.!!!3 -!.!!!V !.!!# !.!1!1

    -!.!!!! -!.!3" -!.!3! !.!#V !.V!"

    !.3VVV !.V!" !.!#V -!.!3! -!.!3"

    -!.!!!! !.!1!1 !.!!# -!.!!!V -!.!!!3

    !.!!!!

    FIR LO PASS FILTER DESI$N USIN$ TRIAN$LEINDO0

    2rora/ or FIR LPF u9*n tr*anular +*n8o+

    nK!

    2K!!

    GK3!!

    9K1!!!nK29

    +*n8o+Ktr*anBn1

    bK*r1Bn=n=+*n8o+

    ?H @Kr)GBb=1=1

    9ub2lotB=1=1

    2lotB2*=ab9BH

    t*tl)B/an*tu8) r)92on9) o l2

    ylab)lBa*n *n 8b--------lab)lBnor/al*)8 r)Gu)n,y------

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    2lotB2*=anl)BH

    t*tl)B27a9) r)92on9) o l2

    ylab)lBanl)--------lab)lBnor/al*)8 r)Gu)n,y------

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    +*n8o+ K

    -!.!!!! !.!!V !.!! !.1!1 !.!! !.3!! !.%!V !."V

    !.V

    !.V"! 1.!!!! !.V"! !.V !."V !.%!V !.3!! !.!!

    !.1!1

    !.!! !.!!V -!.!!!!

    b K

    !.!!!! -!.!!!3 -!.!!!V !.!!# !.!1!1

    -!.!!!! -!.!3" -!.!3! !.!#V !.V!"

    !.3VVV !.V!" !.!#V -!.!3! -!.!3"

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ''

    ''

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    -!.!!!! !.!1!1 !.!!# -!.!!!V -!.!!!3

    !.!!!!

    EXPERIMENT No. %

    AIM0

    To verif. the IIR filter Csing ,4D -ode composer studio with T/4'-*2"'

    it0

    EUIPMENTS0

    Host (P-& with windows (#)3)/e)GP)=T)&0

    T/4'-*2"' ,4P 4tarter Dit (,4D).

    PROCEDURE0

    6pen -ode -omposer 4tudio; mae sure the ,4P it is turned on0 -reate a new proect

    Initiali7e on :oard codec0

    Add the given a:ove -S source file to the current proect(remove codec0c

    source file from the proect if .ou have alread. added&

    %uild the program

    Load the generated o:ect file (90out& on to target :oard0

    Run the program using 5#1

    6:serve the waveform on the -R6 screen0

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    '+

    '+

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    PRO$RAME FOR IIR FILTER0

    #include "filtercfg.h"

    #include "dsk6713.h"#include "dsk6713_aic23.h"

    const signed int filter_Coeff[] ={ 1273!1273!1273!27671$32%21137 &'( 2)!! & 3123123123276727*%32%367 &+( $!! & 1%))1%))1%))32767231%!2173) &+( 2)!! & *26$*26$*26$3276773*)1$367 &'( %!!!& 721)721)721)32767)!3*6171 &'( 7!!!&, -

    & Codec configuration settings &/06713_C23_Config config = { !4!!17 & ! /06713_C23_+589:+ +eft line in;ut channel?'89:+ >ight line in;ut channel

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    /06713_C23_Codec'andle hCodec-

    int l_in;ut r_in;ut l_out;ut r_out;ut-

    & nitialiEe the Goard su;;ort liGrarH ust Ge called first & /06713_initD-

    & /tart the codec & hCodec = /06713_C23_o;enCodec! IconfigD-

    /06713_C23_setreJhCodec 3D-

    Ahile1D { & >ead a sa;le to the left channel &

    Ahile K/06713_C23_readhCodec Il_in;utDD-

    & >ead a sa;le to the right channel &

    Ahile K/06713_C23_readhCodec Ir_in;utDD-

    l_out;ut=>_+5>Ifilter_Coeff l_in;utD- r_out;ut=l_out;ut-

    & /end a sa;le to the left channel & Ahile K/06713_C23_AritehCodec l_out;utDD-

    & /end a sa;le to the right channel & Ahile K/06713_C23_AritehCodec r_out;utDD- ,

    & Close the codec &

    /06713_C23_closeCodechCodecD-,

    signed int >_+5>const signed int & h signed int 41D{

    static signed int 4[6] = { ! ! ! ! ! ! ,- & 4nD 4n1D4n2D. Bust Ge static & static signed int H[6] = { ! ! ! ! ! ! ,- & HnD Hn1DHn2D. Bust Ge static &

    int te;=!-

    te; = short intD41- & Co;H in;ut to te; &

    4[!] = signed intD te;- & Co;H in;ut to 4[stages][!] &

    te; = intDh[!] & 4[!]D - & F! & 4nD &

    te; L= intDh[1] & 4[1]D- & F12 & 4n1D &te; L= intDh[1] & 4[1]D- & F12 & 4n1D &

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    '*

    '*

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    te; L= intDh[2] & 4[2]D- & F2 & 4n2D &

    te; = intDh[%] & H[1]D- & 12 & Hn1D & te; = intDh[%] & H[1]D- & 12 & Hn1D &

    te; = intDh[)] & H[2]D- & 2 & Hn2D && i

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    EXPERIMENT No. "

    AIM0

    To find the ,5T of a seMuence using =!Point 55Talgorithm usingT/4'-*2"' ,4P processor0

    EUIPMENTS NEEDED0

    Host (P-& with windows (#)3)/e)GP)=T)&0

    T/4'-*2"' ,4P 4tarter Dit (,4D&06scilloscope and 5unction generator0

    INTRODUCTION0

    The ,5T EMuation

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    '3

    '3

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    Twiddle Factor

    In the ,efinition of the ,5T1 there is a factor called the Twiddle Factor

    where = num:er of samples0

    If we tae an 3 :it sample seMuence we can represent the twiddle factor as a

    vector in the unit

    circle0 e0g0

    0

    PROCEDURE0

    6pen -ode -omposer 4tudio1 mae sure the ,4P it is turned on0

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    '

    '

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    4tart a new proect using Proect!new pull down menu1 save it in a

    separate director.(c>UtiUm.proects& with name [FFT.26tW.

    Add the source files [FFT%".,[ and FFT.CW in the proect using

    Proectadd files to proectS pull down menu0

    Add the liner command file [7)llo.,/8W.

    Add the rts file rt9"#!!.l*bW .

    -ompile the program using the Proect!compileS pull down menu or :.

    clicing the shortcut icon on the left side of program window0

    Load the program in program memor. of ,4P chip using the 5ile!load

    programS pull down menu0

    Run the program and o:serve output using graph utilit.0

    PRO$RAM FOR IMPLEMENTATION0

    /ain0c (fft #*0c&>

    include math0hX

    define PT4 *+ )) of points for 55T

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    +

    +

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    define PI '0"+"#*#'#32

    t.pedef struct Qfloat real1imag; -6/PLEG;

    void 55T(-6/PLEG [email protected] int n&; ))55T protot.pe

    float io:ufferNPT4O; ))as input and output :uffer

    float

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    samplesNiO0real0;

    samplesNiO0imag0;

    for (i ; i PT4 ; i88& ))swap :uffers

    Q

    samplesNiO0realio:ufferNiO; )):uffer with new data

    for (i ; i PT4 ; i88&

    samplesNiO0imag 0; ))imag components

    55T(samples1PT4&; ))call function 55T0c

    for (i ; i PT4 ; i88& ))compute magnitude

    Q

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    void 55T(-6/PLEG [email protected] int =& ))input sample arra.1 of points

    Q-6/PLEG temp"1temp; ))temporar. storage varia:les

    int i11; ))loop counter varia:les

    int upper`leg1 lower`leg; ))inde< of upper)lower :utterfl. leg

    int leg`diff; ))difference :etween upper)lower leg

    int num`stages ; ))num:er of 55T stages (iterations&

    int inde

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    temp0real (@Nupper`legO&0real ! (@Nlower`legO&0real;

    temp0imag (@Nupper`legO&0imag ! (@Nlower`legO&0imag;

    (@Nlower`legO&0real temp0real9(wNinde

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    temp"0imag (@NO&0imag;

    (@NO&0real (@NiO&0real;

    (@NO&0imag (@NiO&0imag; (@NiO&0real temp"0real;

    (@NiO&0imag temp"0imag;

    return;

    RESULT0

    In2ut0

    6CTPCT>

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    +#

    +#

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    UESTION

    "0 What is the difference :etween continuous time $ discrete time 5ourier

    transform]

    0 What is the condition for convergence of 5ourier transform]

    '0 What is the difference :etween discrete Time 5ourier Transform

    (,T5T&$ ,5T]+0 What is the difference :etween F transform $ ,5T]

    #0 4tate convolution propert. of the ,5T] Where we could use the

    convolution propert.]

    *0 4tate ParsevalSs theorem0]

    20 4tate correlation propert. of the ,5T0]

    EXPERIMENT No. #

    AIM0

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    +*

    +*

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    ?enerate sum of sinusoidal seMuences

    EUIPMENTS0

    Host (P-& with windows (#)3)/e)GP)=T)&0matla: software0

    PRO$RAME0

    2rora/ to )n)rat) 9*nu9o*8al 9*nal9 +*t7 8*)r)nt a/2l*tu8)9

    t*tl)B9*n) +a()9

    tK!0.%02*

    yK9*nBt

    y1K%9*nBt

    yK1!9*nBt

    y3K1%9*nBt

    9ub2lotB==1

    2lotBy

    >lab)lBt*/)

    ylab)lBa/2l*tu8)

    9ub2lotB==

    9t)/By>lab)lBn----lab)lBt*/)

    ylab)lBa/2l*tu8)

    9ub2lotB==

    9t)/By1

    >lab)lBn----

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    9ub2lotB==%

    2lotBy

    >lab)lBt*/)ylab)lBa/2l*tu8)

    9ub2lotB=="

    9t)/By

    >lab)lBn---lab)lBt*/)

    ylab)lBa/2l*tu8)

    9ub2lotB==

    9t)/By3

    >lab)lBn-- ?E=ERATI6= 65 4I=C46I,AL 4I?=AL

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    +3

    +3

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    2rora/ to )n)rat) 9u/ o 9*n) 9)Gu)n,)9

    t*tl)B9u/ o 9*n +a()9

    tK!0.%02*

    >K9*nBt

    9ub2lotB==1

    9t)/B>

    >lab)lBn----

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    +

    +

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    >lab)lBn----lab)lBn----lab)lBn----lab)lBn----

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    9t)/By3

    >lab)lBn----lab)lBn----

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    UESTIONS0

    "0 what is the difference :etween sin $ cos signals]

    0 What is meant :. signal]

    '0 What is the difference :etween time domain $ freMuenc. domain signal]

    +0 What is the difference :etween periodic $ a periodic signal0

    #0 What is the difference :etween orthogonal and orthonormal signals]

    *0 What is the need for 5ourier series $ 5ourier transform]

    20 What is the difference :etween discrete $ digital signals]

    30 What is the difference :etween even signal $ odd signal]

    0 What is the difference :etween power signal $ energ. signal]

    "0What is the difference :etween amplitude scaling $ time scaling of a signal]

    ""0What is the difference :etween deterministic $ random signal]

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    #

    #

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    EXPERIMENT No.

    AIM0

    Verif. 5IR low pass filter)High pass using matla: software0

    ECIP/E=T4>

    Host (P-& with windows (#)3)/e)GP)=T)&0

    T/4'-*2"' ,4P 4tarter Dit (,4D&0

    -R61 5unction ?enerators1 -onnecting wires

    AL$ORITHM0

    ". $)t t7) 2a99 ban8 an8 9to2 ban8 r*22l)9.

    . $)t t7) 2a99 ban8 an8 9to2 ban8 )8) r)Gu)n,*)9.

    3. $)t t7) 9a/2l*n r)Gu)n,y.

    . Cal,ulat) t7) or8)r o t7) *lt)r.

    %. F*n8 t7) +*n8o+ ,o)*,*)nt9.

    ". Dra+ t7) /an*tu8) an8 27a9) r)92on9)9.

    PRO$RAME0

    &UTTERORTH IIR ANALO$ LO PASS FILTER 0

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    #'

    #'

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    2rora/ or butt)r +ort7 analo IIR LPF

    +1K*n2utB)nt)r 2a99 ban8 ,uto r)Gu)n,y0

    +K*n2utB)nt)r 9to2 ban8 ,uto r)Gu)n,y0r2K*n2utB)nt)r 2a99 ban8 r*22l) *n 8b

    r9K*n2utB)nt)r 9to2 ban8 r*22l) *n 8b

    9K*n2utB)nt)r t7) 9a/2l*n r)Gu)n,y

    +1K+29

    +K+99

    [email protected]+1=+=r2=r9=9

    [email protected])rBN=+n

    [email protected]=2=

    [email protected])rBN=+n=9

    +K!0!.!102*

    ?7=o/)[email protected])G9Bb=a=+

    a*nK!lo1!Bab9B7

    anKanl)B7

    9ub2lotB=1=1

    t*tl)B/a r)9 o l2

    2lotBo/)a2*=a*n

    ylab)lBa*n *n 8b--------lab)lBnor/al*)8 r)Gu)n,y------lab)lBnor/al*)8 r)Gu)n,y----

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    RESULT0-

    )nt)r 2a99 ban8 ,uto r)Gu)n,y01%!!

    )nt)r 9to2 ban8 ,uto r)Gu)n,y03!!!

    )nt)r 2a99 ban8 r*22l) *n 8b1!

    )nt)r 9to2 ban8 r*22l) *n 8b!

    )nt)r t7) 9a/2l*n r)G)n,y#!!!

    b K ! ! ! ! ! ! !.!!!

    a K 1.!!!! 1.%3# 1.11% !.%#%# !.1#! !.!3% !.!!!

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ##

    ##

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    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    #*

    #*

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    EXPERIMENT No. V

    AIM0

    -ompute Power ,ensit. 4pectrum of a seMuence using matla: software0

    EUIPMENTS0

    Host (P-& with windows (#)3)/e)GP)=T)&0 /atla: software

    AL$ORITHM0

    1. $)t t7) 9*nal >Bn o l)nt7 N *n /atr*> or/.

    . T7) ,orr)lat)8 9*nal *9 8)not)8 a9 yBn.

    3. yBn *9 *()n by t7) or/ula.

    yBn K

    =

    k

    nkxkx &(&(

    +7)r) n K - BN-1 to BN-1

    . PSD K FFT B Auto-,orr)lat*on un,t*on yBn .

    PRO$RAM0

    2rora/ or auto J 298

    >K*n2utB)nt)r t7) 9)Gu)n,)

    yK>,orrB>=>

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    #2

    #2

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    9ub2lotB3=1=1

    9t)/B>

    ylab)lBA/2l*tu8)---lab)lB n-----lab)lBn----

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    )nt)r t7) 9)Gu)n,) ?1 3 @

    Auto ,orr)lat*on un,t*on

    y K 3 1 1 1 3

    Po+)r 92),tral 8)n9*ty un,t*on

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    #

    #

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    2 K ? ".!!!! -1."11 -1!.1* 1.3#" 1.%%1V* -1.11"% -

    .V1#*

    -1.11"% .V1#* 1.3#" - 1.%%1V* -1."11 1!.1* @

    UESTIONS0

    "0 What is spectrum]

    0 What are the applications]

    '0 What is auto correlation]

    +0 How to define power spectral densit.0

    #0 What is :andwidth]

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    *

    *

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    EXPERIMENT No. 1!

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    *"

    *"

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    AI/>

    To find the 5ast 5ourier transform of given "!, signal 0

    EUIPMENTS0

    Host (P-& with windows (#)3)/e)GP)=T)&0

    T/4'-*2"' ,4P 4tarter Dit (,4D&0

    6scilloscope and 5unction generator0

    INTRODUCTION0

    Why the FFT

    If .ou loo at the eMuation for theDiscrete Fourier Transform.ou will see that

    it is Muite complicated to wor out as it involves man. additions and

    multiplications involving comple< num:ers0 Even a simple eight sample signal

    would reMuire + comple< multiplications and #* comple< additions to wor

    out the ,5T0 At this level it is still managea:le1 however a realistic signal could

    have "+ samples which reMuires over 11 comple< multiplications

    and additions0 As .ou can see the num:er of calculations reMuired soon mounts

    up to unmanagea:le proportions0

    http>))www0spd0eee0strath0ac0u)binteract)fourier)images)fft"0

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    seMuence0 It is an ingenious wa. of achieving rather than the ,5TKs clums. P

    timing0

    The idea :ehind the 55T is the divide and conquerapproach1 to :rea up the

    original = point sample into two (= ) & seMuences0 This is :ecause a series of

    smaller pro:lems is easier to solve than one large one0 The ,5T reMuires (=!

    "& comple< multiplications and =(=!"& comple< additions as opposed to the

    55TKs approach of :reaing it down into a series of point samples which onl.

    reMuire " multiplication and additions and the recom:ination of the points

    which is minimal0

    5or e

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    S7ul)8 In2ut9

    The process of decimating the signal in the time domain has caused the I=PCTsamples to :e re!ordered0 5or an 3 point signal the original order of the samples

    is

    ! ! #! $! %! &! '! (

    %ut after decimation the order is

    ! %! #! '! ! &! $! (

    At first it ma. loo as if there is no order to this new seMuence1 %CT if the

    num:ers are represented as :inar. a patter soon :ecomes apparent0

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    *+

    *+

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    What has happened is that the :it patterns representing the sample num:er has

    :een reversed0 This new seMuence is the order that the samples enter the 55T0

    AL$ORITHM TO IMPLEMENT FFT0

    St)2 1 - 4elect no0 of points for 55T(Eg> *+&0

    St)2 Y ?enerate a sine wave of freMuenc. f (eg> " H7 with a sampling

    rate =o0 of Points of 55T(eg0 *+&& using /at7 l*brary un,t*on0

    St)2 3 - Tae sampled data and appl. 55T algorithm 0

    St)2 Y Cse ?raph option to view the Input $ 6utput0

    St)2 % - Repeat St)2-1 to for different no0 of points $ freMuencies0

    PROCEDURE0

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    *#

    *#

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    6pen -ode -omposer 4tudio1 mae sure the ,4P it is turned on0

    4tart a new proect using Proect!new pull down menu1 save it in aseparate director.(c>UtiUm.proects& with name [FFT.26tW.

    Add the source files [FFT%".,[ and FFT.CW in the proect using

    Proectadd files to proectS pull down menu0

    Add the liner command file [7)llo.,/8W.

    Add the rts file rt9"#!!.l*bW .

    -ompile the program using the Proect!compileS pull down menu or :.

    clicing the shortcut icon on the left side of program window0

    Load the program in program memor. of ,4P chip using the 5ile!load

    programS pull down menu0

    Run the program and o:serve output using graph utilit.0

    PR6?RA/ 56R I/PLE/E=TATI6= 65 55T I= -S >

    /ain0c (fft #*0c&>

    include math0hX

    define PT4 *+ )) of points for 55T

    define PI '0"+"#*#'#32

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    **

    **

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    t.pedef struct Qfloat real1imag; -6/PLEG;

    void 55T(-6/PLEG [email protected] int n&; ))55T protot.pe

    float io:ufferNPT4O; ))as input and output :uffer

    float

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    samplesNiO0imag0;

    for (i ; i PT4 ; i88& ))swap :uffers

    Q

    samplesNiO0realio:ufferNiO; )):uffer with new data

    for (i ; i PT4 ; i88&

    samplesNiO0imag 0; ))imag components

    55T(samples1PT4&; ))call function 55T0c

    for (i ; i PT4 ; i88& ))compute magnitude

    Q

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    Q

    -6/PLEG temp"1temp; ))temporar. storage varia:les

    int i11; ))loop counter varia:lesint upper`leg1 lower`leg; ))inde< of upper)lower :utterfl. leg

    int leg`diff; ))difference :etween upper)lower leg

    int num`stages ; ))num:er of 55T stages (iterations&

    int inde

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    (@Nlower`legO&0real temp0real9(wNinde

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    (@NO&0imag (@NiO&0imag;

    (@NiO&0real temp"0real;

    (@NiO&0imag temp"0imag;

    return;

    RESULT0

    In2ut0

    Out2ut0

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    2"

    2"

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    UESTIONS

    "0 What is the difference :etween radi< $ radi

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    FOR PRACTICE

    Program 1.

    (>:?>BB8? :> +85> C:89:+O:8 8atlaG.

    x=[1,2]andh=[1,2,4]

    clc; clear all; close all;

    x=input('enter the 1st sequence');

    h=input('enter the 2nd sequence');

    y=conv(x,h);

    subplot (,1,1);

    ste!(x);

    ylabel ('a!plitude""#');

    xlabel('(a) n ""#');

    subplot (,1,2);

    ste!(h);

    ylabel ('a!plitude""#');

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

    2'

    2'

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    xlabel('(b) n ""#');

    ste!(y);

    ylabel ('a!plitude""#');

    xlabel ('(c) n ""#');

    $disp('the resultant si%nal is');y

    Program 2.

    PRO$RAMMIN$ FOR CIRCULAR CONOLUTION IN /atlab0

    clc; clear all; close all;

    ginput(Kenter the "st seMuenceK&;

    hinput(Kenter the nd seMuenceK&;

    n"length(g&;

    nlength(h&;nma

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    else

    gNg17eros("1!n'&O;

    end

    Z computation of circular convolved seMuencefor i">n;

    .(i&;

    i;

    for ">n;

    .(i&.(i&8g(&9h(&;

    !";

    if(&

    n;

    end

    end

    end.la:el(Kamplitude!!XK&;

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    r2K*n2utB)nt)r 2a99 ban8 r*22l) *n 8b

    r9K*n2utB)nt)r 9to2 ban8 r*22l) *n 8b

    9K*n2utB)nt)r t7) 9a/2l*n r)Gu)n,y+1K+29

    +K+99

    [email protected]+1=+=r2=r9=9

    [email protected])rBn=+n

    [email protected]=2=

    [email protected])rBn=+n=9

    [email protected]*/2*n(arBb=a

    +K!0!.!102*

    ?7=o/@Kr)GBb1=a1=+

    /K!lo1!Bab9B7

    anKanl)B7

    9ub2lotB=1=1

    2lotBo/2*=/

    ylab)lBa*n *n 8b--------lab)lBnor/al*)8 r)Gu)n,y------lab)lBnor/al*)8 r)Gu)n,y----

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    ,epartment of E-E -/R Institute of Technolog.

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