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Finding Out the Effectiveness of Below the Line Advertising

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Finding out the effectiveness of below the line advertising
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AbstractAdvertising plays a very important role in the business world whether that is selling a product or manufacturing for their target market. In order to tell your customers what you are offering you need a medium to let your customer know about your offerings. There are either electronic medium, also known as above the line advertising, which includes television and nowadays mobile advertising is also very popular. And the other one is print medium, also known as below the line advertising, which includes bill boards, newspaper, hand outs etc. This research focuses on the below the line advertising and its related issues whether these advertisements fulfill the purpose for which they are used and the customers (youth) are motivated enough to try or buy the new brands or product displayed. Furthermore, this study also focuses on the location of the below the line advertisements. This study also focuses on the giving good and probably satisfying successful solutions and recommendations in order to enhance the effectiveness levels of the advertising medium,. The research was conducted in Peshawar. Responses through questionnaires were collected from two universities. One is institute of management sciences and the second is institute of management studies. Youth of Peshawar between the age group of 20-25 was target sample for this study and convenience sampling technique was used for the purpose of collecting data from youth, a total of 120 questionnaires were collected from the students of these two universities. Tool used for the findings of the study was frequency distribution and on the basis of the responses of youth conclusion was drawn. The questionnaire comprises of total 15 questions. The analysis and finding section shows that the billboards get their attention very much whenever an individual sees it and also remember the ad for the whole day. The section also highlights an important factor that color of ads are very attractive to people. Such advertisements make people buy the product and feel good after using that particular product. In peoples opinion company advertises in order to increase their sales. People find all the medium of advertisements important. Consumers find the advertisement of fashion and clothing related items more attractive and appealing. Consumers also remember the ads of such items for at least one week if they are

placed on the location where they visit frequently. Consumers find the theme of the ads very important.

Chapter 1 IntroductionBackgroundAdvertising is such a vast field that we can not stereotype the effectiveness of a single product through any medium of advertisement being effective than the other. One type of product might get consumer attention through billboards, print etc. as more effective than television. Another product might have more success in terms of consumer attention through television than billboards. But understanding consumer mind is the key to success of any advertisement. The advertisement whether it is billboard or television or any other media still it is important to identify your target group and then efforts are to be made to attract them and make them your loyal customers If we study the history of outdoor advertising we come to know that it started about 5000 years back (Lewis, 1964). The first use of advertising occurred in Egypt where award notices or punishment notices were printed and posted as well as sign boards were used to guide travelers and merchants to help in finding their location (Agnew, 1932). With modernization, advertisement also got advanced, and in 1892 International Bill Posters Association of North America was established to run and facilitate outdoor advertising industry. A number of researches were conducted on advertisement and its effectiveness, but variation in the conclusion of results is found depending upon area to area and business to business (Subramanian and Kumar, 1990). Looking at the advertising done globally, research has explored that there have been changes in terms of advertising practices with the passage of time (Ursic 1986). Sadly, changes in business to business advertising were least the focus of researchers. This study will concentrate on the below the line advertising (billboard advertising) and its effectiveness as the medium of advertising for the local industry. Advertising should be a major focus as companies lose loyal customers while having flaws in advertising. The 2

research will find out the pros and cons of below the line advertising, which will help the organization, understand the buying behavior of consumers and let the organization get maximum benefit from the limited resource by focusing on their effective medium of advertising. Research statement: Finding out the effectiveness of below the line advertising. Research Question: What is the Effect of below the Line advertising on consumers buying behavior? Significance of the study: This topic is selected for my research because of its importance nowadays as market is becoming more and more saturated day by day plus new small level businesses are also entering the market so it is also becoming difficult for businesses to retain their customers as customer preferences can also change if the company fails to identify their needs and focus on them through their effective advertisements. This topic is selected because companies not only make customers utilizing the above the line advertising but instead it also use below the line advertising which is a very expensive marketing strategy and the company use newspapers, hand outs and bill boards in order to convince the target market to buy their products. Peshawar is a very rich market for the companies and their marketing strategy is such which is cost effective for them. This study will highlight the attributes associated with the below the line advertising by knowing the consumer attitude and their perception about it. This would help them chose which medium has a better ability to convey a message effectively and yet able to attract more customers/consumers, as marketing is all about selling their product and make new loyal customers and retain them. As every business is trying to attract more and more customers and competition is becoming more and tougher. This study will help in revealing more significant aspects of marketing design. The study is important because nowadays there is very tough competition as the market is becoming more globalize giving space for international businesses here in Pakistan. Therefore the local companies need to cut down their expenses

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and yet be able to attract more customers, retain their markets and increase their buying behavior. The study will also reveal the important aspects attached with below the line advertising and give proper direction for the marketing department to utilize it properly in order to attract customers from their target market. It will find the result and effectiveness of the below the line advertising which is beneficial for the firm when it comes to cost and benefit analysis. Scope of the study: The research will target the customers of age 20-25 which comes in the category of youth and University students. As this research will be conducted by one individual with limited and scarce resources so the study will focus on the University students. The geographical boundary of this research is limited to Peshawar. The research will focus only on the local industry.

Methodology: The research is conducted in Peshawar. Responses through questionnaires are collected from two universities. One is institute of management sciences and the second is institute of management studies. Youth of Peshawar between the age group of 20-25 are the target sample for this study and convenience sampling technique is used for the purpose of collecting data from youth, a total of 120 questionnaires are collected from the students of these two universities. Tool used for the findings of the study is frequency distribution and on the basis of the responses of youth conclusion will be drawn. For the data which will be required to draw my conclusion regarding my topic will be from: 1. Primary data: The primary data for this research will be gathered through questionnaires distributed among the target sample (youth). 2. Secondary data: The secondary data will be gathered through the review of different relevant articles, publications journals etc.

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Since the sampling frame for the youth is not available, convenience sampling will be used to gather the data from the target group. Limitations of the study: Time Money

Research design: Unit of analysis It will be directed towards the students studying in two Universities between the age group 20-25. Time frame: One shot: the data is collected at one time. Field based Research setting:

Scheme of the report: Chapter 1: Introduction It will consist of the background about the topic, the methodology of how the research will be done, what would be our sample, how we would do our sampling, and the suggested hypothesis which would either be proved right or wrong at the end of the report. Chapter 2: Literature Review It would consist of the review of the articles, publications, journals related to the topic. Chapter 3: Analysis and Findings After filling out questionnaires the data that would be collected, would be analyzed in this chapter. Chapter 4: Conclusion and Recommendation.

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Chapter 2Literature review History of advertisements (below the line advertisements).For studying the history of advertisements students can consult different books available which reveal the history of advertisements and its origin. From most of the books, students would come to know that advertising is as old as mankind. Some researches show that advertisements are as old as the existence of mankind. And some researches show that this concept developed about three thousand years ago (Mandell and Maurice, 1974). Researches have shown that advertisements have had an impact on societies and cultures (Johnson and Douglas, 1978). The previous works done on this topic suggest that below the line advertisement existed since humans lived in caves. Inferred by the above work done on this topic, the concept is developing day by day with modernization taking place in marketing concept but its roots are born in the ancient world. Further, many of the examples were not advertisements; rather they were some simple on-the-spot identifying signs. It is human nature says Kleppner that humans when they try to show something to be genuine they say its as old as mankind (Kleppner, 1979). It is very interesting to find out that even in the Soviet Union advertising was practiced. One would think why such an economic structure would need to advertise, this shows the importance as how important advertising is, even for the communists (Wright and John, 1977). The explanation given above is very concise to make it to a beginner or an amateur student to understand the fundamental distinction between capitalism and communism, as he has but only known about capitalism. Marketers have for a great deal of time analyzed the strategic tools and approaches that they have been using to advertise the goods and services to their target consumers. Advertising has also brought a great deal of change in the relationships that exist in mass communications (Sandage, 1979). With exception to those who reject advertisements a publisher has changed from seller of a product to consumers of the product to the one who gathers consumers for advertisers. The roles of his employees have changed too; first they

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had a selling approach in mind, now they try finding good advertisements to publish (below the line advertisements) which could earn them money. A television "celebrity" is for the most part a salesman, not an entertainer, and reporters discover that some stories are better left unreported. Gossage and Howard say that the role of the reader has also changed from independent consumer to the bait of the advertiser (Gossage and Howard, 1965). Advertising also, to a greater extent, affect both the allocation of resources and the distribution of wealth. Without a doubt, it is well understood that advertising in the identical packaged goods sector of the economy, has proved to be an institution performing the task of the allocation of resources and distribution of wealth. If we understand clearly this phenomena and the historical importance of national advertising we come to know of the theory of capitalism. Extensive research has been carried out by researchers on the consumer market i.e. how marketers advertise their goods and services; but it is astonishing that there has not been any research carried out on business-to-business exploration of how marketing related organizations in fact market to marketers. There are a great deal of services that marketers consume, let it be advertising services, marketing research, strategy services, promotional activities or consultancy services. There has been a series of persistent and varied criticisms on advertising over the years. The criticisms made have included accusations that advertising is often distasteful, insulting and offensive (Eric, Merry and Josephson, 1962). Advertising as according Feldman and Lawrence has also been accused that it manipulates people into making unneeded and some-times undesirable purchases. People end up making purchases of products that are not necessary and useless to them (Feldman and Lawrence, 1980). A study by Preston and Ivan (1975) state that advertising is deceptive i.e. it deceives the consumers and mislead them by making them in a state where they have no option in mind but to buy the product which is being offered (Preston and Ivan, 1975). Noticeable flow have been more in the vociferousness by which these and other criticisms have been expressed and in the attention they have received rather than in the substance of the criticisms themselves. The definition of billboards was defined as those outdoor motionless structures upon which advertisements of different companies and public announcements were posted. This

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definition also included elevated signs and signs that were attached to the sides of buildings, and did not include the advertisements on the sides and at the back of buses, highway department signs, banners, posters, advertisements painted on the sides of buildings, and the advertisements we come to see on bus shelters. This definition match to the types of billboards those were most likely to be restricted under the terms and conditions of legislation being considered in 1998. An agreement was made between the tobacco industry in the US and various state attorney generals. As a result of the agreement, all outdoor billboard advertising of tobacco products was removed. This shows a cycle of change in the tobacco advertising where tobacco advertising was banned to be put on billboards in the year 2000 whereas the restriction on the advertisements of tobacco products on television was implemented nearly 30 years ago. Outdoor advertising was agreed to be banned in public health and political arenas by nearly everyone, yet it is astonishing to see that there is very little data on how billboards have been used to sell tobacco products in the US and the countries outside (Luke and Esmundo, 2000). As compared to other forms of advertising that are very old, In-Game advertising is a new strategy. It is due to this fact that we rarely find research on this form of advertising. So much so that the first study about online games was carried out as recently as 2002. Kim (2002) investigated motivations to using online games and Nelson (2002) studied recall of brand placements in computer racing games. There has been an academic interest as far as studies or advertising is concerned, billboards in the gaming environment have not been a major focus whereas the focus of these studies were mainly on the billboards we see in the real world (Bloom 2000; Donthu, Cherian, and Bhargava 1993). It is for this reason that we find out the effectiveness of outdoor advertising as a standard when it comes to effectiveness of billboard advertising i.e. the standard of checking the effectiveness of outdoor advertising is billboards (Donthu, Cherian, and Bhargava 1993; Fitts and Hewett 1977). According to Donthu, Cherian and Bhargava (1993) the factors that are related to the recall of billboards include: (1) The factors that are related to the billboard itself i.e. color, position, location, number of words and brevity and legibility of message of the billboard,

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(2) The Consumer characteristics of the billboards, i.e. attitude to advertising which incorporates attitude to outdoor advertisements (Donthu, Cherian, and Bhargava 1993). These studies leave the big advertising companies, who highly advertise their products, to find out other target markets in order to reach their target customers i.e. the hardcore gamers, who are for the most part involved in multi player gaming. Due to the fact that it needs a lot of investment for game developers to develop a game, they need to find out other ways to generate revenue which probably would be to sell out space within the gaming environment. This creates a huge opportunity for marketer to get into a joint venture with game companies (Euro Monitor, 2003). Studies have also found out that in-game advertising is an enormous opportunity to market a product but till now only a small number of companies, for the most part the racing car games and the more recent soccer games, have put on work its use (Carter 2002). We find out through research that sports marketing done through billboards in the real world are not an effective promotional tool. A study about a football match aired on television in Denmark, showed that there was a meager amount of recall of advertising billboards, to the extent that the billboard that most gained recall by respondents was as little as 17%. This study also showed that out of the fourteen brands four brands were not recalled by any of the respondents (Hansen and Scotwin 1994). Marketing managers in China mostly focus on billboard advertisements while having youth as their target market, due to the fact that the youth of china is greatly effected by the advertisements that are put up on billboards. Billboards have such a great impact in the Chinese market that the firms/ companies who try to sale out even their business-tobusiness products to Chinese industrial companies use billboard advertising. In terms of selling business-to-business products to the industrial users in china, Technical magazines having technical data of the business product have proved to be a very reliable source of conveying the message. This is because of the fact that the Chinese are fascinated towards learning the western marketing techniques. It is found out by the western advertising experts that western model billboard advertising is the basis of most of the Chinese advertising. The China National Advertising Association for Foreign Economic Relations

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and Trade is therefore put up to bring Chinese advertisements at par with the international standards. The association has relationships with over 100 advertising companies around the world and was established in 1981. China has ended up signing joint ventures for a large range of programs set up by the Chinese and Western advertising agencies to market foreign products in China and Chinese products in foreign markets (Semenik, Zhou and Moore, 1986). Billboards have provided the tobacco industry with a relatively low cost method for cigarette advertising and are used to reach either a broad audience or specific targeted population. In 1997, national billboard revenues totaled $2.1 billion dollars. Tobacco billboard sales ranked third among the top 10 industry categories. Because of the static location of billboards and the fact that many people use the same travel routes to work, school, shopping, etc, billboard advertising has what the advertising industry calls a high "impression rate". Billboards are viewed over and over again by the same people, increasing their effectiveness. Efforts to restrict tobacco billboard advertising have been mounted in local communities with some success. Campaigns to restrict or ban tobacco billboards are a response to the perception that billboards are a form of environmental pollution, an attempt to target vulnerable populations, or simply that tobacco billboards are advertising a product that is a threat to the public health of the community. These grassroots efforts served as a springboard for provisions to ban outdoor advertising in the national settlement between attorneys general and tobacco companies in November 1998 (Luke, and Esmundo, 2000).

CHAPTER 4

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ANALYSIS AND FINDINGSThe questionnaire was distributed in two universities; one is institute of management sciences located in phase seven and the other institute of management studies located in university town. Sixty questionnaires were distributed in each university among both male and female students of age group of 20-25 years

female Institute of management sciences, hayatabad Institute of management studies university town. TOTAL 30 30 60 30 30 60

male 60 60 120

total

institute of management sciences institute of management studies

The responses collected from the samples are given below along with their percentage and cumulative percentage result. The analysis of each question is also given below .The reader can easily understand the analysis and finding portion of this study

Billboard getting attention:

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Table 4.1 FREQUENCY greatly Very much Dont know Some how Not at all TOTAL 28 52 24 10 6 120 PERCENT 23.33 43.33 20 8.34 5 100 COMMULATIVE PERCENT 23.33 66.66 86.66 95 100

greatly very much dont know some how not at all

Figure 4.1 The tables shows that out of total 120 respondents 28 or 23.33% are greatly, 52 or 43.33% are very much, 24 or 20% are dont know, 10 or 8.34% are some how and 6 or 5% are not at all.

Saw a billboard last time:12

TABLE 4.2 FREQUENCY Just a while ago today A week ago Dont remember TOTAL 10 64 14 32 120 PERCENT 8.34 53.33 11.67 26.67 100 COMMULATIVE PERCENT 8.34 61.67 73.33 100

just a while ago today a week ago dont remember

Figure 4.2 The table shows that out of 120 respondents 10 or 8.34 % said just a while ago, 64 or 53.33% said today, 14 or 11.67% said a week ago, 32 or 13.33% said dont remember.

Element of attraction in billboard ads:

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TABLE 4.3 FREQUENCY color shape size Giving clear message about the product All of the above TOTAL 26 12 10 68 4 120 PERCENT 21.67 10 8.33 56.67 3.33 100 COMMULATIVE PERCENT 21.67 31.67 40 96.67 100

color shape size giving clear message allof the above

Figure 4.3 The above table shows that out of 120 participants 26 or 21.67% said color, 12 or 10% said shape, 10 or 8.33% said size, 68 or 56.67% said giving clear message and 4 or 3.33% said all of the above.

Ads attractive enough:TABLE 4.4

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FREQUENCY yes no Some how TOTAL 50 38 32 120

PERCENT 41.67 31.67 26.66 100

COMMULATIVE PERCENT 41.67 73.34 100

yes no some how

Figure 4.4 The above table illustrates that out of 120 participants 50 or 41.67% said yes, 38 or 31.67% said no, 32 or 26.66% said some how.

Effects of ads on buying decision:TABLE 4.5 FREQUENCY PERCENT COMMULATIVE PERCENT

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Very low low moderate high Very high TOTAL

0 0 32 42 46 120

0 0 26.67 35 38.33 100

0 0 26.67 61.67 100

very low moderate very high

low high

Figure 4.5 The above table reveals that out of 120 participants 0 or 0% said very low,0 or 0% said low , 32 or 26.67% said moderate, 42 or 35% said high and 46 or 38.33% said very high.

Feelings after advertised product:TABLE 4.6 FREQUENCY PERCENT COMMULATIVE PERCENT

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excellent good satisfactory bad TOTAL

0 66 54 0 120

0 55 45 0 100

0 55 45 100

excellent

good

satifactory

bad

Figure 4.6 The above table illustrates that out of 120 participants 0 or 0% felt excellent, 66 or 55% felt good, 54 or 45% felt satisfactory and 0 or 0% felt bad.

Companies advertise:TABLE 4.7 FREQUENCY PERCENT COMMULATIVE PERCENT

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To increase sales To convey a massage To make people buy All of the above TOTAL

66 12 24 18 120

55 10 20 15 100

55 65 85 100

to increase sales

to convey a message

to make people buy

all of the above

Figure 4.7 The above table shows that out of 120 participants 66 or 55% said to increase sales, 12 or 10% said to convey a message, 24 or 20% said to make people buy and 18 or 15% said all of the above.

Prefer advertisement of:TABLE 4.8 FREQUENCY PERCENT COMMULATIVE PERCENT

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Below the line ads TV commercials All of the above TOTAL

21 27 72 120

17.5 22.5 60 100

17.5 40 100

below the line ads

tv com m ercials

all of the above

Figure 4.8 The above table illustrates that out of 120 participants 21 or 17.5% said below the line, 27 or 22.5% said TV commercials and 72 or 60% said all of the above

Attracted by Advertisement of:TABLE 4.9 frequency food 54 percent 45 Cumulative percent 45

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Clothing/fashion cosmetics cars events Public awareness messages total

22 6 16 12 10 120

18.34 5 13.33 10 8.33 100

63.34 68.34 81.67 91.67 100

food clothing/fashion cosmetics cars events public awareness message

Figure 4.9 The table shows that out of 120 respondents 54 or 45% prefer food, 22or 18.34% prefer clothes/fashion, 5% prefer cosmetics, 13.33% prefer cars and 12 % prefer events and 10% prefer public awareness campaigns

Advertisement of which products to be displayed on billboard:TABLE 4.10 FREQUENCY PERCENT COMMULATIVE

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PERCENT food Clothing/fashion cosmetics cars others TOTAL 34 54 12 13 7 120 28.33 45 10 10.84 5.83 100 28.33 73.33 83.33 94.17 100

food clothing/fashion cosmetics cars others

Figure 4.10 The above table shows that out of 120 participants 34 or 28.33% said food, 54 or 45% said clothing, 12 or 10% said cosmetics, 13 or 8.34% said cars and 7 or 5.83% others

Effect of below the line ads:TABLE 4.11 FREQUENCY recall 7 PERCENT 5.83 COMMULATIVE PERCENT 5.83

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Positive impression interest Desire to purchase TOTAL

61 35 17 120

50.83 29.17 14.17 100

56.66 85.83 100

recall positive impression interest desire to purchase

Figure 4.11 The above table illustrates that out of 120 participants 7 or 5.83% said recall, 61 or 50.83% said positive impression, 35 or 29.17% said interest and 17 or 14.17% are said desire to purchase

Remember the advertised product for:TABLE 4.12 FREQUENCY Few hours 34 PERCENT 28.33 COMMULATIVE PERCENT 28.33

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One day One week One month More than a month TOTAL

8 68 8 2 120

6.67 56.67 6.67 1.66 100

35 91.67 98.34 100

few hours one day one week one month more than a month

Figure 4.12 The above table shows that out of 120 participants 34 or 28.33% said few hours,8 or 6.67% said one day, 68 or 56.67% said one week, 8 or 6.67% said one month and 2 or 1.66% said more than a month.

Billboards make you buy the product:TABLE 4.13 FREQUENCY yes no 76 26 PERCENT 63.33 21.67 COMMULATIVE PERCENT 63.33 85

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Some how TOTAL

18 120

15 100

100

yes

no

some how

Figure 4.13 The table reveals that out of 120 participants 76 or 63.33% said yes, 26 or 21.67% said no and 18 or 15% said some how.

Remember a billboard for:TABLE 4.14 FREQUENCY Near the residence Places visited frequently 12 72 PERCENT 10 60 COMMULATIVE PERCENT 10 70

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On the way to work/university Bus stand other TOTAL

15 14 7 120

12.5 11.67 5.83 100

82.5 94.17 100

near the residence places visited frequently on the way to work/university bus stand other

Figure 4.14 The above table reveals that out of 120 participants 12 or 10% said near the places, 72 or 60% said places visited frequently, 15 or 12.5% on the way to work, 14 or 11.67% said bus stand and 7 or 5.83% said others.

Important factor of billboard:TABLE 4.15 FREQUENCY models theme Background 10 24 45 PERCENT 8.33 20 37.5 COMMULATIVE PERCENT 8.33 28.33 65.83

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slogan Caption photography total

11 15 15 120

9.17 12.5 12.5 100

75 87.5 100

modela background caption

theme slogan photography

Figure 4.15 The above table shows that out of 120 participants 10 or 8.33% said models, 24 or 20% said themes, 45 or 37.5% said background, 11 or 9.17% said slogan, 15 or 12.5% said caption and 12.5% said photography.

Chapter 5 ConclusionThe objective of the study was to reveal the important aspect attach with the effectiveness of the marketing strategies in the saturated market nowadays. The analysis section of the study clearly showed that the below the line advertisement do effect the youth of Peshawar and urge them to try a new products and brand in this regard. The responses of youth also 26

revealed that bill boards, print media and others do get their attention when they come across one. If the ads are very attractive so that people (youth) remember them for a good time period. It was inferred that a well produced all the below the line advertisements should not only have one attribute but it has almost all the good points which one looks for in it. It should be clear in conveying message. It should have a good combination of words, color and its size relevant to the placement of it. They believe that nowadays after using the advertised product their behavior about the product was satisfactory. Further more it is concluded that they perceive the ads as a medium to increase companies sales and it is not only done through below the line advertisements but it is done through the use of the entire advertising medium used in the marketing strategies for the product. The youth also cleared the fact that if bill boards are used for the advertisement of food and clothes or fashioned products so it will attract them more in comparison of other than these product advertised. The youth clearly highlighted their opinions in their responses that the outdoor ads also make them buy the product and use it for a matter of experiment in order to experience the sense of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Some results also illustrates that youth is greatly affected by these bill boards etc. ads if they are placed at right location and clearly conveying the message to try the product. The youth showed a positive approach to the questions asked regarding the placement of the ads on places where people visits frequently. The theme of the advertisements is the most important factor for the youth when it comes to evaluate different factors of the advertisements. They consider such good advertisement as a positive impression of the company.

RecommendationThe companies should take interest and take care of the factors which may become a reason of the failure of their ads. They should be very careful while making the below the line advertisements considering every factor of it which is the key to attract customers and increase the sales of the company in this regard. They should focus on the size (bill boards) with the comparison of its location plus they should very clear in what they are saying to its target market. The companies should advertise in the places where people visits frequently like high ways or bus stops etc.

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References:1. Agnew, Hugh Elmer, 1932. Advertising media, how to weigh and measure. New York: D. van Nostrand 2. Bal Subramanian, S.K., Kumar, V. 1990. Analyzing variations in advertising and promotional expenditures: key correlates in consumer, industrial and service markets. The Journal of Marketing 54(2), 57-68. 3. Bloom, Derek (2000), "Measuring the Audience to Poster Advertising," International Journal of Market Research, 42 (4), 395-412. 28

4. Carter, Ben (2002), Harnessing the Power of Games," New Media Age, (January 24), 33-35. 5. Donthu, Naveen, Joseph Cherian, and Mukesh Bhargava (1993), "Factors Influencing Recall of Outdoor Advertising," Journal of Advertising Research, May/June, 64-72. 6. Douglas Luke, Emily Esmundo .Smoke Signs: Patterns of Tobacco Billboard Advertising in a Metropolitan.: Tobacco Control, Vol. 9, No. 1 (Mar., 2000), 7. Euro monitor (2003), Toys and Games: Strategic Management Overview. 8. Feldman, Laurence P. Consumer Protection: Problems and Prospects, New York: West Publishing Company, 1980. 9. Fitts, Robert L. and Wendell C. Hewett (1977), "Utilizing the Before After with Control Group Experimental Design to Evaluate an Outdoor Advertising Campaign," Journal of Advertising, 6 (1), 26-28. 10. Gossage, Howard L. "The Fictitious Freedom of the Press," Ramparts, Vol. 4 (August, 1965), pp. 31-36. 11. Hansen, Flemming and Lene Scotwin (1994), "The Effect of Sponsoring: An Experimental Study," Asia Pacific Advances in Consumer Research, 1, 279-287 12. Johnson, J. Douglas. Advertising Today. Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1978. 13. Josephson, Eric and Mary Josephson. Man Alone: Alienation in Modern Society, New York: Dell, 1962. 14. Kim, Kyung H., Jin Yong Park, Dong Yul Kim, Moon Hak II, and Ho Chan Chun, (2002), "E-Lifestyle and Motives to Use Online Games," Irish Marketing Review, 15 (2), 71-77. 15. Kleppner. Advertising Procedure. (7th edition.), Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1979. 16. Mandell, Maurice I. Advertising. 2nd edition., Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1974 17. Nelson, Michelle R. (2002), "Recall of Brand Placements in Computer/Video Games," Journal of Advertising Research, March/April, 80-92.

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18. Preston, Ivan L. The Great American Blow-Up: Puffery in Advertising and Selling, Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1975. 19. Richard J. Semenik, Nan Zhou, William L. Moore .Chinese Managers' Attitudes toward Advertising. Journal of Advertising, Vol. 15, No. 4 (1986), pp. 56-62 20. Sandage, Charles H. Advertising Theory and Practice. 10th edition. Homewood, Illinois: Irwin, 1979. 21. 2122. Ursic, A., Ursic, M.L., Ursic, V.L. 1986. A longitudinal study of the use of the elderly in magazine advertising. Journal of Consumer Research 13(1), 131-133. 22. Wright and John S. Advertising. 4th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977

AppendixQUESTIONNAIRE

Effect of Below the Line Advertising on Consumer PerceptionAge: ____ Gender: ____ Occupation: ____ Q1 How much does a billboard get your attention? 1 Greatly

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2 3 4 5 Q2

Very Much Dont know Somehow Not at all

When is the last time you saw a below the line advertisement? 1 2 3 4 Just a while ago Today A week ago Dont remember

Q3

What is it that attracted you to that advertisement placed on a billboard or any other

print media ads? 1 2 3 4 5 Color Shape Size Giving clear message about the product All of the above

Q4

Was that advertisement attractive enough to make you buy the product? 1 2 3 Yes No Some how

Q5

How much was the effect of the advertisement on your buying decision? 1 2 3 Very low Low Moderate

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4 5 Q6

High Very High

How did you feel after using that advertised product? 1 2 3 4 Excellent Good Satisfactory Bad

Q7

In your opinion, why do companies advertise? 1 2 3 4 To increase sales To convey a message To make people buy All of the above

Q8

What kind of advertisement would you prefer for a brand you use? 1 2 3 below the line advertisements TVC (television commercial) All of the above

Q9

Which type of product attracts you the most when advertised on billboards or any 1 2 3 4 5 6 Food Clothing/ Fashion wear Cosmetics Cars Events Public Awareness campaigns

print media?

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Q10

In your opinion what product would best attract consumers in buying if advertised 1 2 3 4 5 Food Clothing/ Fashion wear Cosmetics Cars Other: _______________

on billboards or any print media?

Q11

How does a below then line advertisements advertisement affect you? 1 2 3 4 Recall Positive impression Interest Desire to purchase

Q12

How long does the message conveyed through the below the line advertisements 1 2 3 4 5 Few hours One day One week One month More than a month

advertisement last in your mind?

Q13

Does a billboard advertisement urge to try a new brand? 1 2 3 Yes No Some how

Q14. Do you remember billboard if they are? 1 2 3 Near the residence Places visited frequently On the way to campus/ work

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4 5 Q15.

Bus stand Other.

Which aspect of billboard ad is important to you? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Models Background Theme Slogans Caption Photography

THANK YOU FOR YOUR CO-OPERATION & TIME

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