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First Quarter 2007

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  • 1. Ad Signa! To the Standards! Newsletter of Legio VI Victrix Pia Fidelis Nov AD 2006 / 2759 AUC Vol V, No II
  • 2. Avete! AD SIGNA! has gone through a few changes of late, including a new editor, as will be described in the Founders Report below. It is hoped that this new direction will turn this publication into both a newsletter of our activities and an educational source in its own right. For now, as this publication grows in scope and purpose, we can grow as reenactors, educators and friends. Enjoy the read. Calendar of Events 2 Dec Fabricum at Diogenes home in Manchester. 8312 Kittyhawk Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90045. Focus on Scutem. 17 Dec Hike at Griffith park. 9am muster at the usual location just North of the Roosevelt restaurant on Vernon street. 6 Jan Fabricum at Diogenes home in Manchester or at Ron Clark Custom Knives in Corona, watch the Yahoo board for details. 13 Jan Annual General Assembly Meeting at the Centurions home in Valencia. 28039 Promentory Lane, Valencia CA 91354. Vote for your Senators and decide the Legions course for the next year. More information in the Senate Developments article below. 21 Jan Monthly hike at Griffith park. 9am muster at the usual location just North of the Roosevelt restaurant on Vernon street.
  • 3. 23-26 March Fort Lafe event in Arkansas. Several of our members are planning to make the trek this year. For information, see the Centuios article below. 22-23 April Encampment at the California Poppy Festival in Lancaster, California. Two-day full immersion event for public exhibition. Centurios Report By David Michaels As we draw to the close of another banner year, its a good time to take a look back at how far weve come as an organization. Legio VIs first real event was Old Fort Macarthur Days in July, 2002. Our total number was four Caius Man, Doug Kihn, Ron Glass and myself. We had barely enough gear to fit ourselves out, and we slept in a hastily-made canvas tent that had no ends. We had to stack our shields against the front and back to keep the cold wind from blowing through. In four years, our numbers have grown to 30 paid members and many more associate members and benefactors. At our last event, Marching Through History in October, we had 22 participants. Our campsite included our new leather tent, the spacious command tent, a beautiful new Imperial Pavilion, a separate kitchen enclosure, a working ballista (the largest operating bolt-
  • 4. thrower in North America), and enough period-correct equipment to make a museum green with envy. Our numbers included regular soldiers, legionary officers, Praetorian guardsmen, a Proconsul, a scribe, a traveling cheese merchant, a priestess of Isis, the Emperor Hadrian, his relations and retinue, slaves, and a dynamite kitchen staff whipping up exotic delicacies such as sauted dormice. That kind of astonishing progress didnt come about by accident, but only through the hard work and total commitment of our members. Unlike other reenactment groups, our club is not run by a single dictatorial figure, but is a true joint venture. We have something rare and amazing here, a collection of like- minded people pursuing their passion for Roman history, everyone bringing their own perspective and expertise in a chosen area, whose collective power is far beyond that of any individual. So lets all pause to reflect on the special, wonderful thing we have created, and to pat ourselves on the back just a bit. Then, lets get to work and make it even better. Papilio ProjectAs most of you are aware, we recently unveiled our new all-leather contuburnium tent, or papilio, at Marching Through History. The tent is the result of a whirlwind fundraising and construction effort launched in late August of this year. Terry Red Sebolt, manager of the Leather Factory in Baldwin Park, designed and built the tent after some exhaustive research into the latest archaeological findings. Several Legio VI members, including Jim Whitley, Linda Satorius, Matt Hicks, and Ron Glass, drove out to Baldwin Park to help Red with cutting out leather panels and stitching them together.
  • 5. Many legion members dug into their own pockets to make contributions from $25 to $100. We also received important funding contributions from several outside benefactors: Lenoir Josey of Houston, TX ($700); Richard Beleson of San Francisco ($300), and Mary Lannin of Sonoma, CA ($100), all coin collectors and friends of Roman historical studies. This is the first time non-participating members have made substantial contributions to one of our projects, but not the last (see the next entry). The whole effort is little short of amazing, and points to what we can accomplish when we pool our skills and resources and stir in a little motivation. A full account of the Legio VI Papilio Project will appear in the next full edition of Ad Signa, along with some photos of the completed tent. Well also post a page on our website naming all those who contributed either cash or time. F. Martin Post DonationThe Legion Six Historical Society has just received its biggest donation to date: All the remaining items in the late F. Martin Posts collection of ancient Roman coins. The donation comes by way of Mr. Posts son, Ritchie. The collection includes many important rarities, and the total estimated value is more than $11,000! For those of you who havent known my history, Ive been a dealer in ancient coins for nearly 20 years, the last five working for Freeman & Sear in Los Angeles, CA. Marty Post was one of my earliest and best clients, and I enjoyed helping him build an excellent collection of Roman coins over our 12-year friendship. Marty passed away in November, 2005 at the age of 88, and his son Ritchie consigned most of his collection to my company, Freeman & Sear, for sale. The auction closed August 25 of
  • 6. this year, and many of Martys coins sold for very strong prices. As in any auction, a few coins remained unsold, about a dozen all told, and on my suggestion, Ritchie decided to donate all of these to Legio VI. The next edition of Ad Signa will contain a brief biography of Marty Post and a detailed description, with photos, of all the coins donated to Legio VI. Our plan is to make the coins available for purchase by any interested Legio VI member, and then to offer them in an electronic auction on Vcoins.com, a clearinghouse website for ancient coin dealers and collectors. The funds will go into our operating budget and well soon be seeking suggestions on how this windfall should be handled! New trailerLegio VI finally has a trailer to store and transport our gear. The 10-foot trailer was bought from Home Depot earlier this month. Kris Lehere was kind enough to let the legion use her personal credit card to make the $2,200 purchase, with the understanding that shell be reimbursed with legion funds before the six- month no interest, same as cash deal expires on her card (with the donation noted above, shell have no worries in that regard!). Virtually all of the Legios community equipment (ballista, tents, loaner gear, etc.) has been loaded into the trailer and it now resides safely on the property belonging to of our members in the Valencia- Saugus area. Having this trailer will help immensely in getting our encampment set up and knocked down at events. No longer will we have the tedious duplication of effort in loading and offloading gear. One thing well now need to do is make a list of anyone who has a vehicle properly equipped to tow our new trailer, and who might be
  • 7. available on short notice to do so. Caius Man, Arik Greenberg and Mike Malin have already made themselves available, but Id like to see a few more names added to the list as back-up. Volunteers, anyone? New administrationAs Caius notes in his report, I am slated to take over as society president this January. Caius has done a fantastic job guiding the legion through the growth and changes outlined above, and I am humbled, and not a little daunted, to be stepping into his Senatorial calcei. I possess none of his mastery of turning a few chunks of wood and metal into a working ballista, nor do I own his keen eye for the ins and outs of organizational bureaucracy. I am very lucky hell be sticking around as a Senator and Vice President to help walk me through this and keep me on the right path. Moreover, Ill be relying on you, the members, my extended family, to tell me your thoughts, opinions, and feelings on which way youd like to see us go. Im here to listen to you. You can reach me anytime via my email address, [email protected], or my cell phone, (661) 644-1884. In fact, if you dont call me, dont be surprised if I just call you out of the blue to see how youre doing! Thats all for now. I look forward to seeing everyone at the December 17 hike/drill session and the January membership meeting. Fortas, honos et virtus, amici!
  • 8. Founders Report By Caius Man As most of our regular readers and members are aware, my family and I have moved to Arizona in order to take a more active role in the raising of our children. This has resulted in a number of changes in my own participation, as has been noted in previous issues of this publication. My reduced presence has allowed other members to step up to ably fill the vacuum. To the credit of the other members of our Senate, I suspect most of the membership will hardly notice Im out of state. Ron has taken huge strides in streamlining and getting on top of our government required paperwork in his new role as Secretary. Ariks determined and stalwart approach to the Legions financial and legal maters as our Treasurer has greatly improved our ability to pursue our mission. And, as a recent meeting of the Sentate, Dave accepted the position of unit President. As of the first of the year, Dave and I will trade positions and I will become his Vice President, and I thank him for his kind words above. While Ill actually still see the other Senators regularly at our meetings and the membership as a whole at our encampments and meetings, I sought another role that my revised time commitments would allow me to assist with. I actually have quite a bit of time now on weeknights and so it was agreed that I should take over the editorial duties of this publication.
  • 9. As the new editor I hope to push AD SIGNA further down the road of being a viable educational source in its own right. In addition to Legion Six Historical Foundation news and event information and reviews, I, and the rest of the Senate, hope that we can include many interesting articles to advance the knowledge of our members and other readers. All of our readers are encouraged to submit articles, reviews, theses, and pertinent photos for consideration and publication. If you have an idea of something youd like to share with the rest of the readership, please email me and well develop an article from it. We will continue to produce an email version for mass consumption, but more emphasis will be placed upon the printed edition of the newsletter with its relevant photos, charts and diagrams included in the articles. It is also easier to hold on to the information from prior issues if you have it on paper somewhere. Additionally, all 15 past issues are available from the Legion at a small fee or donation to cover the cost of printing and mailing for anyone who requests them. SHOW ME THE MONETA A Primer on Roman Money By David S. Michaels / T. Flavius Crispus A few weeks back, I was luck enough to obtain a big shipment of reproduction Roman coins at a highly favorable price. A number of our members bought one or more sets of these replicas, which represented each of the
  • 10. major denominations in Roman coinage, giving them some actual period currency to put in their money pouches. A number of folks asked me to do a quick cheat sheet on what each coin was, how they related to each other, and how much buying power they represented. So, here we go but first, a little background. Origins Money was invented about 650 BC by either the Lydians, a people living in central Asia Minor (modern Turkey), or the Greeks on the Ionian coast. The first coins were little more than pre-weighed nuggets of electrum, a natural alloy of gold and silver. These were stamped with a symbol representing the local king or the issuing city. Within about 150 years, coinage had spread over the Greek world. Coins like the famous Athenian owl silver tetradrachm (four-drachm piece) became standard trade currencies and helped spread Greek ideas, religion and culture all over the Mediterranean world. The Romans were latecomers to coined money, since the early inhabitants of the seven hills prided themselves on their rustic origins and were suspicious of decadent Greek ideas. The earliest Roman coins were made about 275 BC and followed the Etruscan pattern of large, crude cast coins made of copper. The earliest Roman copper coin was called an as (pronounced ass, asses plural ), weighed about a pound and was larger than a hockey puck! Plainly, these huge chunks werent very portable, so within a few years the Romans started producing smaller fractions of an as, along with silver coins about the size and weight of a Greek two-drachm
  • 11. piece, or didrachm. These silver pieces were probably intended for trade with the Greek cities of southern Italy, but the Romans must have quickly realized how convenient they were, particularly compared to their clumsy native bronze coinage. During the titanic Second Punic War (218-202 BC), the Romans reformed their monetary system and introduced the denarius, a silver coin about the size of a modern dime, weighing about four grams, and worth 10 copper asses. The copper as, in turn, shrank from its original huge cast form down to a more practically sized stamped coin of about 16-20 grams. In 141 BC, the denarius was retariffed at 16 copper asses. A tiny silver coin called a sestertius, worth a quarter of a denarius, was also issued from time to time, but was impractically small and seldom used. Gold coins were also issued on rare occasions, but were not part of the regular coinage system. This changed somewhat in 46 BC, when Julius Caesar brought so much plunder back to Rome from his various campaigns of conquest that he was able to strike millions of gold coins, called aurei (aureus singular), to pay his troops and distribute to the masses. The Imperial system The first Roman emperor, Caesar Augustus, completely revamped the coinage around 30 BC, and the system he introduced remained virtually unchanged for nearly 300 years. This remarkable stability helped make the Roman economy one of the wonders of the ancient world. Unlike our modern decimal system, the Roman system worked mainly in twos and fours, with one major
  • 12. exception. The main denominations now in circulation included the following (pictures shown to approximate relative size): Copper as The venerable old ass was now a copper coin about the size of a modern quarter and weighing 10-12 grams. The obverse usually bore the head of the Emperor (sometimes the Empress or the heir- apparent), either wearing a laurel wreath or bareheaded. Above is an as of Trajan. Two asses made a Brass dupondius This two-as piece was only slightly larger and heavier than an as (usually about 12-14 grams). But it was struck in a copper-zinc alloy called orichalcum, a form of brass, which had a bright yellow color instead of the reddish copper. Also, the Emperor (Vespasian in the example here) was usually shown wearing a spiky radiate crown instead a laurel wreath. Two dupondii made a Brass sestertius No longer a tiny silver coin, the sestertius was now a large orichalcum coin about the size of a modern silver dollar and weighing about 24-26 grams. These are some of the most impressive Roman coins, as the large planchet provided plenty of room for artistic expression, both in the
  • 13. rulers portrait and the reverse design. Above is a sestertius of our own beloved Hadrian. Four brass sestertii, in turn, made a Silver denarius The weight of this coin was slightly reduced from Republican times (to about 3.5 grams), but it remained fundamentally the same coin as before. The denarius was the mainstay of the Roman economy. The silver content remained close to 90% until the later second century AD, when the purity began to decline. This example, again, is of Hadrian. Finally, twenty-five silver denarii made a Gold aureus This was by far the most valuable regular coin denomination, valued at 25 denarii and 100 sesterces. The aureus was about the same size as a denarius but weighed nearly twice as much, around 7.5 grams. The gold was of high purity, about 23-24 karat. Pictured is a gold aureus of Titus, from the famous Boscoreale Hoard found near Pompeii in 1886. There were also a few fractional denominations that were also part of the system: Copper quadrans A penny-sized copper coin worth one-fourth of an as. Brass semis A nickel-sized orichalcum coin worth half an as and two quadrantes. Silver quinarius A silver coin weighing about 1.8 grams, worth half a denarius. Gold quinarius A gold coin weighing about 3.75 grams, worth half an aureus.
  • 14. The copper and brass fractions were important as small change and were issued in some quantities. Interestingly, the quadrans almost never bore a portrait of the emperor. Since a quadrans was the standard fare for using a public toilet, subjecting the emperors image to such desecration was probably considered taboo! The precious-metal fractions (gold and silver quinarius) were seldom issued and used. They may have been struck only for special occasions, as when the emperor personally distributed money to the populace, like the Maundy money of modern England. During the Empire, Romans used the sestertius as the basic unit of account. Bookkeepers used the abbreviation IIS for a certain number of sesterces. For example, 175 sesterces would be written out IIS CLXXV. (To see where this eventually led, think of the modern dollar sign!) Values, then and now One of the most frequently asked questions about ancient coins is, what were they worth in todays money? Its a difficult question to answer, since the economy of the ancient world was vastly different from that of today. A general rule of thumb in the ancient world is that materials, particularly metals, were expensive, while labor, due to widespread slavery, was extremely cheap. The situation is almost precisely the opposite today. Still, an avid coin collector and accountant named Doug Smith has made a valiant attempt to come up with a means of comparing the purchasing power of ancient vs. todays money. He uses the relative price of
  • 15. Heres a table of the relative values of Roman coinage: Augustan coinage system (27 B.C. A.D. 214.) Copper Quadrans Brass Dupondius Silver Quinarius Brass Sestertius Gold Quinarius Silver Denarius Denominatio Gold Aureus Copper As n 1 2 25 50 100 200 400 1600 Aureus Gold 1/2 1 12 1/2 25 50 100 200 800 Quinarius Denarius 1/25 2/25 1 2 4 8 16 64 Quinarius 1/50 1/25 1/2 1 2 4 8 32 Sestertius 1/100 1/50 1/4 1/2 1 2 4 16 Dupondius 1/200 1/100 1/8 1/4 1/2 1 2 8 As 1/400 1/200 1/16 1/8 1/4 1/2 1 4 Quadrans 1/1600 1/800 1/64 1/32 1/16 1/8 1/4 1
  • 16. purchasing something as commonplace in ancient times as it is in the modern worlda loaf of bread. Even here, there are a lot of variables. Naturally, the price of bread changed over the years due to inflation, periods of shortage and glut, etc. Also, bread and most other items tended to be more expensive in Rome itself and other major urban centers than it was in smaller towns and the countryside. Then, as now, the cost of living gets higher the closer you get to major centers of power! On the other hand, the cost of manufactured goods and luxury items could be much higher in far-flung frontier provinces like Britannia, due to the high cost of transporting items overland from manufacturing centers. Since Legio VI Victrix is focused on the reign of Hadrian (AD 117-138), well take the narrow view of the value of coinage during this time frame. In Rome, a loaf of better-quality bread cost one dupondius or two copper asses, and about half to two thirds out in the provinces. By that reckoning, we come up with the following relative values: As-- $1.25 Dupondius-- $2.50 Sestertius-- $5.00 Denarius-- $20.00 Aureus-- $500.00 This will only take us so far, because the relative prices of various goods and services was so vastly different in the ancient world. In fact, prices for many things are
  • 17. poorly understood for the early imperial era, but here are some of the prices that have been recorded: 1 sextarius (0.5 liter) of cheap wine1-5 asses (depending on quality) 1 sextarius of Falernian (the best wine)30 asses Visit to the public baths / toilet1 quadrans (1/4 as) 1 litra (1/3 kg) of olive oil1 sestertius 1 basic-quality wool tunic15 sesterces 1 donkey500 sesterces 1 slave (male or female)2,000-6,000 sesterces Salaries In ancient Rome, very few people earned a regular salary. Anyone who wasnt a slave either scratched out a living as a farmer, merchant, tradesman, or entrepreneur, or, if they were lucky enough, lived off their familys money. The major exceptions were soldiers and government employees. The Emperor Domitian (AD 81-96) raised the pay rate for regular Roman legionaries to 300 silver denarii, or 1,200 sesterces, per year. It remained at this level for the next century. By Doug Smiths bread quotient, this amounts to about $6,000 per year base pay. While this might not seem like a great salary today, you have to remember that most Roman legionaries were stationed out in the provinces and frontier regions, where the buying power of their cash went a lot further. Also, this regular pay rate was bolstered by regular donatives issued by the Emperor on occasions like his birthday and accession date, and by plunder gathered on
  • 18. campaign. Donatives could amount to half again the annual salary each year. Plunder was theoretically supposed to be collected at the conclusion of a campaign and redistributed to all participating legionaries, so that everyone got a fair share. During the Republic, the legionaries of General Lucullus earned the equivalent of 800 denarii each from the plunder they collected and turned in during one Eastern campaign. Certainly, though, some legionaries managed to hide their personal stash of loot from the prying eyes of the centurion. Moving up through the ranks had its rewards. Noncommissioned officers such as the vexillator (flag bearers) and tesserarius (NCO in charge of watch words) earned pay and a half (450 denarii per year), and were called sesquipilarii (literally pay-and-a-halfers). Duplicarii earning double pay included the Optio (second in command of a century), the cornicularius (horn-player and administrator), and the aquilifer (eagle-bearer). A basic centurion earned five times the normal pay rate, or 1,500 denarii / 6,000 sesterces per year, while a senior centurion such as a Primus Pilus could earn up to four times this amount, or 20 times the pay of a regular legionary. Salary deductions were made to cover the cost of replacement armor and equipment, food, and clothing, but the exact amount is unknown. Other deductions went to a retirement fund (the ancient equivalent of a 401K plan!), and a burial fund to cover funeral expenses should the soldier die while on duty. Many of the finely carved tombstones for soldiers found throughout the Empire must have been paid for this way. Soldiers also received a retirement bonus after serving their 20 years in the army. Augustus set this
  • 19. amount at 3,000 denarii, where it apparently stayed until the reign of Caracalla (AD 211-217), who raised it to 5,000. Salaries for members of the Praetorian Guard were double those of regular legionaries. This may seem like a nice perk, but remember that the cost of living was considerably higher in Rome, so much of their extra wages probably went toward basic living expenses. Still, the opportunities for making money on the side through bribery and extortion, not to mention the chance to make important connections, were considerable. Many Praetorians are known to have gotten quite wealthy during their term of service, earning them passage into the Equestrian and Senatorial classes. To rank as an Equestrian (or Knight), one had to own property worth at least 400,000 sesterces, while anyone hoping for Senatorial status had to be at least a millionairethat is, own property worth a million sesterces. Propaganda value Coins were more than just a medium of exchange. They were also a means of mass communication, perhaps the only one available in a world without printing or broadcast media. Augustus and his successors understood the propaganda value of their coinage, and used it to the hilt. As noted before, the heads side, or obverse of each coin usually bore a portrait of the emperor, or sometimes one of his relations.
  • 20. Claudius, for example, struck coins honoring his father Drusus, his mother Antonia (see the dupondius above), and his brother Germanicus, all calculated to emphasize his imperial pedigree. The tails, or reverse side of the coin often touted the emperors perceived virtues or policies, usually in the form of a male or female personification (Aequitas for fairness, Pietas for piety, Liberalitas for generosity, and so on). Military victories were hyped to the max, often with scenes depicting the emperor crowned by Victory, or placing his foot on a kneeling captive, or riding in a triumphal chariot. In this tradition is the famous Judaea Capta series of coins struck by Vespasian (sestertius above), which celebrated the crushing of the First Revolt in Judea (AD 66-70). Another famous series is the one marking Hadrians many travels throughout the Empire, in which coins were struck in honor of every province he visited. The obverse legend of nearly every Roman coin bore the emperors name and titles, often abbreviated. The legend of the Vespasian sestertius above is fairly typical, and reads (with abbreviations fleshed out): IMP(erator) CAES(ar) VESPASIAN AVG(ustus) P(ontifex) M(aximus) TR(ibunica) P(otestas= with the power of a Tribune) P P (Pater Patriae = father of his country) COS III (thrice Consul).
  • 21. In many ways, Roman coins were the official government newspapers of their day. For that reason, they are immensely valuable to modern archaeologists and historians. Coins have filled in big gaps in the historical record and have helped provide firm dates for countless archaeological sites. Many Roman coins are dated, usually with the emperors Tribunican year. An emperor was granted the power of a Tribune (Tribunica Potestas, abbreviated TR P) every year from accession, so a coin of Antoninus Pius dated TR P XVII would have been struck in his 17th year of rule, or AD 155/6. Coins are also incredibly informative about the state of the Roman economy at various times in its history. As inflation picked up steam in the Third Century, the weight and fineness of Roman coins began to decline dramatically. By AD 260, the whole coinage system had collapsed, with so-called silver coins containing no more than five percent silver and bronze coins virtually driven from circulation. When the Roman Empire recovered from the anarchy in the fourth century, the coinage system had to be totally revamped, with a new set of denominations. But that is another story. Collecting Roman coins Collecting ancient coins was long considered the hobby of kings during and after the Renaissance, but nowadays anyone can form a nice collection, no matter your budget. Prices for Roman coins can range from as little as $1 for crummy uncleaned bronzes of the Late Roman empire to, well, as much as youre able to spend. Roman coins are readily available on the internet, but
  • 22. bewarefakes abound on eBay and other major e- commerce sites. It is always best to deal with a specialist in ancient coins, such as your humble correspondent. A visit to the website of my company, Freeman & Sear, http://www.freemanandsear.com, will give you an idea of what wonders are available for your viewing and / or collecting pleasure. Another excellent website is that of David R. Sear, co-founder of the company and author of many important books on Greek, Roman and Byzantine coinage: http://www.davidrsear.com. Finally, Doug Smith runs an excellent educational website with numerous interesting articles on Roman coins: http://dougsmith.ancients.info/ AFTER ACTION REPORTs FORT LAFE, AD 43 By David S. Michaels / T. Flavius Crispus Photos by Jim Whitley and Mario Padilla You drive for hours through rural central Arkansas, passing mile upon mile of plowed fields, ramshackle barns, and tidy little towns. As the sun sinks low, you plunge into thick woods, and the road turns from asphalt to packed dirt. Suddenly, darkness engulfs you, so deep you can barely see through the tangle of trees and underbrush. You follow the rutted road into a clearing and spot a pair of orange lights up ahead, dancing and flickering. They are torches, affixed to the top a dark,
  • 23. rectangular edifice shaped like a crenellated wall. A double gate opens as you approach, revealing a torch-lit courtyard beyond. You enter, roll to a stop, get out of the car, and stare in disbelief. For you stand on the parade ground of a fortress, surrounded by a dozen Roman legionaries in full armor, helmets gleaming in the torchlight, weapons at the ready. Welcome to Fort Lafe, AD 43. Full immersion Until someone invents a time machine, Fort Lafe is the closest a 21st century American can get to actually experiencing the life of a Roman soldier or Celtic villager. It is a life-sized replica of a Roman auxiliary fortress located on 96 acres in the wilds of central Arkansas. Each March, the fortress hosts four days of full immersion role-playing for Roman and Celtic reenactors from all over North America. Fort Lafe is the brainchild of Mark Saddler (right), his son Butch, and Carl Steyer, who are co-founders of Legio II Augusta, one of a growing number of legionary reenactment groups based in the southeastern United States. Legio II started in 1996 as an SCA group. A trip to one of the SCA Gulf Wars event convinced Mark, Carl and
  • 24. company that a complete Roman-style event could be sponsored on some property Carl owned in Lafe. This event would be a private living history event where a person could attend as an ancient soldier, civilian or local tribesman and not have to worry about putting on a show or answering questions from visitors, says Mark. Our intention was to put on a roman holiday of sorts and try to live like the soldiers did in the first century. The site was on unimproved agricultural land surrounded by dense woods. One cold fall morning in 2003, Mark, Carl and Butch walked off the boundaries of the fort-to-be, planting stakes with flags at the corners. The dimensions were 150 by 175 feet, too small for a Legionary fort but similar in size to some of the smaller known Auxiliary defenses. They started work by using a backhoe to dig a perimeter ditch 12 feet wide and about five feet deep, forming the removed dirt into an interior berm over four feet tall. From this bare beginning, the fort has slowly taken shape over the last three years. An impressive gate house with two 14-foot towers, a viewing platform and a pair of heavy double-doors, each more than two inches thick, was completed early this year, just in time for the 2006 event. Nine-foot guard towers are being erected at the corners. Section-by-section, a five-foot crenellated wooden wall is being built atop the berm around the entire perimeter. From the bottom of the ditch, the effect is of a 13-foot wall overlooking you and your barbarian brethren.
  • 25. Three barracks blocks have also been also constructed, using period-proper stucco walls and red tile roofs, containing three sets of bunk beds each. The fort enclosure also has plenty of space for fire pits, tent set-up and a parade ground. A coccina, or food preparation and dining area, is located a short distance outside the walls, where the womenfolk of Legio II prepare fabulous, period-proper meals for participants (even garum can be had!). Modern restrooms and hot- water showers are also located offsite, a short hike away. Three full-immersion weekend events, entitled Fort Lafe AD 43, have been held in mid-March of every year since construction began. Each year, more Roman and barbarian reenactors have turned out. Two members of Legio VI Victrix, Jim Whitley (Marcus Valerius Aelianus) and myself were lucky enough to attend last years event, held March 23-26. Cross-country trek Jim and I packed as much gear as we could, including our Newstead cuirasses, subarmali, swords, belts, and loculus bags, into a couple of large suitcases for the flight from LAX to Memphis, TN. We strapped our shields together, covered them in bubble-wrap and tape, and checked them as a separate item, which actually worked quite well. Apart from a few curious stares from
  • 26. the TSA folks, everything went smoothly and we rented an SUV at Memphis for the two-hour drive to Lafe. Once at the fort, we quickly linked up with a pair of old friends. One was Legio VI alumnus J. D. Feigelson, aka Gnaeus Julius Lucullus, who had taken the role of Camp Praefect, or supreme commander. The other was Craig Nordquist, aka Centurio Marsinius of Legio XXII Primigenia, based in Cincinnati, OH (right). Marsinius had brought four legionaries with him from Legio XXII and had set up a Deepeeka leather contuburnium tent within the fort enclosure. Soldiers from several other reenactment groups based in the eastern and southeastern U.S., including Legios VI Ferrata, III Gallica, and II Trajana (Colorado) had already gathered and we spent the evening communing with our brethren around a crackling campfire. After a while, we turned in with Marsinius crew, squeezing six bodies into the Deepeeka tent. Cold does not begin to describe that first evening. After awhile, the banter and joking among us gave way to the steady chatter of teeth.
  • 27. Memo to self: Next time, bring many as many wool blankets and sheepskins as can be packed! During that endless night, several other legionary units arrived, including the Dan Peterson of legendary Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix, who had recently relocated from Germany to Kentucky. Dan brought a trailer full of impressive gear, including three leather tents and enough cuirasses, helmets and swords to kit out at least a dozen legionaries. Also arriving were Mario Padilla (aka Gaius Marius Trajanus) and another soldier of Legio IX Hispana, bringing the total California contingent to four. Next morning, we had a chance to look around our surroundings in daylight. Valerius and I were astounded that we could climb to the observation platform on the gatehouse and survey in all directions, turning a 360-
  • 28. degree circle, and not see a single telephone pole, paved road, or modern buildingindeed nothing that would be out of place at a wilderness outpost of the Roman army in the first century AD. Immersion was total. We also had a chance to meet the enemy, namely the Celtic and Germanic reenactors who joined us in roll playing for the weekend. We learned there was a Celtic campsite somewhere in the woodsexactly where wasnt specified. Chief among the Celts (literally) was Nate Bell, aka Brionnach, who, with his red hair, lean physique and superb kit of hand-woven tartans and chain mail, looked and acted every inch the part. Rules of the game During breakfast, the senior officers of the attending legions met to discuss the scenario go over the ground rules. The legionary force was split into two equal cohorts, a Garrison Cohort to maintain and guard the fort and a Patrol Cohort to recon the surrounding woods. Two Centurios were elected to head each cohort Marsinius for Garrison and Rusty Myers of Legio VI Ferrata, aka Justinus Longinus, for Patrol. At the outset, the Celts in the surrounding woods were supposed to be friendlies, or at least neutral toward our presence, but we were told some sort of incident might occur during the day that would ignite hostilities. With the California contingent under Marsinius in the Garrison Cohort, we spent the first day serving guard duty, doing fatigues like chopping wood, fetching water, and cooking up porridge, and drilling, always wearing full kit. Valerius served as Optio during the drill sessions and
  • 29. soon had our 16-man unit honed to fighting form. We also split up and went shield-to-shield against each other, using needlefelt swords to practice basic Roman fighting techniques. One of Rustys patrols captured a mysterious Celtic girl skulking about in the woods at mid-morning and brought her back to the fort for questioning. She was a mere slip of a lass, raven-haired and dark-eyed, with a strange little smile. Praefect Julius questioned her at length, with me taking the role of interpreter (I supposedly had some Celtic roots and knew the treacherous ways of these people). She remained tight-lipped. I advised putting her to torture, but the kindly Praefect insisted she be set free and allowed to roam the camp so we might impress her with the might of Rome. Around noon, Brionnach showed up at the camp in his full finery as a Celtic chieftain, asking if we knew the whereabouts of a certain girl who went missing from his village. The Praefect and Marsinius didnt take well to his haughty attitude and ordered him detained for interrogation. Brionnach (below) made a break for it and one of the guards ran him through with a needlefelt gladius. And so we had our incident to launch the war.
  • 30. Toward the late afternoon came calls of alarm from the sentries. A handful of Celtic warriors entered the clearing and commenced demonstrating before the main gate, cursing us for killing their chief and demanding that we come out to fight. Our Patrol Cohort was in the field and Centurio Marsinius didnt want us putting the camp at risk by opening the gates. While he stood on the parapet discussing he situation with Valerius, a needlefelt spear flew over the wall andthunk! hit him square in the back! It was a one-in-a-million shot, and Marsinius went down like a sack of scrap iron. His chain mail shirt saved him from death, but by the rules of the game he was seriously wounded and had to sit out for an hour while the medicus tended him. As Garrison Optio, Valerius took charge and ordered a sally through the main gate to punish these insolent barbarians. The Celts, though, simply scattered at our approach. They wore little or no armor, and were remarkably fleet of foot. One Celt (Carl Steyer) made a dash for the double-door wed just exited, which was still open a crack. Shut the gate! Shut the gate! I yelled as I ran after him. Too lateCarl pushed his way through, killed the gatekeeper with a quick thrust, then went tearing through the fort like a wildman. I bolted after him, but carrying 30
  • 31. pounds of shield and armor, I couldnt keep up. In another moment, hed sprinted past the startled guards at the open rear entrance and hightailed it off into the safety of the woods. In the meantime, the Garrison cohort had managed to kill a couple of the warriors before the fort. But our first exchange with the enemy had seen our Centurio badly wounded, the gatekeeper killed, and the humiliation of having a Celt run unmolested through our fort. Not a stellar beginning for us Romans. Incident on the tower Evening set in, and the temperature plummeted. That was the coldest mid-March in years, says Mark. Normally, its in the 50-70 degree range. This time, the water pipes for the restroom / shower complex froze solid. Still, we stuck to our routines of regular watches, fatigues and standing around the campfires, huddled up in cloaks. Strange sounds emanated from the woods from time to time, no doubt barbarians watching our activities signaling each other. Spooky, to be sure, but we felt secure within our walls. Late that night, Valerius climbed the staircase to the guard tower to take his watch. He found the mysterious Celtic girl on the platform, gazing out at the forest. He sidled up to her and turned on the charm. So, he asked, what were you all about today, anyway? Were you a spy, or innocent, or what? The girl gave that strange smile, whipped a needlefelt sword from beneath her cloak, and stabbed him.
  • 32. Valerius managed to yell out an alarm before she finished him off. Centurio Justinus came running up the stairs, found the girl waiting for him there, and received a thrust to the throat for his trouble. Two down. Amid the ensuing commotion, the Celts outside launched a masterfully coordinated attack on the fort. They swept around the front entrance, climbed the berm and jumped a small gap in the wall. They swept into the camp, finding unarmored soldiers huddled around the campfire or in the barracks, preparing for bed. Few had their shields or weapons handy. Some of our men went down fighting. Most were like sheep to the slaughter. Memos to self: Next time, (1) if you find a Celtic girl on the parapet, kill her! (2) Dont leave gaps in the wall unguarded, no matter what happens in the tower. (3) Always make sure the men have shields and swords handy. (4) Never trust a Celt! So ended the first day, with the entire Roman garrison of Fort Lafe butchered. Next day, of course, everyone was miraculously reconstituted (or maybe a new garrison had occupied the fort), and we resumed the scenario. This time, the Patrol and Garrison cohorts of the previous day switched roles. We now had a better idea of what to expect from our crafty foe, and were determined to get some payback. It being Saturday, a batch of new Romans and Celts arrived at the fort, including a group of Auxiliaries who, we were warned, might turn native at any time.
  • 33. The Last Patrol Centurio Marsinius cohort went on its first patrol at midday. By now, the full immersion had truly taken hold and watching the fort disappear from view as we plunged into the dense woods brought a distinctly creepy, tingly sensation. I could fully understand how the legionaries of Quictillius Varus felt as they marched through the Black Forest. We moved cautiously, posting soldiers at point and flank position to watch all approaches. From time to time, a slight flash of movement or color in amid the trees told us we were being shadowed. At one point, we entered a clearing to found a Celtic roundhouse, unoccupied. Since we knew we were dealing with hostiles, Marsinius ordered the house fired and the livestock (actually a couple of stuffed pigs) slaughtered. We pushed on.
  • 34. We reached the crest of a hill spotted the main Celtic encampment in a little clearing in the valley below. On Valerius suggestion, we set up a skirmish line and advanced on the village, shields and weapons at the ready. We entered the encampment and found three of inhabitants, a young woman, and old man and a suspicious character who identified himself as a Roman merchant. In the center of the camp stood a pile of Roman and auxiliary armor and weapons. Plunder from the previous nights garrison attack? We stationed sentries at the approaches and questioned the inhabitants. They claimed to be friendlies, and that the menfolk were out hunting. They said they knew nothing about how the weapons got there. Marsinius didnt buy it. He ordered the villagers seized to be brought back to the fort for further interrogation. The weapons would be destroyed in place, and the village fired. Hey, we were Romanswe didnt mess around, particularly with so many of our fraters recently slaughtered. Suddenly, a sentry sounded the alarm. Out of the woods came a group of Auxiliaries, approaching the village slowly and quietly. We ordered them to halt and drop their weapons. They came a bit closer, then charged
  • 35. us, needlefelts swinging away. Three surrounded Valerius he managed to kill two before going down himself. We dealt with the rest quickly, since they lacked shields. But then From the opposite side of the village came cries and commotion. A Celtic warband, headed by Brionnach, spilled into the clearing. The Auxiliary attack had been a diversionhere was the main force! Theyd killed our sentries to that side of the camp and now threatened to catch us in a classic double-envelopment. Wed lost maybe three men, but still had enough to form a solid shield wall, stretching almost across the clearing. We seemed to be in a good position to take them on, and for a moment Brionnach and his men hung back. Flank attack! I taunted Brionnach from behind my shieldHey, Celty whats the matter? Afraid to play? No, not afraid, but looking, thinking. He started moving to our left. I could see why: The right side of out shield wall was secured by a dense thicket, but the far left side hung in the open, unsecured. Marsinius ordered us to pull the wall around to form a circle, but too latein another instant, theyd attacked our flank and legionaries started going down, one by one. The shield wall shattered and the battle became a general melee. I caught site of Marsinius bravely hacking and thrusting away, taking on two Celts simultaneously. I charged the Celt in front of me, but he thrust under my shield with the butt-end of his spear and caught me in the groinluckily, more of a poke than a
  • 36. solid thrust. Okay, okay, you got me! I squeaked, hitting the ground. When the killing was done, all the Romans were dead, and of the Celts, only Brionnach and one other survived. A Celtic victory, but a Pyrrhic one, to be sure. Since we Romans had been outnumbered by a half- dozen or so, I thought wed acquitted ourselves well, all things considered. There were a few minor bruises and bumps, but the worst damage was to our equipment. A rather hefty Auxiliary fell on top of Valerius, crushing the shoulder plates to his Newstead cuirass (above), and Marsinius beautiful feather cresta transversa was cleaved in half. Otherwise, things held up remarkably well under combat stress.
  • 37. The Forest Battle was the definite highlight of the event for those who participated. The rest of Saturday was taken up in regular garrison details, posing for photos, and shooting video, with Dan Peterson taking center stage (right). Next day was taken up comparing notes, packing up, saying our goodbyes, and shipping out. Looking back, my experience at Fort Lafe is one of the highlights of my reenacting career. The sense of truly being there and experiencing the life of a Roman soldier on the frontier is truly a revelation. I also got to meet the great Dan Peterson and made many new friends, including (but not limited to) Mark Saddler, Carl Steyer, Dan Peterson, Nate Bell, and Rusty Myers. I also cant wait to get back, especially to settle scores with that Brionnach. Grrrr. ATTENDING FORT LAFE 2007 Next years Fort Lafe: AD 43 event is scheduled for March 22-25 (Thursday-Sunday). The fee for attending is a mere $25 per person. I am certainly planning to return, and I would love as many of my Legio VI brethren as possible to share the experience. I and the Senate are going to investigate the possibility that, with some of the monies shortly to be
  • 38. coming in, the legion establish a travel fund to help those who need it pay for the trip. Air fares from LAX to Memphis, TN can be had for $200-350, and car rentals are quite reasonable. Now that the Legion has a proper trailer, we will also investigate the possibility of having some of our number drive to the event, carrying most or all of our camp gear (including the ballista and our new leather tent) with us. According to Mapquest, the direct driving time from Los Angeles to Lafe, Arkansas is 26 hours, so it could be managed in two days. So this would require a commitment of five days totalleave L.A. early Wednesday, March 21, arrive Thursday, March 22; pack up and leave early Sunday, March 25; arrive home late Monday, March 26. Would anyone care to volunteer to make the long haul (ahem, Mike, Arick or Norm)? Anyone who wants to attend should let me know and start making plans now. If we coordinate on airfares, car rentals, and scheduling, we can probably save quite a bit of cash and headaches. Here are some other suggestions for those planning to attend: Dress warmArkansas in March is definitely wool-weather. Bring plenty of warm wool blankets for the nighttime and something well-insulated to sleep in. Daytime temperatures can reach 70 degrees, but be sure to bring braccae (knee-britches), layered woolen tunics and a heavy woolen cloak. Pack smartIf youre flying, pack your armor and weapons in a medium-to-large rolling suitcase, preferably a semi-hard shell type. Keep the weight below 50 pounds, as there is an extra charge for anything over this weight.
  • 39. For two or more traveling together, shields can be strapped together, covered in heavy plastic or bubble- pack, and checked separately. Clothes should be packed in a carry-on and other non-metallic items can be carried in a shoulder bagyour loculus pack works well for this. Work outFort Lafe is a demanding physical environment, and you need to be in good shape going in. You do everything in full armor--drilling, camp fatigues, weapons training, and patrols, not to mention needlefelt combat. Patrols range from two to five miles over rough terrain. Youll leave tired and sore, but with proper preparation, itll be a good tired and sore. Find spaceIf we do arrange for our trailer to get there, well set up both tents and this will not be a problem. Otherwise, well need to make sleeping arrangements. Space in the barracks (above) is given out first to the legions of the Imperial Southern Provisional Army (a loose organization of southeastern Roman reenactment groups), then on a first come first served basis after that. The barracks has bunks for 20 legionnaires.
  • 40. Train to fightStart brushing up on drill and needlefelt combat. A handbook of rules for the event will probably come out in December. In the meantime, we should add sparring and line-against-line training to all our drill/hike sessions this year and next. Mark Saddler says he hopes to have most of the perimeter wall constructed by Lafe 07. A five-foot section of wall costs $50 to build, and those who make donations to the construction fund can have their names engraved on that section. I therefore propose that Legio VI Victrix contribute $200 to the construction fund between now and March, so that our attending members can actually defend our own section of wall! One last word from Mark: Our goal is to get a century of soldiers to march out from the gates at Lafe. We had close to 50 soldiers last year so this goal is possible in 07. Think of the publicity roman reenacting in the U.S. could receive from a century of soldiers filing out of the gates! We can do this. Well be glad we did! Lets get to it.
  • 41. Roman world Reviews How would you survive as ancient Roman? By Anita Ganeri and David Salariva (Franklin Watts October 1996) Review by Caius Man While browsing the local library, I came across this rare gem. It is, in essence, one of the myriad of picture books aimed at young readers preparing book reports for their middle schools. But this one has an interesting twist that draws the reader in and makes it a valuable tool for getting the basics of Roman culture. It asks the question of its title, how would you survive? This is achieved by having many of its articles and page corners ask questions about other things, which causes the reader to leaf back and forth through the pages to get the whole story. In its own small way it teaches the reader to research his or her own answers within the confines of the book itself. A novel, and I found, engaging approach. Of course, like many of this type of primer grade books, some of the information could be disputed by the more learned amongst us and the academic community. There is no hard attempt to separate facts from legends for
  • 42. instance, so the reader must also weigh common sense and modern archeology with some of the books assertations. What this book does achieve is an excellent flavor of the Roman world. We know that the story of Romulus and Remus is legend, but the average Roman may well have taken it to be the fact that is presented here. Overall, this book receives my recommendation for persons wishing to begin life as a Roman reenactor. It, like the Eyewitness books and the Usborne Illustrated histories, provides quick, bite-sized information that will provide an overview of Roman life, conditions, and attitudes. Its available through our friends at Amazon.com in hard and soft cover for very reasonable expense. Prospective legionaries are reminded to go to the Legions website and follow the links to Amazon from there so that the Legions Associates account can help buy new books for our library. Senate Developments A great deal has been going on lately with regards to the units Board of Directors, the Senate. For those readers who arent aware, the Legion Six Historical Foundation, Inc. is not a reenactment club. We are a government recognized charitable education corporation with the primary mission of teaching the public about the Roman way of life. This means that we can accept tax deductable donations, are exempt from taxation, and have to jump through a great number of legal hoops to stay operating. We belive this is a good thing since it alows the kinds of donations that funded the new leather tent and
  • 43. the event trailer, like the one Flavius discusses in his Centuios report. The Senate is therefore a legal body that decides and enforces the policies and practices of the organization. We strive to balance the enjoyablitiy of members reenactment experiences with the need to stay focused on creating the most educational experience possible for the public. This is why we maintain such strict standards of authenticity, membership approval, and conduct when in view of the public. Recently, it has come to the attention of the Senate that some or many of our membership, new and old, are unaware of some of the policies of the organization. In fact, some of the Senate themselves disagreed on several topics. This confusion has been attributed to the fact that most of our traditions have thusfar been oral in nature, and we of the Senate have determined to rectify this deficiency. As a result, weve been meeting about every six weeks and batting policy issues around the table with the emphasis on creating real world, plain english written policies for the group. And, since a policy nobody knows about is as pointless as one that doesnt exist, weve been working on ways to spread the information to the membership and to prospective recruits. One of the ways well be deceminating this information is in this newsletter. In this and future issues expect to see clarifications about the way we do business and often why we do them that way. The Tirones Codex recruit pamphlet has been updated to reflect accurate current policy and should be read by every member and taken to heart. Copies are available by asking the Secretary or the AD SIGNA editior and will be distributed at the
  • 44. annual meeting. We will also be implimenting a new trainee education progam as soon as the details can be hammered out. These are not decrees of new ways of doing things or radical changes to the groups mission or activites. The goal here is to get us all on the same page and to aleviate confusion. It is also to help to let new and prospective members know what theyre getting into and avoid duplication of effort or having to relearn something they were misinformed about. For now, well include two recent ammendments to our corporate bylaws and our policy on Senate seat voting. By the way, a plain english version of the bylaws is in the works for those of you who dont read the required legalese that the government required founding document is currently writen in. Look for it in January or so. Bylaw Ammendments Two bylaws have been ammended by vote of the Senate in the last quarter. Transcripts of the actual wording are available upon request from the Secretary or at the Legions offices. Here will be presented paraphase: Article III, Section E The term of office of Patrician, or Senate selected, Senators will now be a number of years equal to the number of Patrician Senators. We currently have three, so they will serve for three years each. This way only one comes up for election at a time. On a related note, because Caius and Kris were both slated to end their terms in Aug 07 the Senate voted
  • 45. that Kris term be extended to 08 and Daves seat to 09, having begun with his reelection this year. Article XII, Section C A new membership category was developed between Participating, or full, membership and Supporting membership. A Probationary membership category was encated and the Associate member category was further defined. What this means is that new recruits who wish to participate with us at events will be asked to actually attend and meet us a couple of times before being encouraged to actually pay dues and join. This way we can evaluate their interest and suitibility to participate with us and make sure their goals as a reenactor are in line with the mission of the group. If everything fits, the recruit will be asked to join as a Probationary member and be assigned a Veteran Mentor to guide them towards being a good Roman and a beneficial part of Legion Six. When their mentor belives them to be ready, they will pettiton the Senate to advance the Probatti to Participating member status. It should also be noted that changes in the Associate Guest of the Legion status will now require potential participant recruits to petition for this new status after participating at three public display events, be they encampments, hikes or other displays. Supporting members remain non participants who donate financial resouces to the organization. A special thank you to all them.
  • 46. Senate Seats Per our bylaws, we currently have five Senators. Three of those, which we call the Patrician seats, are selected by the vote of the Senate itself so that one seat is vacant each year in August. The other two seats become vacant at the close of the Annual General Assembly Meeting in January each year and are called the Pleabian seats. This mix of long and short term seats is designed to provide both stability in guidance and the fresh ideas of new blood in the way our organization is lead. Anyone who is interested in running for either type of Senate seat, Pleabian or Patrician, is welcome to do so if they have reached legal majority, are a Particpating member in good standing, and have been so for at least one full year prior to taking the seat. In order to run for election to a soon to be vacated seat, the prospective new Senator needs to publish an intent to run statement thirty days prior to the voting for that seat, wheras incumbants are merely recommended to do so. Such statements should be posted to the Legiovi Yahoo board for public response and commentary or sent to the editor of AD SIGNA for publication prior to the deadline date for the issue preceeding the election. The statement should outline the candidates reasons for interest in the position, history with the group and goals for their term if elected. It should be noted that, like many elected positions, the post of Senator is a public one both to maintain objective transparency of the boards actions and for legal reasons. This is why the intent statements are publicly posted for discussion and scrutiny. It is the first step towards the disclosure that is part of being a Senator. By
  • 47. law the government will be given the name, physical address and other pertinent contact information for each Senator, and all are held legally responsible for any actions of the corporation. By our policy, Senators contact information is posted on our website to aid in members being able to voice their opinions and concerns.The level of responsibility involved should not disuade prospective Senators from seeking a seat however, as it is highly rewarding to help guide your brothers and sisters in the group toward greater acheivement and enjoyablity. Other Announcements New Probatii 2005-2006 has been a terrific year for recruitment, bringing a remarkable crop of new prospective membership who wasted no time in making major contributions to our overall impression. Id like to hereby extend an official welcome to: Matt Bell, Bill Bellas, Jon Salvo, Adrian Gajdos, Kevin Gollar, Matt Hicks and his consort Annelise, Peter Hopkins, Jim and Christy Miller, their daughter Megan, Brittany Wills,
  • 48. Randy Perry, Ron and Nancy Starks, and Bruce and Dtan Willis, Eric Myszka, his lovely consort Shannon, Dave and Constance Chamberlain, and let us not forget Tom Vanderlee of Perth, Australia who joined us recently for our encampment at Marching Through History. Your spirit and enthusiasm gave our Legio a shot of adrenaline that really propelled us to new heights! Megan, the seven-year-old daughter of Jim and Christy Miller, has even made her own tunica already. Surely this sort of drive can only benefit our cause. Moving Members Dave Michaels, our own Centurio Princeps Cohors I Titus Flavius Crispus Candidianus, has moved to a new home a few miles from his old one so that his daughters could be closer to their schools. His, and concequently the Legions, new address is 28039 Promentory Lane, Valencia CA 91354. His various phone numbers and email remain the same. AD SIGNA! is the Official Newsletter of the Legion Six Historical Foundation, which is published quarterly. The scheduled date of the next issue is Feburary 15th. Please submit any articles you'd like published or photos that might be relevant to this quarters activities to the Editor at [email protected] at least two weeks before the scheduled publication. Text should be sent as a Word for Windows document. Attachments and photos should be optimized to 480 x 640 resolution for those who receive this publication through slower Internet connections.
  • 49. Legion Six Historical Foundation, Inc. A California Public Benefit Corporation Place 28039 Promontory Lane Stamp Valencia, California 91354 Here
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Ad Signa! To the Standards! Newsletter of Legio VI Victrix Pia Fidelis Nov AD 2006 / 2759 AUC Vol V, No II
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