FOOD INTOXICATION Presented by, V.Venkatramanan,Dept. of Biotechnology,K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology,Thiruchengode.
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INTRODUCTION Food intoxication is a form of food-borne illness caused by ingesting exotoxins made by organisms such as bacteria, fungi etc or by consuming the foods that are naturally toxic to humans and animals. Onset of illness is usually very rapid with food intoxication and people can become very sick. Treatment varies, depending on the toxin involved, but can include administrating medications, providing the patient with fluids, and offering other supportive care to help patients recover.2
ContinuedEvery year around 300,000 hospitalizations are reported and the fatality is around 2000 4000.Food Poisoning Infection vs. Food Poisoning Intoxication Microbial food poisonings or food borne illnesses mainly fall into one of two categories. The first is food infection, where the microorganism itself grows inside your body and is the source of your symptoms. The second is food intoxication, where a chemical or natural toxin causes your symptoms or illness. Most bacterial food poisonings are actually food infections.
Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites. Some are highly toxic to animals and potentially toxic to human beings.Recently concern is related to their carcinogenic properties and their presence in many food items.
AflatoxinAflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.The toxin is isolated from many consumables includes corn, barley, rice, potato , peas etc.In 2003, 120 people died in Kenya after eating maize with very high aflatoxin levelsinternational sources of commercial peanut butter, cooking oils (e.g. olive, peanut and sesame oil), and cosmetics have been identified as contaminated with aflatoxin.High-level aflatoxin exposure produces an acute hepatic necrosis, resulting later in cirrhosis of the liver. Acute hepatic failure is made manifest by hemorrhage, edema, alteration in digestion, changes to the absorption and/or metabolism of nutrients, and mental changes and/or coma.
CitrininCitrinin is a toxin that was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, but has been identified in over a dozen species of Penicillium and several species of Aspergillus. Some of these species are used to produce human foodstuffs such as cheese (Penicillium camemberti), sake, miso, and soy sauce (Aspergillus oryzae). Citrinin is associated with yellow rice disease in Japan and acts as a nephrotoxin in all animal species tested.
PatulinPatulin is a toxin produced by the P. expansum.P. expansum is especially associated with a range of moldy fruits and vegetables, in particular rotting apples and figs.It is destroyed by the fermentation process and so is not found in apple beverages, such as cider. Although patulin has not been shown to be carcinogenic, it has been reported to damage the immune system in animals.
Rotten apple with P. expansum7
Mushroom poisoningMushroom poisoning (also known as mycetism) refers to harmful effects from ingestion of toxic substances present in a mushroom.These symptoms can vary from slight gastrointestinal discomfort to death.Mushroom poisoning is usually the result of ingestion of wild mushrooms after misidentification of a toxic mushroom as an edible species. The most common reason for this misidentification is close resemblance in terms of colour and general morphology of the toxic mushrooms species with edible species.A. phalloides is one of the most poisonous of all known toadstools. It has been involved in the majority of human deaths from mushroom poisoning.
Natural toxins in foodsFood contains natural chemicals that are essential for growth and health, including carbohydrates, sugars, proteins and vitamins. But some foods contain potentially harmful natural toxins.The reason for the presence of natural toxins is not always known. In some foods, a toxin is present as a naturally occurring pesticide to ward off insect attack.Fruit seeds and pitsApple and pear seeds and the inner stony pit (kernel) of apricots and peaches contain a naturally occurring substance called amygdalin.Amygdalin can release hydrogen cyanide in the gut causing discomfort or illness. It can be fatal if too much is consumed in a short period of time.
ContinuedAll potatoes contain natural toxins called glycoalkaloids. The levels are usually low but higher levels are found in potato sprouts, and the peel of potatoes that taste bitter and causes stomach aches.Many types of beans contain toxins called lectins. The highest concentrations are found in kidney beans, especially red kidney beans. As few as four or five raw beans can cause severe stomach ache, vomiting and diarrhoea. Rhubarb contains naturally occurring oxalic acid. Highest concentrations are in the leaves and these should not be eaten.Oxalic acid poisoning can cause muscle twitching, cramps, decreased breathing and heart action, vomiting, pain, headache, convulsions and coma.Zucchini may occasionally contain a group of natural toxins known as cucurbitacins.
Animal toxinsPuffer fish:.Puffer fish can be lethal if not served properly. Puffer poisoning usually results from consumption of incorrectly prepared puffer soup, fugu chiri, or occasionally from raw puffer meat, sashimi fugu. While chiri is much more likely to cause death, sashimi fugu often causes intoxication, light-headedness, and numbness of the lips, and is often eaten for this reason.
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