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Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from...

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Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22
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Page 1: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Fossil Fuel Management

Activities 21 and 22

Page 2: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Fossil Fuels…

… include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale.

… formed over a period of time from compressed vegetation and other organisms.

… are considered nonrenewable resources. Why?

Page 3: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Coal• Coal is the most abundant and

least expensive of the fossil fuels.

• It is also the most popular, accounting for almost 40 per cent of the total worldwide power generation.

• The use of coal can be traced back to around A.D. 50 from cinders in Roman ruins in Britain.

• There is also evidence to suggest that the Greeks used coal as a fuel in the 4th century.

www.answers.com

http://www.panda.org/news_facts/education/middle_school/homework_help/webfield_trips/coal/index.cfm

Roman and Greek ruins

users.ece.utexas.edu

Page 4: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Coal is a rock consisting almost entirely of organic material

http://www.athro.com/geo/trp/gub/coal.html

Page 5: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

The great “coal” forests

• Today’s coal formed from prehistoric vegetation that accumulated thousands of years ago when much of the Earth's surface was covered in swamps.

• As the plants and trees in these swampy areas began to die, their remains sank into the swamp land, which eventually formed a dense material called peat.

• During this time there were huge forests of mosses, horsetails, and tree ferns

www.discover-tasmania.com

Modern giant tree fern

Page 6: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Peat – an early step in coal formation

Peat’s got its own journal

Page 7: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

A good place to look for peat formation …

Peat only forms where there are low oxygen conditions, such as in this damp low spot on a swamp or bog.

Bodies don’t decay in bogs very well – as you can tell!

http://www.athro.com/geo/trp/gub/coal.html

en.wikipedia.org

Bog Man

Page 8: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

The Coal Formation Process …

• The organic matter accumulates and forms a bed of peat.

• The peat bed gets buried by other sediments and under heat and pressure begins to transform to a low grade coal known as lignite.

• More heat and pressure further change the lignite into bituminous coal.

• Even more heat and pressure change the bituminous coal into a nice hard shiny anthracite coal.

Page 9: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

The Steps of Coal Formation…

www.uky.edu

Page 10: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

U.S. Coal Deposits …

http://www.princeton.edu/~jarigoni/CHEMGOOD/Introduction.htm

Page 11: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Is coal being made now?• Coal formation is a continuing

process, however large deposits of sediment are no longer covering swamp lands as in the past!

• Today, in areas such as the Great Dismal Swamp of North Carolina and Virginia, the Okefenokee Swamp of Georgia, and the Everglades in Florida, plant life decays and subsides, eventually to be covered by silts and sands, and other matter.

• Perhaps many years from now, those areas will contain large coal beds.

The Florida Everglades

rst.gsfc.nasa.gov

Page 12: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Coal Mining …

2 main methods of coal mining:

• Underground• Surface

– strip mining – mountaintop

removal (a new type of mining)

Exhausted rescuers looking for a missing miner emerge from a tunnel at Xinfu Coal Mine, where an explosion killed 17 miners on Monday in Qitaihe, Heilongjiang Province. [newsphoto]

www.chinadaily.com.cn

Page 13: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Coal mining has always been a dirty, dangerous job.

http://hewit.unco.edu/dohist/mining/work/coal/photo1.htm

Page 14: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

A more modern underground mine

http://rogerphilpot.homestead.com/MinersinALowStope.jpg

Page 15: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

A coal seam exposed by mining

http://rogerphilpot.homestead.com/mechanicalploughcolor.jpg

Page 16: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Strip mining coal

http://www.geokem.com/images/scans/Indonesian_coal_mine.jpg

www.globaljusticegame.mrap.info

Page 17: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Mountaintop Removal – a large scale type of coal mining

What effect does this type of mining have on the environment?

http://www.ohvec.org/galleries/mountaintop_removal/007/index.html

Page 18: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Health and environmental impacts of using coal as an energy source

• Surface mining requires the removal of massive amounts of top soil, leading to erosion, loss of habitat and pollution.

• Underground mining causes acid mine drainage, which causes heavy metals to dissolve and seep into ground and surface water.

• Coal mine workers also face serious health problems, including black lung, a lung disease from prolonged exposure to coal dust in mines.

• On the job hazards include: the mines may cave in, accumulate poison gases, or suddenly flood – all of which can injure or kill the miners

Page 19: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Black Lung

• Black lung is a legal term describing a preventable, occupational lung disease that is contracted by prolonged breathing of coal mine dust. Described by a variety of names, including miner's asthma, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, and black lung, all are all dust diseases with the same symptoms.

• Like all occupational diseases, black lung is man-made and can be prevented. In fact, the U.S. Congress ordered black lung to be eradicated from the coal industry in 1969. Today, it is estimated that former coal miners each year die an agonizing death in often isolated rural communities, away from the spotlight of publicity.

http://www.umwa.org/job/blacklung/

Page 20: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

More Environmental Impacts of Using Coal …

• Burning coal creates ground level ozone, smog and acid rain.

• Coal (and fuel oil) combustion emit fly ash particles into the atmosphere, which contribute to air pollution problems.

• Burning coal produces carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide and methane gas, all of which could contribute to global climate change.

hvo.wr.usgs.gov

Page 21: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Natural Gas…

A natural gas well

www.southernexploration.com

Page 22: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Natural gas …• Formed from the remains of tiny sea animals and plants that died thousands of years

ago. (Same process that formed petroleum.)

• The gas became trapped in the rock layers much like a wet household sponge traps water.

• Raw natural gas is a mixture of different gases. Its main ingredient is methane. By itself, methane is odorless, colorless, and tasteless. As a safety measure, natural gas companies add a chemical odorant (it smells like rotten eggs) so escaping gas can be detected. http://lsa.colorado.edu/essence/texts/naturalgas.htm

www.seed.slb.com

Page 23: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Processing natural gas …

• After natural gas comes out of the ground, it goes to a processing plant where it is cleaned of impurities (water, sulfur, dust) and separated into its various components

• Then it’s compressed and forced through pipelines under high pressure.

• It’s often cooled to a liquid state before being transported. LNG – liquified natural gas

A natural-gas processing plant off Thailand’s coast

www.nytimes.com

Page 24: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Natural Gas Processing …

www.answers.com

Page 25: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Benefits of using natural gas …• Cleaner fuel than petroleum or coal

• Has the highest energy content of the hydrocarbons used for fuel

• Our country has large reserves, mostly in the Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Wyoming, Kansas, and Alaska.

• Used for making plastics, detergents, drugs

• But, if we continue to use natural gas at the same rate as we use it today, the United States will run out in about 50 years (more can be recovered for higher $).

Page 26: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Other sources of natural gas

• Landfills - Landfill gas is considered a renewable source of natural gas since it comes from decaying garbage. – Landfill gas is 50 percent

methane

• Biomass - a fuel source derived from plant and animal wastes which generates natural gas

There are more than 350 commercial landfill gas recovery operations in the U.S. which generate electricity on-site, supply industrial gas-fired boilers, or produce substitute natural gas fuels such as CNG.

www.gtp-merichem.com

Page 27: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Some landfills are currently capturing the gas produced by decaying garbage.

A well is drilled into the waste mass in order to install a well.

The landfill gas is then pumped to a gas treatment and processing facility to separate out the methane from carbon dioxide and other non-methane compounds.

Page 28: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Study Reveals Huge U.S. Oil Shale Field …

WASHINGTON — The United States has an oil reserve at least three times that of Saudi Arabia locked in oil-shale deposits beneath federal land in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming, according to a study released yesterday.

Headline from The Seattle Times, September 1, 2005

As the head of Shell's Unconventional Resources unit, Steve Mutt, explained that as far back as the native Americans, people have been trying to exploit this resource, which is essentially immature petroleum. The Indians called it fire rock and inexperienced homesteaders tried to use it for their fireplaces with disastrous consequences.

www.evworld.com

Page 29: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

An oil-shale rock burns on its own once it has been lit by a blowtorch. Associated Press photo by Douglas C. Pizac

http://sfgate.com

Page 30: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Oil shale doesn’t contain oil or (usually) shale

• The organic material is kerogen (not oil), and the "shale" is usually a relatively hard rock, called marl.

• Properly processed, kerogen can be converted into a substance somewhat similar to petroleum.

• The kerogen must be heated to a high temperature. This causes the organic material to be converted into a liquid. The liquid is then further processed to produce an medium grade oil which is said to be better than the lowest grade of oil.

Page 31: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Here’s the down side…….

• The report also says oil-shale mining, above-ground processing and disposing of spent shale cause significant adverse environmental impacts.

• Shell Oil is working on a process that would heat the oil shale in place, which could have less effect on the environment.

Page 32: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

A new oil shale method uses in-ground heaters to “preheat” the oil shale so it is easier to remove the oil.

AP photo by Douglas C. Pizac http://sfgate.com

Instead of strip-mining the rock and then processing it, this new method superheats huge underground areas for several years, This method gradually forces the oil out of the stone and then pumps it to the surface

Page 33: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Tar sands (also called oil sands or bituminous sands)

• These sands contain clay, water, sand, and bitumen

• Bitumen contains 83.2% carbon

• This can be processed to make synthetic crude oil or be refined into petroleum products.

• This may prove to be a viable alternative to oil imported from the Middle East.

Wikipedia

Page 34: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Environmental impacts of using shale or tar sands• Takes lots of energy to

remove and process.

• Uses large amounts of water which is then polluted by the process.

• Generate huge amounts of waste that must be “put back” somewhere (unless the in-ground heating method is used).

climateprogress.org

www.borealbirds.org

Page 35: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Environmental Impact of Tar Sands

Alberta Tar Sands   The term “tar sands” refers to thick oil called bitumen that is mixed in with sand, clay, and water. Intensive energy is

required to process the sands into crude oil. Tar Sands oil is the world’s most harmful type of oil for the atmosphere, emitting high volumes of greenhouse gases during development, which contribute to global warming, as well as other pollutants. Tar Sands projects are the largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions growth in Canada. By 2015, the Tar Sands are expected to emit more greenhouse gases than the nation of Denmark (pop. 5.4 million).

www.borealbirds.org

Page 36: Fossil Fuel Management Activities 21 and 22. Fossil Fuels… … include coal, oil (from petroleum/crude oil), natural gas, tar sands, and oil shale. … formed.

Summary of Fossil Fuels …

• Petroleum• Coal

• Natural Gas• Oil Shale

• Tar Sands

How much longer will we have access to these fuels?How expensive will they get as demand exceeds supply?

What are some alternative energy sources?


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