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This article was downloaded by: [Lund University Libraries] On: 20 August 2014, At: 00:06 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Visual Resources: An International Journal of Documentation Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gvir20 (Photographic) Subject-matter: Fritz Saxl Indexing Mnemosyne—A Stratigraphy of the Warburg Institute Photographic Collection's System Katia Mazzucco Published online: 11 Aug 2014. To cite this article: Katia Mazzucco (2014) (Photographic) Subject-matter: Fritz Saxl Indexing Mnemosyne—A Stratigraphy of the Warburg Institute Photographic Collection's System, Visual Resources: An International Journal of Documentation, 30:3, 201-221, DOI: 10.1080/01973762.2014.936100 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01973762.2014.936100 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the “Content”) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of the Content. This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms- and-conditions

This article was downloaded by: [Lund University Libraries]On: 20 August 2014, At: 00:06Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UKVisual Resources: An InternationalJournal of DocumentationPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gvir20(Photographic) Subject-matter:Fritz Saxl Indexing MnemosyneAStratigraphy of the Warburg InstitutePhotographic Collection's SystemKatia MazzuccoPublished online: 11 Aug 2014.To cite this article: Katia Mazzucco (2014) (Photographic) Subject-matter: Fritz SaxlIndexing MnemosyneA Stratigraphy of the Warburg Institute Photographic Collection'sSystem, Visual Resources: An International Journal of Documentation, 30:3, 201-221, DOI:10.1080/01973762.2014.936100To link to this article:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01973762.2014.936100PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLETaylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (theContent) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever orhowsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arisingout of the use of the Content.This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions(Photographic) Subject-matter: Fritz SaxlIndexing MnemosyneA Stratigraphy of theWarburg Institute Photographic CollectionsSystemKatia MazzuccoAby Warburg (18661929) created his photographic collection in Hamburg as a research tool.As new documents now reveal, in the late 1920s, arst system, focused onsubject matter,wasplannedfortheBildersammlung(imagecollection)ofWarburgslibrary. Theoriginofthe current iconographic arrangement has beendatedtoafter the Institutes move fromHamburgtoLondonin1933. Thenewsourcediscussedhereaddssomeelementstothisstory:therststepoftheiconographicturnthatoccurredinLondonwasinitiallydesignedby Fritz Saxl (18901948) in Hamburg within the context of work for the atlas Mnemosyne.This paper discusses the role of Aby Warburg and Fritz Saxl in developing theKulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg as a dual entity library, with an imagecollectionideallyconceivedas acounterpart of thebookcollection. It alsoaims toraisesome questions about the impact of photography on the praxis of description,interpretation, and classication of images as core questions of earlyiconological studies.Keywords: Visual Content Classication; Art DocumentaryPhotography; Iconography;Aby M. Warburg (18661929); Fritz Saxl (18901948); KulturwissenschaftlicheBibliothek Warburg; Mnemosyne AtlasThe photographic collection of the Warburg Institute wasrst assembled as a personalresearchtoolbyAbyWarburg(18661929)duringhisstudentandscholarlycareer,and was turned into a proper visual resource during the 1930s, after the move of thelibrary that he had founded from Hamburg to London in 1933. However, already inthe late 1920s, Fritz Saxl (18901948), deputy director of the library, and itsfounder, AbyWarburg, discussedthequestionof thearrangement of thecopiouscollectionofphotographsandslideswithinthespaceoftheKulturwissenschaftlicheBibliothek Warburg (KBW)in Hamburg. Theirposition regarding possible methodsandsystemsof classicationcanbestudiedthroughworkingpapers, mainlythoseincludedwithinthedocumentationabout thelibrarybuildingcompletedin1926.The question can be traced, as well, through the photographs themselves.As I argue, it is possibletodemonstratethat thegrowthof thephotographiccollection in the late 1920s was directly connected with the project of the unnishedVisual Resources, Volume 30, Number 3, September 2014ISSN 0197-3762 2014 Taylor & Francishttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01973762.2014.936100Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 Mnemosyne, Warburgs last work, and, more generally, withone of the peculiarcharacteristics of his visual approachtocultural studies(Kulturwissenschaft): thepractice of employing photography for scientic disseminations, for publications,and for the installation of ad hoc exhibitions for seminars, lectures, or other academicoccasions.1The visual atlas of the Mnemosyne itself was composed in the provisionalformat of a photographic exhibition. I present here several new documents on classi-fying content that emerged in relation to one of these scholarly dissemination events.I haveselectedandextractedother informationfromthematerial concerningthedialogue, not always clear, between Warburg and Saxl on the Mnemosyne.Photographic StratigraphyIn the autumn 1927, Aby Warburg returned to Italy for the rst time since the outbreakofWorldWarIandhisboutwithmentalillness.2Thatsameyear,theKunsthistor-isches Institut of Florence was relocated to its former venue, Palazzo Guadagni at 10Piazza Santo Spirito, after spending four years in temporary quarters in the Ufzi build-ings. Warburg was invited to read the discourse for the reopening of the Institute in itsoriginal quarters on October 15, 1927. On October 29, he gave the inaugural lecture oftheacademictermattheInstitute. Thislecturewasonthefestivalsdepictedinthesixteenth-century Valois tapestries, one of the art treasures held at the Ufzi Gallery.Among the working papers of the eventwhich include preparatory notes, differ-ent versions of the fragmentary text, and bibliographic materialwend pages withnotesconcerningpanels(Tafeln), insertedbetweentheintroductorytext andtheconclusion.3As far as we know and based on documents currently identied, no pho-tographic documentation of this visual section of the lecture exist. The Tafeln can beinterpretedas panels orboards of aprovisional photographicexhibition, arrangedad hoc for the occasion, as those arranged by Warburg in his library in Hamburg forseminarsorlectures; oraslarge-sizeplates, privatelyprintedfordisplayinfrontofanaudience. Inordertohaveanideaof thedisplayof picturesonthepanels, orplates,thenotesreferringtotheTafelncanbeplacednexttothediagramsincludedin a folder labeled by Warburg Medicean festivals at the Valois court on Brussels tap-estries in the Ufzi Gallery, lecture on the 29thof October 1927 at the KunsthistorischesInstitut / List of the pictures exhibited.4In addition, comparing these and some othernotes, we can deduce that the visual section of the lecture on the Valois tapestries in-cluded objects of different formats: some of the so-called platesone could call themvisual-stationsofthelectureconsistedofasingleimage, orofanillustratedbook(a festival book), both possibly to be handled by Warburg and/or the participants.This Florentine event constituted therst occasion for Warburg to introduce animportant practical aspect of his method ofart-historical cultural studies (kunstge-schichtlichesKulturwissenschaft)5: theextensiveandoriginalrecoursetophotographyfor scholarly dissemination. The Institutes Jahresbericht of 1927/1928 includes a tech-nical comment on the lecture: that the very important results of a twenty-year researchproject hadbeenpresentedintheformof alecturewithcomprehensivepictorialmaterial.6202 Classifying Content on Paper (ca. 19001950)Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 Among some of the original photographs of this research on the Valois tapestries,still preserved within the Warburg Institute Photographic Collection in London, is onein a series taken from the Balet de la Royne, the entertainment that was staged in 1581 inParisforCaterinadeMedici(15191589) andtheValoiscourtofFrance,andpub-lishedin1582.7Warburgmentionedtheballetbook, andthisimageisincludedinthe diagrams of the pictures exhibited in the visual portion of his lecture, as compar-ative material.8This photographthough it is not the actual one exhibitedrepresentsadistinguishingexampleinthatit bearsimportantmetadatatestifyingtoaliminalposition between different systems of classication for art documentary photographsone basedonworktype/ style/ topography, andthe other basedonsubjects.9Furthermore, thisisthephotographofaprintoriginallyincludedinabook, anditrepresentsavisual documentofthehistoryofperformingarts: thesecharacteristicsrepresent aninterestingcomplicationintheidenticationof worktype, medium,and subject of the image.The photograph reproduces an engraving on copper by Jacques Patin (15321587).In it we can see several groups of people dressed in late sixteenth-century court cloth-ing, sitting and standing within a theatrical scene (Figure 1). On the left, back and rightsides, part of the scenography and machinery of the display is visible: a fountain, CircesFigure1 FiguredelaSalleof theThtreduPetit Bourbon. EngravinginBaltasardeBeaujoyeulx, Baletcomique de laroyne, faict auxnopces de Monsieur le duc de Joyeuse &Madamoyselle de Vaudemont sasoeur(Paris: par Adrian le Roy, Robert Ballard, & Mamert Patisson, 1582), f. 4r.Mazzucco: (Photographic) Subject-matter 203Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 palace, and her enchanted beasts, and Pan playing the panpipe under the trees. In themiddle, a dancer is depicted: he is the gentilhome, who has escaped from Circes palace.In the prologue depicted in the print, he introduces the entertainment while looking forthe kings help(portrayed fromthe back, in therstrow) against the sorceress. TheengravingshowsthesalleoftheThtreduPetitBourbonaspreparedfortheBaletthatwasperformedforthemarriageofMargueritedeLorraine-Vaudemont(15641625), sister of the Queen Louise, with the favorite of King Henry III, the duc Annede Jouyeuse (1560/15611587). The allegory of Virtues andVices is representedthroughthemythofCirceandherspells,againstwhomthekingofFranceisaidedbytheOlympiandeitiesandcosmicforces. TheBaletrepresentsoneoftheearliesthistoricalexamplesofaconsistentdanceplay. Mythanddeitiesonthestagereectthe knowledge and approach to the classics of the period, at that very place and occa-sion. The allegory has been interpreted as homage to the court and as a mirror of thecurrent religious and political situation.Figure 2 Verso of mount of the photograph La salle of the Thtre du Petit Bourbon, in the folderBalletComiquedelaReine, 1581,showingstampedandwrittenmetadata. London, TheWarburgInstitutePhotographic Collection.204 Classifying Content on Paper (ca. 19001950)Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 Theseries of photographs towhichthis one belongs is ledinthe WarburgPhotographic Collection in the section Social Life, in a folder labeled BalletComique de la Reine, 1581. Onthe verso of this photograph,reproducing the pro-logue print from the Balet book, we can read some of the German and English layersof the catalog-stratigraphy (Figure 2). The keyword (Schlagwort) includes threeterms Festivals/ Baroque/ France(Festwesen/ Barock/ Frankreich). Thephoto-graphismarked116Heilwigstrasse,whichtellsusthat it wasstampedaftertheconstructionof thebuildingfortheWarburgBibliothekat that address, andthusafter1926. Thehandthat wrotewithpencil thenameBeauylleux[sic]BaltasardeBeaujoyeulx(Baldassarre diBelgioioso, Baltazarino,d. 1587),composer,chore-ographer, and director of the balletis probably that of Lothar Freund (19031941),apupilof Saxls, who wasassistant atthe library beginningin 1928,working partic-ularly on photographs and slides, and it is the same hand that annotated the so-calledrstversionofthevisualatlasMnemosyneinMay1928. ThecurrentmaincategorySocial Lifeis printed in block letters using one of the old stamps still preservedat the Warburg Institute Photographic Collection, and it is in English, therefore it wasprintedafter 1933, followingthe Institutes move toLondon. The EnglishstampUniversity of London . . . Woburn Square tells us that the photograph wasmarkedasecondtime, after1958, theyearof theWarburgInstitutesmovetoitscurrentlocation.In thenal lines of his lecture on the Valois tapestries, Warburg stressed one of thegoals of his research: to grasp, according to acomparative Psychology of Style, thephenomenonofthegrowingprocess . . . wedenotewiththekeyword(Schlagwort)Baroque as a natural necessity historically determined (geschichtlich-bedingte Natur-notwendigkeit). This point had been discussed through a visual series on the French fes-tivals la antique, dened by Warburg as the attempt to display genetically (genetischzu plazieren) in front of the audiences eyes the images. The scholar aimed therefore toshed light on one peculiar aspect of the development of the Baroque, the one identiedwith theisolation of the expressive values from the imprinting (coining work, Prg-werk)ofactivelife(lifeinmotion, bewegtesLeben).10Fromthesefragments, tobecompared and recollected with other passages from the lecture and with different doc-umentarymaterials, wemaydrawsomeknowledgeofWarburgselaborationoftheconcept of style; on his intellectual indebtedness to historian of culture and art JacobBurckhardt and his studies onsociety and festivals, and on the art of the Baroque;andnally, wecanlookwithneweyesat thekeywordBarockonthebackof thephotograph.This is an interpretation of archival stratication, a process of data accumulationwhichisusuallya-systematicand/orunintentional. Inclassifyingimagesaccordingtoasystemwithgivenrules, it is not possibletoattachall of thesedatatoeachsingle photograph. The cataloger selects information and then constructs cross-references. Duplicatesof thepicturecanbearrangedwithindifferent categoriesofthesystemthelatterpossibilitybeingviableonlyinthecaseof anarrangement,andapart fromacardindex, that, as muchas possible, physicallyreproduces theconceptual system, as inthecaseof theWarburgInstitutecollections (books andimages).Mazzucco: (Photographic) Subject-matter 205Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 The example providedbythis photographallows us tothinkabout thematicordering and to formulate questions about description and levels of interpretation ofthe image captured and printed on this picture:.Is the title of the book, and the name of the entertainment, the main subject?.Are Circe, Pan, and the sixteenth-century dancer secondary subjects of thispicture?.Are the content themes (classical [Gods and Myths] and contemporary persons[sixteenth-centurydancer,SocialLife])depictedaccordingtoformalmotifsofsixteenth-century French visual culture? Are they literarygures?.Considering the interpretations of the entertainment, is it the allegorical theme ofthe play that should be signaled? Could the topographic keyword France carryalso a reference to the symbolical interpretation of the Balet content?.Canweconsider Festivalsastheworktypeormediumof thisimage? Arecopperprintandillustrated(festival)bookthesecondaryandmainworktypes?.Is Baroqueachronological stylistickeywordor rather anexpressional andmorphological one?Indexing Mnemosyne in 1927Mnemosyne would have been, when and if completed, a scientic work composed of avisual atlas, two volumes of text, a massive bibliography (a version of the KBW catalog),andpossiblythereproductionsoffulloriginaldocuments.Itwouldhaveprovidedacollection of tools (both visual and verbal) or a portable laboratory for the scholar ofart historical cultural studies (kunstgeschichtliches Kulturwissenschaft). And thephotographiccollectionwastobearesourceforthelibrary, organizedaccordingtothe library system.The two projects overlapped in their material aspect, that is, they were both com-posed of the same type of materials, and most of the time of the same objects: photo-graphscollected, duplicated, enlarged, cut, andframedtotthepublicationsofthelibrary, thepanelsfortemporaryinstallations, andthemanyprovisional layoutsofthe draft-plates of the atlas. The project of the visual atlas had signicantly increasedthe photographic collection, andthe newacquisitions, intheir turn, createdtheurgency for systematic cataloging and arranging the photographs and slides. Planningthe process for this work in progress demanded a discussion on classication. The newbuilding for the Bibliothek Warburg was built between 1925 and 1926. The move of thecollections from the library rooms of Warburgs home to the new space was then theoccasion for a systematic rearrangement of both the book and image collections.In January 1925, reporting about a trip to Berlin and about viewing recent librarybuildings andlibraries systems, FritzSaxl stressed, for instance, thequalityof theimage collection (Bildersammlung) of the Kunstgewerbe Museum(MuseumofAppliedArt), whichwasperfectlyorderedandpresentedphotographsmountedonlargecardboard, all ofthesamesize. Asforarrangementmethodsandshelf-marks,Saxl pointedout theLibraryof theZentralinstitut frErziehung(Central Institute206 Classifying Content on Paper (ca. 19001950)Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 for Education) andits double system: arrangement according toaccessions; andorientation(Orientierung) of readers presentednot onlytoatraditional catalog,but alsotoarenedcatalogof keywords (Schlagwortskatalog), withinwhicheachcontent title was card-indexed many times.11The question of a system for arrangingandoccasionallydisplayingimages alsohadapractical aspect, andweknowthatwhileWarburgwascorrespondingwiththearchitect duringthecompletionof thelibrarybuilding, healsodiscussedthequestionof racks for images (Bildergestelle)that wouldbeplacedinthereadingroom:12thesewerethegreat woodenpanelsthen used for exposing both photographs and books, on occasion of seminars, lectures,orexhibitions.Furthermore, on oneof therst pages of the work diary inauguratedwiththenewbuilding,Saxlmentionedthenewlampfortheenlarger:thankstotheinstruments of its photographic laboratory, at the top oor, the KBW could manipulatepictures tot different circumstances and needs.13Thebuildingof theWarburgBibliothekwasplannedwithagreat readingandlecture roomthe double-highrear sectionof the buildingwhere the referencelibrarywas thenlocated. Inthefour-level front sectionof thebuilding, calledthetower, there were four stockrooms for the books.As I have discuss elsewhere, a document reproduced in a glass slide brings out theexistence of a plan for the library system organized in four main sections, dating back toaround 19261927, and therefore to the rearrangement of collections in the new build-ing, andascribabletoasystematizationbySaxlfollowingWarburgsformulations.14The document, possibly printed as a leaet, was probably a general scheme meant topresent the setting of the KBWeld of studies and specic resources.According to this scheme, the book collection was organized in the following foursections: Image(Bild)Orientation(Orientierung)Word(Wort)Action(Hand-lung).15For example, as to the lecture on the Valois tapestries mentioned above, therst section, Image,includesthesubcategoryAppliedArts(Kunstgewerbe). Thethird subcategory of the sectionAction is titledMorphology of Social Life (Mor-phologie des soziale Lebens) and includes two further subcategories, the latter includingHeraldic,Costumes,Festivals (Festwesen,nature of festival),Melodrama andOpera, and Theatre. The morphological view applied to the study of social phenom-ena is particularlyinterestinghereif connectedtothe questionof the denotativemeaningof worksof appliedartandfestivals. Despitethedifcultiesof themovesandrelocationsindifferent placesinLondon, thestructureof thebookcollectionremained more or less the same, though in a different disposition (Aufstellung).16According to the same plan, the image collection (Bildersammlung) was organized inthe following four sections: ImageWord and ImageOrientation and ImageAction and Image. The section Action and Image includes three subcategories:Elementary forms of social action through the imprinting power of image(ElementarformendersozialenHandlungvorBildprgenderKraft)suchasHunting,Duel; Symbolic acts of festive active life (symbolische Akte des festlichbewegten Lebens)such as Plays (Spiele: ex. Sword-dance, Moresca) andParades(Umzge: ex. Triumph); Stage andImage(Bhne undBild)theatersubjectssuchas OrpheusandMedea.Withinthisplanfortheimagecollection,wedonot ndaformal recall tomorphology. However, thesystemincludedsomeMazzucco: (Photographic) Subject-matter 207Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 medium-specicso to speaksubcategories. Within therst section Image, wendthe subcategory materials on the history of ancient pictorial tradition (Materialien zurGeschichte der antiken Bildtradition), which includes three specic kinds of mediaand,in fact, patternsof transmission: mythological and astrological manuscripts,cassone, graphic arts andbookillustration. Also, the sectionOrientationandImage includes, withinthe subcategory magic practice anddivination (magischePraktik und Divination), lapidaries (Loosbcherbooks collecting materials for divina-tion), and playing cards (Spielkarte). The keyword Spielkarte, identied both the tradi-tionof cards practically usedfor divination, andtheir systemof illustrations withsubjects representing the humanistic cosmos. This viewonthe material aspect ofmeaningful images is visualized in one of the unnished plates for the atlas, dedicatedtotheTarots(Figure3). ThecompositionwasannotatedbyGertrudBingaccordingto Warburgs original formulations: sharing out and making manageable(Aufteilung und Handbarmachung),17a denitionthat we may apply tothe visualcontent collected, arranged, handled, andspreadbytheproductionof playingcardssuch as the Tarots.ThisBildersammlungplanwasnotfollowedwhentheWarburgInstitutePhoto-graphicCollectionwas organizediconographicallyinLondoninthe1930s. It hadonly partial correspondence to the Schlagwort stamps we stillnd on the oldest photo-graphs. It was only partially applied to the practical classication of photographs. It isdocumented only in a few folders, on deep layers of the systemsstratigraphy. Thisplan appears as having been traced ideally specular to the one devised for the library.For instance, would the picture of the French Balet have been led withintheFigure 3 Detail of plate 50/51 for Aby Warburgs Mnemosyne. Arrangement of photographs of theTarots, bytheMasteroftheTarots,seriesE,ca.1465;andlowerright,AndreaMantegnasParnassus,1497,andMinervaExpelling the Vices from the Garden of Virtue, ca. 1500. Photograph: London, Warburg Institute Archive.208 Classifying Content on Paper (ca. 19001950)Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 subcategory Stage and Image, section Image and action, or rather graphic arts andbook illustration, sectionImage? Or, in both of them, in different formats?However, new evidence suggests that some nuclei of the current system of the col-lection were already organized, or at least planned, even though in a different context ofwork: the work for the composition of the Mnemosyne.In November 1927, while Warburg was in Italy for his lecture and visit in Florence,Saxl wrote a report for him in a letter on the work in progress at the KBW.18Thanks tothis report, we know that many of the young scholars, library assistants, and secretarieswere engaged with the photographic collection: Franz Alber, secretary and factotum ofthelibrary,wasworking, accordingtotheinstructionsofEdgarBreitenbach(19031977), onarrangingphotographs, andhewas acquiringagoodknowledgeof thelibrarys image material (Abbildungsmaterial); Breitenbach, a pupil of Erwin Panofskys,also educated in library science, was responsible for the arrangement of the systematicsection, and had been sent to London to acquire pictures of astrological and mytho-logical manuscripts; while Hans Meyer (19001941)young philologist, library assis-tant,andcollaboratorontheKulturwissenschaftliche BibliographiezumNachlebenderAntikeeditedbythelibrary19wenttoMunich, forthesamepurpose. Thephoto-graphiccollectionwasgrowingsoquicklythatthespecialdrawerswouldhavebeenlledverysoon; andthesamewas truefor theslides: theriskwas goingbacktochaosif theworkdidnotcontinuewiththesamemethodandorder. Sotheworkfor the image collection was in progress, and urgent.Yet, themainsubject of thereport istheworkontheatlas. Saxl describesanarrangement of the estimated 550 images according to three main groups:1) The reformulation(Gestaltwandel) of the ancient gods as Olympians anddemonsintheMiddleAgesandtherestitution(Restitution)of theirancientforms in the Renaissance2) Traditionandreception(Rezeption) of the ancient Pathos formulae intheMiddle Ages and in the Renaissance3) Transformation (Formwandel) of individual ancient gures (antiker Gestalten)into pictorial forms (Bildformen) in Middle Ages and Renaissance.20The rst group reformulations includes ancient gods and deities, such asApolloasanarcherorasMusagetes; Fortunawiththewheel orwiththesail; andancient heroes, suchas Hercules killingtheboar orresting. It is evidentlyadraftormorelikelyascheme:itdoesnotincludethecanonicalsystemoftheOlympians(Jupiterismissing, forinstance), nordoesitincludearangeofheroesandperson-ications of the classical traditionHercules andFortuna are the only examplesrepresented.Thesecondgroupis aschematizationof thetheoryof the Pathos formulae(Pathosformeln) andof their posthumous life(Nachleben), whichwas elaboratedby Warburg in his study on Albrecht Drer.21It is organized according to subcategoriesof iconographic subjects connected to gures of the ancient traditionsuch as PainLaocoon (the ancient statue depicting Laocoon and his sons, in the Vatican Museums)or InfanticideMedea, Humansacricesacrice of IphigeniaandgesturesMazzucco: (Photographic) Subject-matter 209Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 connected to specic formulationssuch as Dying/TornabuoniAlcestis (themarblerelief attributedtoAndreaVerrocchiodepictingdeathduringchildbirthin1477 of Francesca Tornabuoni, inthe Bargello Museum, as inspired by ancientmodels, suchas thesarcophagi depictingthemythof Alcestis), or Mourning/thedead Christ.The third group includes bothgures and scene of the classical tradition and theirtransformations intopictorial forms and themes during the course of the medievalandintoRenaissancetradition, suchastheNymph(Ninfa), asubcategory, whichincludesdancinggures,suchasJudith;orbearinggures,suchasthegirlcarryinga basket; orying and progressinggures, such as the angel.22This structure has almost no correspondences with what is currently known andidentied as the visual atlasbased on the recently published sequence of photographstaken in 1929, depicting the last sequence of pictures composed by Warburg on largescalepanels,assketchesforthe plates oftheatlas ofMnemosyne.23Nordoes ithavecorrespondenceswiththeearliertwoversions of theatlasrecordedinMay1928and later in September 1928.Inthisindex,wereadinterestingreformulationsofWarburgsterms: landscapeformulae (thirdgroup), for instance, a content category appliedtoa non-guregenre, namely to a kind of extra-iconographiceld of analysis. And we alsond herea schematization of Warburgs inventions, such as thegure of theNymph and herdifferent subcategories, including, for example, the epiphany in the shape of an angel.Yet, the strict antiquity/Middle Ages/Renaissance dynamic does not reect the concep-tual content of the Mnemosyne project, the composition of single plates, the historicalconception, or philosophy of history, which are the bases of the whole work.This scheme seems rather to be Fritz Saxls programmatic index for the contents ofthe atlasthose already collected and also those yet to be completed. And it also seems tobe Saxls vision of what the visual atlas should have included and should have been, orbetter, it reects schematically Saxls thought on the dynamics of cultural transmission.Here we have a clearer iconographic approach in that, for instance, the index is system-atically devoted to works of visual art in their pure visual qualities, excerpted from theircontext, and organized according to a special point of view on dynamics of the classicaltraditionnamely grasped through the terms reformulation, restitution, tradition,reception,or transformation.Andwehaveonlytwoconcessionstonon-subjectmatters, including the question of work type, in connection with two special examples:the Pathos formula of Pain, as Laocoon, in different shapes and work types; and that ofMourning, within the context of ancient private tombs (second main group).In fact, this index includes an early formulation of two of the current sections ofthe Warburg Photographic Collection: therst main group (reformulations and resti-tutions)canbetracedintothecurrentsectionGodsandMyths; thesecondmaingroup (tradition and reception of Pathos formulae) together with the third (transfor-mationofancient gures, suchastheNinfa)canbetraced, andhavebeenpartiallyincorporated with their old folders in the current sectionGestures (Figure 4).Somematerial of theunnishedproject forthevisual atlasof theMnemosyne,includingphotographsandworkpaperslikethisindex,willthereforeberearrangedandtransformedintotheSaxl-basediconographicsystemofsomesectionsofthe210 Classifying Content on Paper (ca. 19001950)Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 Photographic Collection, then later systematically implemented in London, thanks tothe work of Rudolf Wittkower (19011971), the curator of the collection beginning in1933.(Which) Science for Images; (What) Classication of Pictures:Panofsky and Saxl (19311955)The main source typically referred to as a theory for iconographic classication is thefamous three-level scheme of interpretation of works of visual art by Erwin Panofsky(18921968). Panofskyssystemwas rst presentedat theKant-Gesellschaft inKielonMay20, 1931, andthenpublishedin1932inGermany, asanal overviewofatheoretical essay, Onthe Problemof Describing andInterpreting the Works ofVisual Art.24As Panofsky explains in therst footnote, the essayexplores the prin-ciples that guide an art historian particularly interested in iconographic interpretation(ikonograsches Deutungsarbeit) in his practical work. The task of the author thereforeis not to examine the problems of such interpretative work systematically but rather toexemplify its methodological consequences.Theobject of therst level of interpretationwasheredenedas senseof thephenomenon(Phnomensinn)tobedistinguishedinfactual andexpressivesenseinterpreted through the subjective source of the vital experience of being(vitale Daseinserfahrung) andthroughthe objective corrective of the history ofFigure 4 FolderFlucht/Fleeing. London, Warburg Institute Photographic Collection.Mazzucco: (Photographic) Subject-matter 211Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 styles. Theobject of thesecondlevel of interpretationwasthesenseof meaning(Bedeutungssinn), interpreted through literary knowledge and through the correctiveofthehistoryoftypes.Theobjectofthethirdlevelwasthedocumentarysense/essential sense (Dokumentsinn / Wesensinn), seen through theworldview Ur-behav-ior (weltanschauliches Urverhalten) and throughgeneral intellectual history.In 1939, this scheme was reformulated and discussed in English in Introductoryin Studies in Iconology.25The reformulation could be shown schematically as follows:rst levelpre-iconographical descriptionprimary or natural subject matter(factual, expressional), identication ofpure forms (natural objects, events, expres-sional qualities), recognition of artistic-motifs through the equipment of practicalexperience, and through thecontrolling principle of thehistory of style; secondleveliconographical analysis ina narrower sensesecondary or conventionalsubject matter, connection ofartistic motifs withthemes or concepts, identica-tion ofimages (personications or symbols), stories (allegorical idea as superim-posedmeaning), allegories(combinationof personicationsorsymbols)throughtheknowledgeof literarysources,andthroughthehistoryof types; thirdleveliconographical interpretation in a deeper senseascertaining the intrinsicmeaning or content (symbolical values) through the synthetic intuition (essentialtendencies of the human mind, Weltanschauung), and through the history of culturalsymptoms or symbols.In 1955, the scheme was again reformulated as therst chapter of Meaning in theVisual Arts:26the second level was dened asiconographical analysis and the thirdlevel became that oficonological interpretation.Onefocusofthecritical readingofPanofskysschemeinitsmostdiffuse1955versionhasbeentheproblematicreformulationinEnglishof atheorybasedonaGerman philosophical lexicon: Sinnpointing at the core questionwhich becomessubject matter. Also under discussion was the reformulation of theeld of compe-tencies and even the name of this hermeneutic of images: iconography and iconology.27In 1925, Panofsky had already published an essay formulating the theoretical prin-ciples for Art studies (Kunstwissenschaft), which were excerpted from the theory andthe history of art considered, respectively, as a system of concepts for the formulation ofartisticproblems, andas asciencedescribingthesensiblequalityof works of art,through a pure morphological and stylistic operation. The result of the interconnectionofthetwowasdenedasadisciplineofinterpretationaimedatunderstandingtheKunstwollen.28Another reference point along these lines is the lecture on Classical Mythology inMediaeval Art delivered at the Department of Fine Arts at Princeton University andpublished in 1933 by Panofsky and Saxl.29The main question discussed in the essay,whichistheprincipleof disjunctionof classical formandcontent, wouldlaterbedevelopedby Panofsky inRenaissance and Renascences.30The text was meant todemonstrate the methods of research developed by Aby Warburg and his followers.31But, as has been noted, this demonstration represents more of a transformation than anapplicationoftheWarburgapproach.32Within thetextofthelecture, wemay traceadaptationsofWarburgsinventions:aboveall,Pathosformeln, formulaeofclassicalart,orartisticformulaebywhich [physical]qualities[,emotions]andpassions212 Classifying Content on Paper (ca. 19001950)Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 had been expressed in the classical style,33while the sphere of meaning of the expres-sion bewegten Lebens could be recalled by therehabilitation or even rediscovery of apurelyhumanvitalityconcerningthesphereofsociallifeanditsrepresentation.34Andwecanreadaswell someof thecrucial termsof thisEnglishlexiconadoptedbyPanofskyinhisiconologicalessaystocome. Rebirth,reintegration,revival,assimilation,andtransformationindicatedifferentrenascencesandRenaissancephenomenathelatterasareunionof classical thought andfeelingwithclassicalformandexpression. Sofor the expressionsubject matterSinn, inthe 1931lecture for the Kant-Gesellschaftthat was largely adopted in this essay: theseGerman and English formulations are more or less coincidental, and should be contex-tualised in the practical experience of images and books as structured by the library inwhich (Panofsky) mainly worked in Hamburg and in relation to his great collaboratorof the period, namely Fritz Saxl.35In those same years, after Warburgs death, Saxl was working on the posthumousGesammelte Schriften of the scholar, therst two volumes of which were published byTeubner in Berlin in 1932. In this, he was still working on the disposition (Aufstellung)for the four sections of the book and image collections, as proven by the reuse of the19261927 planfrom the above-mentioned leaetfor a text presenting a differentarrangement of the library around 1931 to 1932.36In 1931, for his lecture on The Ex-pressive Gestures in Fine Arts, Saxl discussed some of the same concepts that can benoticed in the 1927 report as well as in the Princeton lecture.37The photographs andtheworkonthesystemofthephotographiccollectionwerealsorelatedtothe1931lecture, forwhichSaxl displayedtheveryexemplicationof his atlasof gestures:here, the panels show regular disjunction-rows of ancient, medieval, and Renaissanceworks of art; all of the pictures are framed on cardboard and show decontextualizedFigure 5 Boardswith photographs displayingMnadeund Satyr,Klage,andConclamatio(L)anddietragische Maske in der Physiognomik des Schreins (R), for Fritz Saxls lectureDie Ausdrucksgebrden der bil-denden Kunst, 1931, in the Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg reading room, Hamburg. Photographs:London, Warburg Institute Archive.Mazzucco: (Photographic) Subject-matter 213Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 details of the works of art recorded; most of the works are exhibited and interpreted asexamples of the dynamics of disjunction of form and content, and of the restitution ofclassical forms (Figure 5). This is indeed an example of an experiment of what wouldlater be called the Hamburg school of iconography associated with a peculiar practiceof employing photographynamely, interpretative and rhetorical display of pictures,as well as methodological visual taxonomy.How far wasthe task of exemplifying the methodological consequences of suchinterpretative work supported, or in some specic respect even presupposed, by thepractice of art documentary photography? In other words, what has been the impactof photography onthe praxis of description, interpretation, andclassicationofimagesascorequestionsof theearlyiconographicand/oriconological studies?Arenot photographsthemselvesdescriptionsof theworkof art, orekphrasis, invisualterms? Given the interpretative values of framing, multiple shots, and details selected,maywenot seethephotographsarrangedwithinthefolders of acollection, anarchive, anindex, or displayedfor exhibitionandorganizedaccordingtoagivenideaof theworks of art recordedasvisual interpretations, ondifferent levels, ofthe work of art? I will not formulate any conclusive points; alternatively, on the basisof materials discussed here, I will conclude by raising some issues on the question ofclassication of visual content.The great classifying projects of the past century and of the last decades, linked withthe development of automation and visual databases, and with the shift from analog todigital photography, show us how far the creation of standards of visual quality and ofdescription are carried forward in intellectual projects.38In comparing the two main iconographic systems of comprehensive iconographicclassication, namelytheIndexof ChristianArt, foundedbyCharlesRufusMorey(18771955) at Princeton University in 1917, and Iconclass, developed by Henri vandeWaal (19101972)inLeiden, intheNetherlands, intheearly1950s, theauspiceof a compromise between the great virtues of the two has emerged. One of the ques-tionsatstake isthemeaningofthenonpictorialqualitiesofaworkofart:theworktype, the denotative and functional meaning of the object, the material aspect of histor-ical and intellectual context of production, diffusion, and acquisition. On the one hand,there is the ad hoc hybridity and Anglo-Saxon positivism, that is, the indissoluble linkforgedbetweenthesubject ofaworkofartanditsdesign,orbehaviorismoftheIndex; ontheother, thelogicconsistencyandcomprehensivenessinapproachingsubject matter, oridealism of Iconclass.39Focusing on the indexing practice at the basis of these kinds of systems, originallydeveloped as card indexes associated with paper reproductions, and far from the digitalsystems to come, Anna C. Esmeijer and William S. Heckscher, in a review of the Indexof Christian Art, stated:There are two types of indexes. One is relatively old and time-honoured: theIndex rerum et nominum. There is, however, another type: the index thatprecedes the work-to-come or that may be an end in itself. Many a learnedinstitution has launched a card-le systemmost bibliographical or lexico-graphical in nature. Few are useful, fewer have managed to survive.40214 Classifying Content on Paper (ca. 19001950)Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 One of the authors of this quote, the scholar William Heckscher (19041999), wasa second generation hagiographer of iconography.41The text of the review helps as wellin identifying at least two critical questions in the early praxis of classication of visualcontent. First, the physical separation and different arrangement of cards (verbal dataarranged according to iconography) from photographs (visual data arranged accordingto material and/or technique and further subdivided by their current location)whilemost of the time, not only in medieval art, word and image areclosely allied, if notinseparable.42Second,areductivetreatmentofverbaldata(asforinstanceinscrip-tions) integrated into the images. Furthermore, in the reviewers conclusion, the textcomes back to the Hamburg school, underlining the possibility of a more comprehen-sivepanoramaofcontentcategories,whichmightinclude, inaddictiontoScenes,Figures,Objects,Nature,Personicationsof abstract concepts,symbolicalmeaning,alsoaWarburgianinvention, that of thePathosformulae(rhetoricalforms which keep their freshness through the ages and their range of meaning).43The case presented above could then be discussed within the framework of com-petencies of library science, theory of visual documentation, and, in a wider perspec-tive, of epistemology. Whenfurtherscrutinized, thequestionrepresentsapoint ofview, withinthedisciplinarycontextofarthistory, onthepositionof photographybetweenthe visual sphere andthe verbal analytical approachtoimages. Intheirturn, art historical practices of analog photographs, in their different methodologicaldeclinations, maycontributetoredeningthenatureoressenceofphotography, assomethinginbetweendifferentformatsofsedimentsofvision,andahermeneuticaldeviceforimages. Withinthiscritical framearecertainlysomeillustriousmembersof theHamburgSchoolof art history, who, inthe rst decadesof thetwentiethcentury, successfullyappliedanalogphotographytothedocumentationofworksofart, whichalsocoincidedwiththe early debate onphotographic reproductionofworks of art.44AcknowledgmentsThis paper collects some results of aresearch-in-progress essay on the history of theWarburgInstitute PhotographicCollection.The workwithClare HillsNova andJasElsner for the publication of my last paper on this topic has been extremely valuableand thought provoking as well as the discussion with all the participants at the confer-ence and round table,Classifying Content Photographic Collections and Theories ofThematic Ordering, held at the Warburg Institute on May 20, 2013. I would like tothank the academic staff of the Warburg Institute Photographic Collection andArchive and of the Photothek of the Kunsthistorisches Insitut in Florenz for supportandvaluablecommentsonresearchduringmyvisits. Iwouldextendmygratitudefor English editing to Henry Kerney and Christine Sundt.KATIAMAZZUCCOisaresearcherspecializinginhistoryofartandphotography. SheholdsaPhDinart historyandclassical traditionfromtheUniversityof Siena(2006),andhas beena post-doctoral fellowat the IUAVUniversity inVenice (20082009),post-doctoral short-termfellowat the Photothek of the Kunsthistorisches Institut inFlorenz, andattheWarburgInstituteinLondon(2010). ShehasbeenBritishAcademyMazzucco: (Photographic) Subject-matter 215Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 Visiting Scholar 20112012 and she is currently working on restoration and photography attheKunsthistorischesInstitutinFlorenzthanksthesupportoftheIstitutoVenetoperiBeni Culturali di VeneziaProgetto Europa Restauro.1 Unless otherwisenoted, all informationontheKulturwissenschaftlicheBibliothekWarburg(KBW) series of images andexhibitions (19251943) andonthevisualatlas Mnemosyne are takenfrommy PhDthesis Il progettoMnemosyne di AbyWarburg,Universityof Siena, June2006, andfrommyarticles: Mnemosyne, ilnome della memoria. Bilderdemonstration, Bilderreihen, Bilderatlas: Una cronologiadocumentaria del progetto warburghiano, Quaderni del Centro Warburg Italia III, no.46 (20062008): 139203 (rev. Mnemosyne: Chronologiczna prezentacjadokumentwzwiazanychzAtlasemWarburga,KontekstyLXV, nos. 23(2011):12042); Quarantanni di bibliolia e iconolia. Osservazioni sul montaggiodel libroMnemosynedi AbyWarburg,Rivistadi StoriadellaFilosoa2(2011):30338.2 Among the essays on Warburgs mental illness and his years in the clinic in Kreuzlin-gen directed by Ludwig Binswanger, see: Michael Diers, Kreuzlingen Passion, Kriti-scheBerichte7(1979): 514; LudwigBinswangerandAbyWarburg, Laguarigioneinnita: Storia clinica di Aby Warburg, ed. Davide Stimilli (Vicenza: Neri Pozza, 2005).3 Warburg Institute Archive (WIA) III.98.6.1, 6780.4 WIA III.108.12, 1443. Introductory text and conclusion, as well as pictures of the di-agrams, are included in Aby Warburg, Gesammelte SchriftenStudienausgabe: Bilder-reihenundAusstellungen, ed. UweFleckner andIsabellaWoldt (Berlin: AkademieVerlag, 2012), 23573.5 WIAIII.113.6, workingpapersforaseminar, November1927February1928, 118:ber die Methode einer kunstgeschichtlichen Kulturwissenschaft.6 Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz. Jahresbericht (19271928): 34, 17.7 Baltasar de Beaujoyeulx, Balet comique de la royne, faict aux nopces de Monsieur le ducde Joyeuse & Madamoyselle de Vaudemont sa soeur (Paris: par Adrian le Roy, RobertBallard, &Mamert Patisson, 1582); available online at http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b86083002/f9.image.r=.langEN.8 WIA III.108.12, 29.9 This following might be read as an account of photo-archival research experience;IwouldhererecalltheissuesraisedbyChristineL.SundtinMaterialsandObjects:Challenging Art History, Visual Resources 29, no. 3 (September 2013): 14750. In awider perspective, these arguments also touch the question of documentary value ofimages (or visual objects) and the historical method. On objectuality of photographsandhistorical studies, seeamongherrecentcontributions: ElizabethEdwards, TheCameraasHistorian: AmateurPhotographersandHistorical Imagination, 18851918(Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2012).10 WIA III.98.6.1, 81.11 WIA I 4.3.2 Fritz Saxl, report on his trip to Berlin, January 1315, 1925.12 WIA,GeneralCorrespondence (GC),AbyWarburgtoGerhardLangmaak, May21,1926; cf. WIA I.4.4, correspondence with Langmaak.13 WIAIII.15.1.1, TagebcherderKBW(TB, Workingdiaries)1, Saxl, September1,1926; cf. WIA III.15.3.3, TB 9, Bing, September 9, 1929. Aby Warburg, GesammelteSchriftenStudienausgabe: Tagebcher der KBW, ed. KarenMichels andCharlotteSchoell-Glass (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2001).216 Classifying Content on Paper (ca. 19001950)Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 14 I am not going to recall this question, except in a few specic aspects. This document isincluded and commented in: Katia MazzuccoImages on the Move: Some Notes onthe Bibliothek Warburg Bildersammlung (Hamburg) and the Warburg Institute Pho-tographicCollection(London),ArtLibrariesJournal 38, no. 4(2013): 1624; andKatia MazzuccoLiconoteca Warburg di Amburgo: Documenti per una storia dellaPhotographicCollectiondel WarburgInstitute,QuaderniStorici, no. 3(December2012): 85787.15 Thequestionof theKBWAufstellunghasbeenlargelydebated; amongtherecentcontributions, seethosecollectedinCommonKnowledge18, no. 1(2012)andtherelated bibliography.16 JillKraye, UnpackingtheWarburgLibrary, CommonKnowledge 18, no.1 (2012):11727.17 WIA III.104.1,Mnemosyne, Gertrud Bing, synopsis of the plates.18 WIA Ia 1.7, Annual Report, Fritz Saxl, TS draft with some MS annotations, datedNovember15, 1927, 19fols; cf. WIA, GC, FritzSaxl toAbyWarburg, November15, 1927.19 BibliothekWarburg,KulturwissenschaftlicheBibliographiezumNachlebenderAntike.Bd. 1, DieErscheinungendes Jahres 1931, ed. Hans Meier, RichardNewald, andEdgar Wind (Leipzig: Teubner, 1934); cf. Warburg Institute, A Bibliography on the Sur-vival of the Classics (London: Cassell, 1938).20 WIA Ia 1.7,Annual Report, Fritz Saxl, 13.The full outline of subjects is reproducedin translation in the Appendix at the end of this article.21 Aby Warburg,Drer und die italienische Antike, Verhandlungen der 48: Versamm-lung deutscher Philologen und Schulmnner in Hamburg 1905 (Leipzig: 1906), 5560; cf.Marcus AndrewHurttig, Thomas Ketelsen, UlrichRehm, andClaudiaWedepohl,eds., Die entfesselte Antike: Aby Warburg unddie Geburt der Pathosformel (Kln:Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther Knig, 2012).22 Cf. the translation of the index here in the Appendix.23 Aby Warburg, Gesammelte SchriftenStudienausgabe: Der Bilderatlas Mnemosyne, ed.Martin Warnke and Claudia Brink (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, [2000] 2008).24 ErwinPanofsky, ZumProblemderBeschreibungundInhaltsdeutungvonWerkender bildenden Kunst, Logos 21 (1932): 10319;On the Problem of Describing andInterpretingWorksof theVisualArts,tr.JasElsnerandKatharinaLorenz,CriticalInquiry 38, no. 3 (Spring 2012): 46782.25 Introductory, in Erwin Panofsky, Studies in Iconology: Humanistic Themes in the Artof the Renaissance (New York: Oxford University Press, 1939), 317.26 IconographyandIconology: AnIntroductiontotheStudyofRenaissanceArt,inErwinPanofsky, MeaningintheVisual Arts: PapersinandonArt History(GardenCity, NY: Doubleday, 1955), 2654.27 Among the vast bibliography on the argument, I would here indicate: one contributionlinked to the topics of this special issue: Roelof van Straten, Panofsky and Iconclass,Artibus et Historiae 7, no. 13 (1986): 16581; and one recent essay on the question by theEnglish translators of the 1932 essay by Panofsky: Jas Elsner and Katharina Lorenz, TheGenesis of Iconology, Critical Inquiry 38, no. 3 (Spring 2012): 483512.28 Erwin Panofsky, ber das Verhltnis der Kunstgeschichte zur Kunsttheorie,Zeitschrift fr sthetik und allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft 18 (1925): 12961; KatharinaLorenzandJasElsner,trans., OntheRelationshipofArtHistoryandArtTheory:Mazzucco: (Photographic) Subject-matter 217Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 Towards the Possibility of a Fundamental System of Concepts for a Science of Art,Critical Inquiry 35 (Autumn 2008): 4371.29 ErwinPanofskyandFritzSaxl, ClassicalMythologyinMediaevalArt,MetropolitanMuseumStudies 4, no. 2 (March1933): 22880. Inthe rst footnote, Panofsky also stress-es that the text resulted, however, fromthe common endeavour of the two authors, whoin their research were assisted by the Hamburg students of art history, and that he feltindebted to Mrs. Margaret Barr for her participation in the English wording.30 ErwinPanofsky, RenaissanceandRenascencesinWesternArt(NewYork: Harper&Row, 1969).31 Panofsky and Saxl,Classical Mythology, 229.32 Georges Didi-Huberman,Artistic Survival: Panofsky vs. Warburg and the Exorcismof Impure Time, Common Knowledge 9, no. 2 (Spring 2003): 27385.33 Panofsky and Saxl,Classical Mythology, 270.34 Panofsky and Saxl,Classical Mythology, 272.35 Jas Elsner and Claire Hills-Nova, Viewpoint: Exiles and migrs, Libraries and ImageCollections: The Intellectual Legacy, in Jas Elsner and Claire Hills-Nova, eds., Exilesandmigrs,LibrariesandImageCollections:theIntellectual Legacy,ArtLibrariesJournal 38, no. 4 (2013): 4.36 WIA, I.9.14.3, KulturwissenschaftlicheBibliothekWarburg. GrundriderBcher-aufstellung und Bildersammlung, ca. 19311932; on this document and the relativebibliography, cf. Mazzucco, Liconoteca Warburg.37 FritzSaxl, DieAusdrucksgebrdenderbildendenKunst,inBericht berdenXII.Kongre der Deutschen Gesellschaft fr Psychologie in Hamburg, April 1216, 1931, inAuftrage der DeutschenGesellschaft fr Psychologie, ed. GustavKafka(Jena: VerlagvonGustavFischer,1932),1325;rpt.inFritzSaxl,Gebrde,Form,Ausdruck: ZweiUntersuchungen, ed. PabloSchneider (Zurich: Diaphanes, 2012). Arst differentinterpretationof these panels is inIlsebill Barta Fliedl andChristophGeissmar,eds., DieBeredsamkeit desLeibes. ZurKrperspracheinderKunst, Verffentlichungder Albertina 31 (Salzburg-Vienna: Residenz Verlag, 1992).38 Laura Corti and Marilyn Schmidt, eds., Automatic Processing of Art History Data andDocuments, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, interna-tionalconferenceproceedings(Florence:RegioneToscana,1984);MurthaBacaandPatricia Harpring, eds., Art Information Task Force: Categories for the Descriptionof Works of Art, Visual Resources 11, no. 34 (1996).39 IrvinLavin, Iconographyas aHumanisticDiscipline(Iconographyat theCross-roads), in Brendan Cassidy, ed., Iconography at the Crossroads (Princeton, NJ:Index of Christian Art, Princeton University, 1993), 3342. Behaviourist andIdealist are the terms suggested to Lavin for this distinction by LeendertD. Couprie, whowasthendirectorof Iconclass. It isinterestingtostressthat thecontext of a rst discussion of these questions had been the Automatic Processing con-ference, cf. IrvinLavinIconography,inCorti andSchmidt, AutomaticProcessing,32331.40 Anna C. Esmeijer and William S. Heckscher, The Index of Christian Art, The Indexer3, no. 4 (19621963): 97119.41 See Charlotte Schoell-Glass and Elizabeth L. Sears, Verzetteln als Methode: Der human-istische Ikonologe WilliamS. Heckscher (19041999), Hamburger ForschungenzurKunstgeschichte 6 (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2008).42 Esmeijer and Heckscher,Index of Christian Art, 116.218 Classifying Content on Paper (ca. 19001950)Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 43 Esmeijer and Heckscher,Index of Christian Art, 118.44 For a critical overview on art history and photography, see Costanza Caraffa, ed., PhotoArchives and the Photographic Memory of Art History (Berlin: Deutscher Kunstverlag,2011).45 WIA Ia 1.7, Annual Report, Fritz Saxl, 1318. The purpose of this provisional trans-lation of the German text is to provide the reader with the complete list of categoriesand subcategories outlined by Saxl for the index. I will discuss the full report and otherrelated documents in a forthcoming essay.AppendixFritz Saxls Index for the Material of the Mnemosyne Atlas, November 192745In my estimate, the Atlas includes, in its actual formulation, 550 images, arranged according tothree groups:1) The reformulation (Gestaltwandel) of the ancient gods as Olympians and demons in theMiddle Ages and the restitution (Restitution) of their ancient forms in the Reinassance2) Tradition and reception (Rezeption) of the ancient Pathos formulae in the Middle Agesand in the Renaissance3) Transformation (Formwandel) of individual ancientgures (antiker Gestalten) into pic-torial forms (Bildformen) in the Middle Ages and RenaissanceFirst main groupI Apollo1) as an archer2) Musagetes of the Mount of the MusesII Neptune1) standing, with the trident2) charioteerIII Bacchus1) with the cup2) Bacchus and AriadneIV Pan1) as a rider2) as god of all things (Allgott) and god of the musicV Venus1) Venus Pudica2) resting Venus (alone and with Mars)3) birth of VenusVI PallasVII Saturn1) ancient shape (antikisierend)2) in medieval costume (Verkleidung)3) devouring children4) on the dragon chariotVIII Sol1) the chariot, frontal2) the chariot, in proleMazzucco: (Photographic) Subject-matter 219Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 IX Mercury1) late ancient tradition2) Cyriacuss MercuryX AtlasXI Hercules1) killing the boar2) wrestling with the lion3) restingXII Fortuna1) with the wheel2) with the cornucopia3) with the sail4) with the forelockXIII The SphinxThe second main group includes collections of Pathos formulae, and namely:I PainLaocoon1) the posthumous life (Nachleben) of the book illustrations2) the ancient wall paintings3) an ancient sculptural relief4) the recovered groupII InfanticideMedeaIII Human sacrice1) sacrice of Iphigenia2) sacrice of PolyxenaIV Death of the god1) Orpheus2) Pentheus3) SebastianMarsyas4) AmorSebastian5) Moresca and battle for the breechesV Dying1) TornabuoniAlcestis2) SassettiMeleagaer3) ChristAdonis4) transportation of the body5) NiobideDavidVI Mourning1) the dead Christ2) antique private tombs3) mourninggures; entombment by Giotto and Donatello4) the grieving genregures (trauernde Genreguren) of the early Renaissance and theirmodelsVII Abduction1) Proserpina, the progression (Fortschreiten)2) Helena, the carrying off (Forttragen)VIII Pursuit1) Hercules and Dejanira2) Daphne220 Classifying Content on Paper (ca. 19001950)Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014 IX TriumphX Grasping the head1) Perseus with MedusaGu l-head2) Hercules with the Medusa head3) the ancient Maenad4) Judith5) the ancient battle group with the laid down- rushed-gure (Amazonomachy, battlewith the centaurs)6) Pallas and the centaurThe third main group includes individual gures and single scene, namely:I The Nymph1) dancinggurea) individual: Judithb) dancing couplec) dancing group2) the Musesa) Playerb) Pensive3) the Bearera) carrying the basket with the handb) carrying the basket on the head4) the Ninfa with the sail-like veil5) Flyinga) Spesb) the Angel of the Annunciationc) the Angel carrying the mandorla6) Fleeing, with loose hairII The Thinker1) portrait of Aristotle2) representation of the philosophical dialogue3) the philosophers schoolIII Man and the Environment1) man and beasta) Meleager huntb) temptation of St. Anthony2) the landscape formulae (Landschaftsformeln)3) the image (Bildnis) of RomeMazzucco: (Photographic) Subject-matter 221Downloaded by [Lund University Libraries] at 00:06 20 August 2014