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From Mark H Anshell’s book Sport Psychology Chapter #3: Motivating Athletes (Do’s and...

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  • From Mark H Anshells book Sport PsychologyChapter #3: Motivating Athletes (Dos and Donts)

  • Typical Examples of motivation in sport:IntimidationThreatsCriticismGuiltPhysical Abuse

  • Purpose of this chapter:

    It is to offer a scientific basis for motivation and to recommend strategies that will favorably influence the athletes feelings and actions.

  • What is Motivation?Motivation is defined as the tendency for the direction and selectivity of behavior to be controlled by its connections to consequences, and the tendency of this behavior to persist until a goal is achieved.Direction of Motivation: refers to the purpose and the desired actions of the activity.Selectivity of Behavior: Deciding which tasks to performPurpose of Motivation is to prolong desirable feelings and actions of athletes.

  • Use coaching Strategies that make physical fitness fun and enjoyableFor athletes to feel motivated, they should be involved in an activity in which they can achieve short term and long term goals.Purpose of Goals: provide direction for effort and the incentive to persist and achieve.

    What is Motivation?

  • Motive: is the individuals anticipation of meeting some goal.It is the function of how important the athlete considers the consequences of certain actions and how strongly the performer desires (approach motive) or resist (avoidance motive) these ramifications.Most Challenging Motivational Task: Is for coaches to motivate every team member, and athletes to motivate themselves, by feeling that the performers efforts will lead to meeting desirable goals (expectancy).

    What is Motivation?

  • Coach can foster incentive in an athlete by pointing out the specific ways in which certain behaviors can lead to goals and outcomes that the performer finds meaningful.Athletes can improve incentive by engaging in activities they find pleasant and have realistic expectations.Make Goals Realistic

    What is Motivation?

  • Sources of Motivation:Motivation is not simply a matter of personality type. Rather, there are likely a set of personal characteristics and situational factors that foster motivation, separately and jointly.

  • Participant Centered View: or trait centered viewHolds that if individuals do not have what it takes to reach goals and perform at their best, there is nothing anyone can do to make this happen.Individual desire is the first and foremost characteristic of motivation.

    Sources of Motivation:

  • Participant Centered View: or trait centered view

    Personal attributes that separate more motivated Ind. from less motivated Ind.

    High level of need achievementGoal orientationSelf confidenceCompetenceOptimism Positive expectanciesCompetitiveness (particularly in skilled athletes)

    Sources of Motivation:

  • Situational View:This View holds that personal attributes are insufficient predictors of motivation.

    Individuals with high propensity to be motivated will not exhibit this characteristic unless the situation of environment fosters it.

    Main Limitation of the situational view: situations DO NOT always influence a competitors motivation. Some situations are quite unpleasant yet some athletes remain motivated despite negative experiences or negative environments.

    Sources of Motivation:

  • Interaction View:This View Holds: Motivation results from the combination of personal and situational factors

    Motivation is more likely if individual possesses certain characteristics and if they are in a situation that is supportive of and nurtures their desires.

    Negative reinforcement does not usually have motivational effect, but is some times required to motivate athletes.

    Sources of Motivation:

  • Interaction View:

    Two short Comings to negative reinforcement:

    It only has short term effects and is there only as long as the threat remains.

    Threat creates extrinsic, not intrinsic, incentive (the reason for the activity is based on achieving some external reward).

    Sources of Motivation:

  • Summary: Motivation in sport is dependent upon meeting the athletes personal needs and objectives while pursuing a certain predetermined course of action, responding to the coachs leadership, and possessing necessary feelings and attitudes associated with performance success.

  • Theories of Motivation:Need Achievement:

    One Characteristic of successful athletes: is their high need to achieve referred to as achievement motivation

    Success is in the mind of the beholder

    Individual is responsible for determining their own achievement behavior

    Low achievement competitors will not interpret losing as failure because they did not even try.

    It is optimal level of effort that should determine success and not always the outcome.

  • High need achievers:

    Usually experience more pleasure in success

    Have fewer and weaker physiological symptoms of arousal

    Feel responsible for the outcomes of their own actions

    Prefer to know about their success or failure almost immediately after performance

    Prefer situations that contain some risk about result.

    Theories of Motivation:

  • Approach Motives: Individual acts to bring about pleasurable experiences.

    Avoidance Motives: actions serve to prevent something unpleasant from happening.

    A person can have a high need to achieve but, due to past history of failure, have low motive to achieve. In fact their expectancy for success would probably be quite low.

    Unless the high need achiever with low motive finds a sport in which he/she is successful, the person will tend to stop participating in sport altogether. (The fear of failure - avoidance Motive phenomenon)

    Theories of Motivation:

  • Separating the High and Low Need Achiever:

    Looks at the areas of:

    Motivational orientationAttributional tendenciesType of preferred goalsTask choicePerformance outcomes in evaluative conditions.

    Theories of Motivation:

  • Found differences between high and low need achievers, using the symbol for need achievement Nach.

    Theories of Motivation:

  • Motivational Orientation:

    High Nach:

    Have high motivation to achieve, low motivation to experience failure, and possess great pride in their success.

    They explain success due to high ability, and failure due to bad luck or high task difficulty (casual attributions)

    Task Preferred goals: relate to the level of task mastery and seek out challenges, and do well in evaluative conditions.

    Theories of Motivation:

  • Motivational Orientation:

    Low Nach:

    Have low motivation for success, comfortable with or desire failure, and focus on shame and worry what may result from failure.

    Attribute success to an easy task or good luck and failure to poor ability (causal attributions)

    Outcome Preferred goals: prefer to avoid challenges or perform very difficult tasks to avoid responsibility for performance failure, and do not do well under evaluation.

    Theories of Motivation:

  • Reinforcing Achievement Motivation:

    Need to achieve should be reinforced by:

    Creating challenging goalsTeaching skills that lead to performance improvement and successGiving positive feedback on performance and avoid negative remarksAllowing for risk taking behaviors and learning from the outcomes good or bad. Creating situations in which the athlete feels successful ensuring that at the end of a practice or an event the person fells a sense of competence.

    Theories of Motivation:

  • Competence Motivation:

    White (1959) The theories purpose is that behavior is directed, selective, and persistent owing to an intrinsic need to deal with the environment.

    Harter (1981)Theory claims that individuals are motivated by, and attempt to exhibit, skill mastery in achievement situations such as sport.

    Individuals high in perceptions of competence and degree of self control in the sport environment will exert more effort, persist longer, and experience more positive feelings than individuals lower in perceived competence and self control.

    Theories of Motivation:

  • Goal Orientation:

    Refers to the extent to which an athlete is motivated by setting and then meeting goals

    Reflects two thought processes:

    The athletes achievement goalsHis/her perceived ability

    Theories of Motivation:

  • Theories of Motivation:

  • Goal orientation can become stronger or weaker at any given time, specific task, or within a given context.

    Ego Involvement: the thought process that drives the athletes goal orientation.

    Perception is influenced by improving ones abilities in one of two ways:

    Improvement over time (task involvement) rather than current ability

    Demonstrating competence based on proving current ability by outperforming others. (ego involvement)

    Theories of Motivation:

  • Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Intrinsic and Extrinsic MotivationIs about understanding the connection b/t a persons thoughts and how these thoughts influence his or her actions.

  • Decis Theory:

    It is predicted on two primary drives that provide the person with the energy for goal directed behavior and they are:

    To Feel competent and to be self determining in coping and interacting with ones environment

    Two processes by which extrinsic rewards can affect IM:

    Controlling function and informational function

    Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

  • Intrinsic MotivationExtrinsic MotivationFig 3.2 pg 85 Reasons for participation

    Cognitive Evaluat

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