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From War to Détente

Date post: 12-Jan-2016
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From War to Détente. Section 21.2. American personnel being evacuated from US embassy in Saigon, April 1975. What is Vietnamization?. Nixon’s policy of withdrawing US troops while training S. Vietnam to take over the fighting Part of Nixon Doctrine Nixon Doctrine - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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From War to Détent e Section 21.2 American personnel being evacuated from US embassy in Saigon, April 1975
  • From War to DtenteSection 21.2American personnel being evacuated from US embassy in Saigon, April 1975

  • What is Vietnamization?Nixons policy of withdrawing US troops while training S. Vietnam to take over the fightingPart of Nixon DoctrineNixon DoctrineUS would provide financial & weapon support to anti-communist alliesBut no US troops!Above: South V. army officer; below: as labeled

  • VietnamizationCapture from clip on Vietnamization

  • What were the Paris Peace Talks?Peace conferences between US/S. Vietnam and N. VietnamStarted in 1968S.V. and U.S. insisted N.V. withdraw from South, and that the Thieu (regime in South) remain in power.N.V. demanded U.S. withdraw and a coalition government w/VietcongAbove: cartoon shows exhausted dove labeled Vietnam Talks impaled atop the Eiffel Tower; below: U.S. negotiators in Paris

  • Who was Henry Kissinger?Nixons chief foreign policy adviserEventually Nixons Secretary of State.German Born Jewish escapee of Nazi oppression.Harvard Professor.kept foreign policy secret from press b/c of unpopularity of warAbove: Kissinger on the phone; below: Kissinger on cover of Time

  • Describe the the Secret War of Nixon and Kissinger:Massive bombing of communist bases in Laos and CambodiaWanted to cut off supply line and bring N.V. to the negotiating tableUtilized Madman TheoryNixon wanted N.V. to think he was crazy enough to NukeFrom 1969-1973 US conducted over 3, 600 missionsDid not workLed to invasion of Cambodia (April 1970)Above: Nixon and Kissinger confer; below: aerial photo of bombing Cambodia

  • Secret WarCapture from clip on Cambodia bombing and the issue of secrecy

  • How did the public react?Kent State University 4 students died during violent protests Pentagon PapersNY Times article revealed that US Govt. had lied to the American public about warDid not directly implicate NixonBut public now believed that the government (Nixon) could not be trustedSignificance: Nixon becomes obsessed with stopping leaks of info to the pressBelow: Time magazine further spreads the story the NY Times had broken

  • Pentagon PapersCapture from clip on Pentagon Papers

  • Describe the Final Years of the War:Vietnamization failedS.V. troops defeated handily by N.V. troopsOctober 1972- U.S. and N.V. agree to cease-fire.All U.S. troops would leave Vietnam, POWs would be returned, VC could play an active role in a coalition government in the South Kissinger: Peace is at hand.Thieu refused to sign the treaty and peace fell apartAbove: Kissinger meets with Vietnamese leaders; below: Nixon does the same

  • What was the Christmas Bombing?To force peace, Nixon intensified bombing during a 12 day campaign lasted from December 18-30.Bombed major N.V. cities and installations in Laos and CambodiaKilled thousands of civiliansNY Times called the bombing diplomacy through terror. Above and below: USAF carpet-bombing SE Asia to force peace

  • POWsCapture from clip on US POWs

  • Describe the Fall of Saigon:US and NV agreed to peace terms (1/1973)Last US troops left in March of 1973 War b/t South and North resumedSaigon scene of chaos as S.Vietnamese desperately tried to flee on US helicoptersApril 1975 Saigon fellAbove: another image of fleeing S.V. civilians boarding helicopter; below: desperate civilians try to climb wall of US embassy

  • Saigon FallsCapture from clip on the fall of Saigon

  • Describe the cost of War58,000 Americans dead 300,000 wounded$150 billion dollarsAmerican self-confidence of WWII goneUS lost its first warTwo million Vietnamese died land lay in ruinsAbove: still from Goodnight Saigon; below: at the Vietnam Veterans memorial

  • The War EndsCapture from clip about the cool reception returning soldiers got and the disinterest of the public in the end of the war

  • What does Dtente mean?An easing or relaxing of tensionsPeriod during Nixons presidency noted for better relations between the US and USSR/Red ChinaHawks saw it as sign of our weakness and loss of resolveAbove: Nixon with Mao Zedong; below: Nixon with Leonid Brezhnev

  • How was the world different in the 1970s from the 1950s?US and USSR not the only powersFive Economic Superpowers had developedUS, USSR, Japan, China, EEC (European Economic Community)USSR and China were enemies!Composite night-time satellite shot indicates spread of prosperity (electricity for lighting) around the world by the mid-70s

  • Describe Nixon and Kissingers view of foreign policy:Believed in RealpolitikThe politics of realityUS should form alliances based on its national economic interests rather than on ideology, i.e.: Form alliances even with communist nations!N+K wanted balance of powerSeveral powerful nations would prevent one from getting too powerfulIs there any irony to Cold Warrior Nixons new policy?Otto Von Bismarck

  • Describe the US policy toward China from 1949-1970:Refused to recognize communist governmentNo diplomatic relationshipFormed alliance with Taiwan Where Chiang Kai-sheks anticommunist govt. had formed after 1949Blocked admittance into UNChina had aided communists in Korean and Vietnam WarsAbove: map shows the tiny island of Taiwan; below: Chiangs nationalists march

  • How was dtente between the US and China achieved?Nixon expressed desire to visit China to Time magazine reporter (1970)US Table Tennis Team (ping pong) visited China (4/71)Trade embargo ended days laterUS allowed China admittance into UN (as a permanent member to the Security Council)Kissinger went on secret mission to lay groundworkNixon traveled to China (2/72)Visited Great Wall & MaoAbove: Nixon and Mao shake on it; below: Nixon toasts Premier (second in command) Chou En-Lai

  • Nixon traveled to RussiaSigned Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty (SALT) with BrezhnevSALT curtailed number of ballistic missilesAgreed to trade technology and grainHow was dtente between the US and the Soviet Union achieved?Above: Nixon and Brezhnev toast; below: Brezhnev sees an advantage to dtente

  • Describe the election of 1972:Democrats nominated George McGovernLiberal Anti-war platformImmediate end to war, $30 billion cut in defense spending, pardoning of draft dodgersNixon threatened by third party candidate George WallaceAppealed to Southern and blue collar votersParalyzed by would-be assassin and dropped outNixon won by landslideBut his downfall had begunTop: George McGovern on Time cover; below: Wallace button from before the shooting