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    VSAT NetworksG.Maral

    Copyright 1995 John Wiley & Sons Ltd ISBNs: 0-471-95302-4 (Hardback); 0-470-84188-5 (Electronic)


    Editorial Advisory Board

    Professor B. Evans University of Surrey

    Professor A. Danthine Universitk de LiGge

    Professor G. Pujolle Universitk Pierre et Marie Curie

    Professor 0. Spaniol Technical University of Aachen

    Integrated Digital Communications Networks (Volumes 1 and 2) G . Pujolle, D. Seret, D. Dromard and E. Horlait

    Security for Computer Networks, Second Edition D. W. Davies and W. L. Price

    Elements of Digital Communication

    Satellite Communications Systems, Second Edition (Systems, Techniques and Technology)

    J. C. Bic, D. Dupontiel and J. C. Imbeaux

    G . Maral and M. Bousquet Using Formal Description Techniques (An Introduction to ESTELLE, LOTOS and SDL)

    Edited by Kenneth J. Turner

    S . Muftic, A. Patel, P. Sanders, R. Colon, J. Heijnsdijk and U. Pulkkinen

    R. J. Horrocks and R. W. A. Scarr

    Security Architecture for Open Distributed Systems

    Future Trends in Telecommunications

    Mobile Communications A. Jagoda and M. de Villepin

    Information Technology on the Move (Technical and Behavioural Evaluations of Mobile Telecommunications)

    Digital Speech for Low Bit Rate Communication Systems

    High Speed Networks

    G . Underwood, F. Sommerville, J. D. M. Underwood and W. Hengeveld

    A. Kondoz

    M. Boisseau, M. Demange, J.-M. Munier

    VSAT Networks G . Maral

    VSAT NetworksG.Maral

    Copyright 1995 John Wiley & Sons Ltd ISBNs: 0-471-95302-4 (Hardback); 0-470-84188-5 (Electronic)


    G. Maral Ecole Nationale Supheure des Til6communications (Telecom Paris)

    site of Toulouse, France

    JOHN WILEY & SONS Chichester . New York . Brisbane Toronto . Singapore

  • Copyright 0 1995 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 IUD, England Telephone: National Chichester (0243) 779777

    International (+ 44) 243 779777

    Reprinted with corrections January 1996 Reprinted March 1998, August 1999

    All rights reserved.

    No part of this book may be reproduced by any means, or transmitted, or translated into a machine language without the written permission of the publisher.

    Other Wiley Editorial Ofices

    John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, USA

    Jacaranda Wiley Ltd, G.P.O. Box 859, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia

    John Wiley & Sons (Canada) Ltd, 22 Worcester Road, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 1L1, Canada

    John Wiley & Sons (SEA) Pte Ltd, 37 Jalan Pemimpin #05-04, Block B, Union Industrial Building, Singapore 29809

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PublicationData

    Maral, GQard. VSAT networks / G. Maral.

    p. cm.-(Wiley series in communication and distributed systems)

    Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0 471 953024 : $39.95 (US.) 1. VSATs (Telecommunication) I. Title. II. Series.

    TK5104.2.V74M37 1995 94-37789 384.51-dc20 CIP

    British Library Cataloguingin Publication Data

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    ISBN 0 471 95302 4

    Typeset in 10; /12fpt Palatino by Thomson Press (India) Ltd., New Delhi Printed and bound in Great Britain by Bookcraft (Bath) Ltd




    1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 VSAT network definition 1.2 VSAT network configurations 1.3 VSAT network applications and types of traffic

    1.3.1 Civilian VSAT networks 1.3.2 Military VSAT networks

    1.4 VSAT networks: involved parties 1.5 VSAT network options

    1.5.1 Star or mesh? 1.5.2 Data/voice/video 1.5.3 Fixed/demand assignment 1.5.4 C-band or Ku-band? 1.5.5 Hub options

    1.6 VSAT network earth stations 1.6.1 VSAT station 1.6.2 Hub station

    1.7 Historical background 1.7.1 Origin of VSAT networks 1.7.2 VSAT development in the USA 1.7.3 Users categories in the USA 1.7.4 VSAT development in Europe 1.7.5 VSAT development in other countries 1.7.6 Regional VSAT market share

    1.8 Economic aspects 1.9 Regulatory aspects

    1.9.1 Standardisation 1.9.2 Licensing of operation 1.9.3 Access to the space segment 1.9.4 Local regulations

    1.10.1 Advantages 1.102 Drawbacks

    1.10 Conclusions




    1 1 4 9 9

    13 13 15 15 19 20 22 26 27 27 31 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 37 40 41 44 44 45 45 45 46

  • vi Contents


    2.1.1 The relay function 2.1.2 Transparent and regenerative payload 2.1.3 Coverage 2.1.4 Impact of coverage on satellite relay performance 2.1.5 Frequency reuse

    2.2.1 Newtons universal law of attraction 2.2.2 Orbital parameters

    2.3 The geostationary satellite 2.3.1 Orbit parameters 2.3.2 Launching the satellite 2.3.3 Distance to the satellite 2.3.4 Propagation delay 2.3.5 Azimuth and elevation angles 2.3.6 Conjunction of the sun and the satellite 2.3.7 Orbit perturbations 2.3.8 Apparent satellite movement 2.3.9 Orbit corrections 2.3.10 Doppler effect

    2.2 Orbit

    2.4 Satellites for VSAT services


    3.1.1 Licensing of operation 3.1.2 Licensing of equipment 3.1.3 Access to the space segment 3.1.4 Permission for installation

    3.2 Installation 3.2.1 Hub 3.22 VSAT 3.2.3 Antenna pointing

    3.3 The customers concerns 3.3.1 Interfaces to end equipment 3.3.2 Independence from vendor 3.3.3 Set-up time 3.3.4 Access to the service 3.3.5 Flexibility 3.3.6 Failure and disaster recovery 3.3.7 Blocking probability 3.3.8 Response time

    3.3.10 Availability 3.3.11 Maintenance 3.3.12 Hazards 3.3.13 Cost

    3.3.9 Link quality

    3.4 VSAT and HUB equipments 3.5 Network management system (W)

    3.5.1 Operational functions 3.5.2 Adminishative functions

    49 49 49 52 53 58 60 61 61 62 65 65 66 69 70 70 72 73 74 77 79 79

    81 81 81 82 83 83 83 83 84 84 86 86 86 87 87 87 88 89 90 91 91 95 96 96 97 97 98


  • Contents vii

    4 NETWOFXING ASPECTS 4.1 Network functions 4.2 Some definitions

    4.2.1 Link and connection 4.2.2 Bit rate 4.2.3 Protocol 4.2.4 Delay 4.2.5 Throughput 4.2.6 Channel efficiency 4.2.7 Channel utilisation

    4.3 Traffic characterisation 4.3.1 Traffic forecasts 4.3.2 Traffic measurements 4.3.3 Traffic source modelling

    4.4 The OS1 reference model for data communications 4.4.1 The physical layer 4.4.2 The data link layer 4.4.3 The network layer 4.4.4 The transport layer 4.4.5 The upper layers (5 to 7)

    4.5 Application to VSAT networks 4.5.1 Physical and protocol configurations of a VSAT network 4.5.2 Protocol conversion (emulation) 4.5.3 Reasons for protocol conversion

    4.6 Multiple access 4.6.1 Basic multiple access protocols 4.6.2 Meshed networks 4.6.3 Star shaped networks 4.6.4 Fixed assignment versus demand assignment 4.6.5 Random time division multiple access 4.6.6 Delay analysis 4.6.7 Conclusion

    4.7 Network design 4.7.1 Principles 4.7.2 Guidelines for preliminary dimensioning 4.7.3 Example

    4.8 Conclusion


    5.1.1 Thermal noise 5.1.2 Interference noise 5.1.3 Intermodulation noise 5.1.4 Carrier power to noise power spectral density ratio 5.1.5 Total noise

    5.2 Uplink analysis 5.2.1 Power flux density at satellite distance 5.2.2 Equivalent isotropic radiated power of the earth station 5.2.3 Uplink path loss 5.2.4 Figure of merit of satellite receiving equipment

    5.3 Downlink analysis 5.3.1 Equivalent isotropic radiated power of the satellite 5.3.2 Flux density at earth surface

    101 101 102 102 106 104 105 105 106 106 106 106 106 107 111 113 113 114 115 115 116 116 117 118 125 126 129 131 137 144 150 156 157 157 158 162 162

    165 166 167 167 168 169 170 1 72 173 174 181 186 187 188 189

  • viii Contents

    5.3.3 Downlink path loss 5.3.4 Figure of merit of earth station receiving equipment

    5.4 Intermodulation analysis 5.5 Interference analysis

    5.5.1 Expressions for camer-to-interference ratio 5.5.2 Types of interference 5.5.3 Self-interference 5.5.4 External interference 5.5.5 Conclusion

    5.6 Overall link performance 5.7 Bit error rate determination 5.8 Power versus bandwidth exchange 5.9 Example

    6 FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS 6.1 Cost reduction of VSATs 6.2 New services

    6.2.1 LAN interconnection 6.2.2 Multimedia 6.2.3 Mobile seMces

    6.3 VSATs and onboard processing satellites 6.4 Use of non-geostationary satellite 6.5 Network management 6.6 Conclusion











    Traffic source models

    Automatic repeat request (ARQ) products

    Interface protocols

    Antenna parameters

    Emitted and received power

    Camer amplification

    VSAT products

    Satellite news gathering

    189 190 197 198 198 200 200 209 215 215 215 220 221

    227 227 228 228 230 231 232 232 233 233












    Satellites for communication services have evolved quite significantly in size and power since the launch of the first commercial satellites in 1965. This has permitted a consequent reduction in the size of earth stations, and hence their cost, with a consequent increase in number. Small stations, with antennas in the order of 1.2-1.8 m, have become very popular under the acronym VSAT, which stands for Very Small Aperture Terminals. Such stations can easily be installed at the customers premises and, considering the inherent capability of a satellite to collect and broadcast signals over large areas, are being widely used to support a large range of services. Examples are broadcast and distribution services for data, image, audio and video, collection and monitoring for data, image and video, two-way interactive services for computer transactions, data base inquiry, and voice communications.

    The trend towards deregulation, which started in the United States, and is presently progressing in other regions of the world, has triggered the success of VSAT networks for corporate applications. This illustrates that technology is not the only key to success. Indeed, VSAT networks have been installed and operated only in those regions of the world where demand existed for the kind of services that VSAT technology could support in a cost effective way, and also where the regulatory framework was supportive.

    The success of the book SateZZite Communications Systems by myself and Michel Bousquet (2nd edition, Wiley, 1993) was an encouragement to develop in a new book those aspects which are specific to VSAT networks. I also was pushed by my students, either the younger ones from TELECOM Paris, where this material has been elaborated during dedicated workshops, or the elder and also more mature ones, who attend my continuing education courses on various aspects of satellite communications, hosted by CEI-Europe.

    The present book on VSAT networks aims at introducing the reader to the important issues of services, economics and regulatory aspects. It is also intended to give detailed technical insight on networking and radiofrequency link aspects, therefore addressing the specific features of VSAT networks at the three lower layers of the OS1 Reference Layer Model for data communications.

    From my experience in teaching, I felt I should proceed from the general to the particular. Therefore, Chapter 1 can be considered as an introduction to the

  • X Preface

    subject, with rather descriptive contents on VSAT network configurations, servi- ces, operational and regulatory aspects.

    The more intrigued reader can then explore the subsequent chapters. Chapter 2 deals with those aspects of satellite orbit and technology which influence the operation and performance of VSAT networks. Chapter 3 gives more details on the regulatory and operational aspects which are important to the customer. Licensing is discussed, installation problems are presented, and a list of potential concerns to the customer is explored. Hopefully, this chapter will not be per- ceived as discouraging, but on the contrary as a friendly guide for avoiding misfortunes, and getting the best from a VSAT network.

    The next two chapters are for technique oriented readers. Actually, I thought this would be a piece of cake for my students, and a reference text for network design engineers. Chapter 4 deals with networking. It introduces traffic character- isation, and discusses network and link layers protocols of the OS1 Reference Layer Model, as used in VSAT networks. It also presents simple analysis tools for the dimensioning of VSAT networks from traffic demand and user specifications in terms of blocking probability and response time. Chapter 5 covers the physical layer, providing the basic radio frequency link analysis, and presenting the parameters that condition link quality and availability. An important aspect discussed here is interference, as a result of the small size of the VSAT antenna, and its related large beamwidth.

    Appendices are provided for the benefit of those readers who may lack some background and have no time or opportunity to refer to other sources. I also felt the reader would appreciate finding here a description of some of the existing VSAT products. Although this information is subject to rapid change, and does not cover all available products, it is interesting for comparing todays offers. Actual- ly, the offer from one vendor to another on technical grounds is quite similar.

    Many people have helped me during the preparation of this book. First of these is Helge Griinbaum, from the National Post and Telecom Agency of Sweden, who reviewed the manuscript, proposing significant improvements. I would also like to thank those people who provided me with useful documentation and advice: Jonathan Collins and Richard Barrett from ATT Tridom, Rami Kaoua from GTE Spacenet, Helio Martins from HNS France, Yasuhiko Ito from KDD R&D Labs, Christophe von Rakowski and Gerard Elineau from Domier, Ian Westall from Ferranti International, Nissan Leviathan from Gilat Europe, J.D. Rogers from Multipoint Communications, Sven-Erik Hennum-Johnsen from Normac, Didier Chaminade from France Cables and Radio, Jean-Luc Garneau from Polycom, Bernard Guinel, Daniel Lagrange and Patrice Paquot from Eutelsat, and Bernard Lancrenon and Eric Alberty from Matra Marconi Space. I would also like to mention one of my students, Jean-Claude Pommares. Discussions with people of TELECOM Paris were also of great help, namely Dominique Seret from the Networks Department, and Tarif Zein, Pascal Lalanne and Alain Pirovano, from the Toulouse site. Some of the material in the book has been inspired by the fruitful work performed within the COST226 project, chaired with talent by my colleague Professor Otto Koudelka from the University of Graz.

  • Preface xi

    Finally, many thanks to all the students I have taught, at TELECOM Paris, the University of Surrey, CEI-Europe, and other places, who, by raising questions, asking for details and bringing in their comments, have helped me to organise the material presented here.

    Writing a book is a long effort, and must be carried out along with day-to-day work. The only place I could find long periods of quietness for thinking and writing has been at home. I would like to thank my wife Elena and my son Roman for accepting me to stay up late at night typing on my word processor, and spending most of our vacation period working on the manuscript rather than in their company. I appreciate their support and understanding.

    Gerard Maral


    ABCS Advanced Business Com- munications via Satellite

    ACI Adjacent Channel Interference ACK ACKnowledgement AMP AMPlifier ARQ Automatic reoeat ReQuest ARQ-GB(N) Automatic repaat ReQuest-





    cc1 CCIR



    Go Back N Automatic repeat ReQuest- Selective Repeat Automatic repeat ReQuest- Stop and Wait ASYNChronous data transfer

    Bit Error Probability Bit Error Rate Built-In Test Equipment Band Pass Filter Binary Phase Shift Keying Binary Synchronous Com- munications (bisync)

    Co-Channel Interference Comite Consultatif Intema- tional des Radiocommunica- t ion~ (International Radio Consultative Committee) Comite Consultatif Intema- tional du Telegraphe et du Telephone (International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee) Cluster Control Unit





    dB D/C DCE


    ECU E M



    E W S L


    Code Division Multiple Access Combined Free/Demand as- signment Multiple Access Combined Fixed/Reservation Assignment European Cooperation in the fieldof Scientificand Technical research

    Demand Assignment Demand Assignment Multiple Access deciBel DownConverter Data Circuit Terminating Equipment DEMODulator Data Terminating Equipment

    European Currency Unit Electronic Industries Associ- ation Effective Isotropic Radiated Power Effective Isotropic Radiated Power of earth station (ES) Effective Isotropic Radiated Power of satellite (SL) Earth Station ETSI Technical Report European Telecommunica- tions Standard, created within ETSI

  • xiv



    FA FCC












    Acronyms and abbreviations

    European Telecommunica- tions Standards Institute European TELecommunica- tions SATellite Organisation

    Fixed Assignment Federal Communications Commission, in the USA Frequency Division Multiplex Frequency Division Multiple Access Forward Error Correction Field Effect Transistor First In First Out FIFO Ordered Demand As- signment Frequency Shift Keying

    Go Back N

    High level Data Link Control High Electron Mobility Tran- sistor High Power Amplifier

    InterArrival Time Input Back-Off InDoor Unit Intermediate Frequency InterModulation Input Multiplexer Intemet Protocol hitid Pointing Error Integrated Services Digital Network International Organisation for Standardisation International Telecommunica- tion Union

    Local Area Network Link Access Protocol Low Noise Amplifier Local Oscillator

    Medium Access Control, also Multiplexed Analog Compo- nents









    Q E K

    RCVO Rec

    RF Rl-l. Rx


    Multiple Channels Per Carrier Master International Fre- quency Register MODulator Mean Time Between Failures MiXer MUltipleXer

    Negative ACKnowledgement Network Management System

    Output Back-Off OutDoor Unit Output MUltipleXer Open System Interconnection

    Private Automatic Branch exchange Packet Assembler/Disassem- bler Private (automatic) Branch exchange Personal Computer Probability Density Function Protocol Data Unit POLarization Power Spectral Density Phase Shift Keying

    Quaternary Phase Shift Key- ing

    ReCeiVe Only Recommendation Report Radio Frequency Round Trip Time Receiver

    SALOHA Slotted ALOHA protocol SCADA Supervisory Control And Data

    SCPC Single Channel Per Carrier SDLC Synchronous Data Link Con-

    SKW Satellite-Keeping Window SL SateLlite



  • SNA




    Acronyms and abbreviations xv

    Systems Network Architec- ture (IBM) Satellite News Gathering Selective Repeat Solid State Power Amplifier Stop and Wait

    Transmission Control Proto- col Time Division Multiplex Time Division Multiple Access

    TTC Telemetry, Tracking and Command

    TV Television TWT Travelling Wave Tube TX Transmitter

    VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal

    XPD Cross Polarisation Discrimi- nation

    XPI Cross Polarisation Isolation




    C CD


    C/N (GIN),

    attenuation (larger than one in absolute value, therefore positive value in dB), also length of acknowledgement frame (bits) attenuation due to rain azimuth angle (degree) semi-major axis (m)

    bandwidth (Hz) interfemg carrier bandwidth (Hz) inbound carrier bandwidth (Hz) receiver equivalent noise bandwidth (Hz) outbound carrier bandwidth (Hz) transponder bandwidth (Hz) burstiness

    speed of light: c = 3 X 108m/s also distance from centre of ellipse to its focus (m) carrier power (W) carrier power at earth station receiver input (W) carrier power at satellite transponder input (W) received carrier power on X-polarisation (W) received carrier power on Y-polarisation (W) carrier to noise power ratio downlink carrier to noise power ratio

    same as above, at saturation carrier to intermodulation noise power ratio (Hz) uplink carrier power to noise power ratio same as above, at saturation overall link (from station to station) carrier to total noise power ratio carrier to interference power ratio downlink carrier to interference power ratio uplink carrier to interference power ratio overall link (from station to station) carrier to interference power ratio carrier power to noise power spectral density ratio (Hz) downlink carrier power to noise power spectral density ratio (H4 same as above, at saturation (H4 carrier power to intermodulation noise power spectral density ratio (Hz) uplink carrier power to noise power spectral density ratio ( W same as above, at saturation (l+)

  • D



    E, E , e EIRP


    overall link (from station to station) carrier power to total noise power spectral density ratio (W/&) carrier power to interference noise power spectral density ratio (Hz) downlink carrier power to interference noise power spectral density ratio (Hz) uplink carrier power to interference noise power spectral density ratio (Hz) overall link (from station to station) carrier power to total interference noise power spectral density ratio (W/&)

    antenna diameter (m), also number of data bits per frame to be conveyed from source to destination value in dB relative to X

    elevation angle (degree), also energy per bit (J) energy per information bit (J) energy per channel bit (J) eccentricity effective isotropic radiated power of transmitting equipment (W) EIRP of earth station (W) maximum value of E W E S (W) value of EWES, at transponder saturation (W) EIRP of interfering earth station (W)

    EIRE'Esi,, maximum value of earth station EIRP allocated to interfering carrier (W)

    EIRPEsw EIRE' of wanted earth station (W) EIRPsL EIRP of satellite transponder

    E m s h t EIRP of satellite transponder at (W)

    saturation (W)

    EmsLlsat EIRP of satellite transponder in beam 1 at saturation (W) EIRP of satellite transponder in beam 2 at saturation (W)

    satellite EIRP allocated to interfering carrier (W)

    EIRPsE,,, maximum value of interfering

    EIRPsLwarax maximum value of wanted satellite EIRE' for wanted carrier (W) wanted satellite EIRP for wanted carrier in direction of wanted station (W) interfering satellite EIRE' for interfering carrier in direction of wanted station (W) EIRP of satellite transponder in beam 1 for wanted carrier in direction of wanted station (W) EIRE' of satellite transponder in beam 2 for interfering carrier in direction of wanted station (W) EIRP of satellite transponder in beam 1 in direction of wanted station at saturation (W) EIRP of satellite transponder in beam 2 in direction of wanted station at saturation (W)

    frequency (Hz): f = c /A downlink frequency (Hz) frequency of an intermodulation product (Hz) local oscillator frequency (Hz) uplink frequency (Hz)

    power gain (larger than one in absolute value, therefore positive value in dB), also normalised offered traffic, also gravitational constant: G = 6.672 X 10-l' m3/kgs2 coding gain (dB) power gain from transponder output to earth station receiver input

  • Notation X i X


    intermediate frequency amplifier power gain low noise amplifier power gain maximum gain mixer power gain antenna receive gain in direction of transmitting equipment antenna receive gain at boresight receiving equipment composite receive gain:

    maximum value of G, receiving equipment composite receive gain for interfering carrier receiving equipment composite receive gain for wanted carrier antenna transmit gain in direction of receiving equipment antenna transmit gain at boresight antenna transmit gain at boresight for interfering carrier satellite beam 1 transmit

    wanted statim satellite beam 2 transmit antenna gain in direction of wanted station power gain from satellite transponder input to earth station receiver input transponder power gain gain of an ideal antenna with area equal to 1 m2: G, = 4 n / R figure of merit of receiving equipment (K-l) figure of merit of earth station receiving equipment (K-')

    G, = GRmax/LRLpolbRx

    antenna gain in direction of

    (G,U),- maximum value of (G/T), (G/T), figure of merit of satellite

    receiving equipment (K-') H total number of bits in the frame

    header (and trailer if any)

    orbit inclination

    received cross polar interference on X-polarisation (W) input back-off input back-off for inbound carrier input back-off for outbound camer input back-off per carrier with multicamer operation mode total input back-off with multicarrier operation mode

    cross polar interference on X- polarisation generated by receive antenna (W)

    Boltzmann constant: k = 1.38 X 10-23 J/K; k (dB J/K) = 10 log k = - 228.6 dB J/K

    Earth station latitude with respect to the satellite latitude (degrees) loss (larger than one in absolute value, therefore positive value in dB), also earth station relative longitude with respect to a geostationary satellite (degrees), also length of a frame (bits), also length of a message (bib) Earth station relative longitude with respect to the adjacent satellite (degrees) Earth station relative longitude with respect to the wanted satellite (degrees) downlink path loss feeder loss from antenna to receiver input feeder loss from transmitter output to antenna antenna gain loss as a result of antenna polarisation mismatch

  • Notation

    off-axis receive gain loss maximum value of L, uplink path loss Uplink path loss for interfering carrier Uplink path loss for wanted carrier

    mass of the Earth: Me = 5.974 X lV4 kg noise power (W) interference power (W) intermodulation noise power (W) downl i i thermal noise power spectral density (W/%) uplink thermal noise power spectral density (W/%) downlink interference power spectral density (W/%) intermodulation noise power spectral density (W/%) uplink interference power spectral density (W/%) total noise power spectral density at the earth station receiver input (W/%)

    output back-off output back-off per carrier with multicarrier operation mode output back-off for interfering carrier total output back-off with multicarrier operation mode output back-off for wanted carrier

    power (W) probability for a frame to be in error received power at antenna

    power fed to transmitting antenna (W) transmitter output power (W) transmitter output power at saturation(W)

    output (W)

    transmitted carrier power on X-polarisation (W) transmitted carrier power on Y-polarisation (W) power spectral density (W/Hz) interfering carrier power spectral density ( W / H z ) wanted carrier power spectral density (W/&)

    cross polar interference on X-polarisation generated by transmit antenna (W)

    distance from centre of earth to satellite range, also bit rate slant range from earth station to adjacent satellite information bit rate @ / S ) information bit rate on inbound carrier @ / S ) information bit rate on outbound carrier @ / S ) transmission bit rate @ / S ) transmission bit rate on inbound camer @ / S ) transmission bit rate on outbound carrier @ / S ) earth radius: R, = 6378 km geostationary satellite altitude:

    slant range from earth station to wanted satellite

    h= 35786km

    normalised throughput satellite station keeping window halfwidth (degrees)

    interval of time ( S ) , also period of orbit ( S ) , also medium temperature (K) and noise temperature (K) antenna noise temperature (K) downlink system noise temperature (K) minimum value of TD (K)

  • Notation

    feeder temperature (K) ground noise temperature in vicinity of earth station (K) intermediate frequency amplifier effective input noise temperature (K) low noise amplifier effective input noise temperature (K) average medium temperature (K) mixer effective input noise temperature (K) propagation time (S) receiver effective input noise temperature (K) round trip time (S) clear sky noise temperature (K) uplink system noise temperature (K) throughput @/S)

    window size

    order of an intermodulation product cross polar discrimination receive antenna cross polarisation isolation transmit antenna cross polarisation isolation angular separation between two satellites (degrees) spectral efficiency @/S&) ratio of CO-polar wanted carrier power to cross-polar interfering carrier power


    efficiency antenna efficiency(typical1y 0.6) channel efficiency channel efficiency with go-back- N protocol channel efficiency with selective-repeat protocol channel efficiency with stop- and-wait protocol angle from boresigth of antenna

    half power beamwidth of an antenna (degrees) antenna off-axis of angle for reception (degrees) maximum value of antenna off- axis angle for reception

    antenna off-axis angle for transmission (degrees) maximum value of antenna off- axis angle for transmission (degrees) wavelength (m) = c/fi also traffic generation rate (S-') product of gravitational constant G and mass of the Earth M,: p = 3.986 X 1014 m3/s2 code rate packet duration (S) power flu density (W/mz) power flux density at saturation

    total flux density (W/m2)




  • INDEX Access to the service 87 Accounting 115 Acknowledgement (ACK) 113,119,122,

    Addressing 114 Adjacent channel interference (ACI)

    Administrative functions 100 Advanced Business Communications via

    Satellite (ABCS) 228,267 Advanced Communications Technology

    Satellite (ACTS) 53,232



    ALOHA 127,144-148,152-155,158 Antenna

    beamwidth 23,176-177,247 depointing 179-181,247 diameter 9,43,98-99,176-181,246 gain 60,175-177,245 noise 17,167-171,199 noise temperature 95,191-197 parameters 246-249

    power available at output 251 radiation pattern 44,210,246

    pointing 70-72,84-86

    Apogee 64 Apparent satellite movement 74-77 Argentina 36 Argument of perigee 64 ASYNC (Asynchronous

    Communications) 241 ATT Tribom 258-259 Automatic dial-up modems 89 Automatic repeat request (ARQ) 118,127,

    Autumn equinox 72 Availability 91-95 Average bit rate 104 Azimuth angle 70-71,76,80,78,84

    Bandwidth 52,198-199,202,204,208,212,



    Beam to beam interference 200 Beamwidth 23,176-177,247 Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) 219 BISYNC (Binary Synchronous

    Bit error rate (BER) 17,46,91,118, 165,

    Bit rate 17,38,103-104,106 Blanket licensing 44

    Blocking probability 89-90,138-141 Briefcase portable office 231 Broadcasting 11,16 Burstiness (BU) 110 Bursty traffic 108,109-110,118,144

    Communications) 241


    Blocking 109,138-141

    C-bmd 22-25,97-99,178,180,183,185, 193-197,200

    Call characterization 108-109 Capture effect 171 Carrier amplification 252-255 Carrier power spectral density (BD) 198 Carrier power to co-channel interference

    power spectral density ratio 200-204 Carrier power to noise power spectral

    density ratio (C/No) 94,169-171 Carrier-teinkrference power ratio 198-214 Centralised control 21 Channel bit rate 104 Channel efficiency 106,119-120,122,

    Channel utilisation 106, 144 China 35 Civilian VSAT networks 9-11 Cluster control units (CCUs) 123-125,

    CO-channel interference (CCI) 200-203 Code division multiple access

    Code rate 104,220



    (CDMA) 25,127,130,136

    VSAT NetworksG.Maral

    Copyright 1995 John Wiley & Sons Ltd ISBNs: 0-471-95302-4 (Hardback); 0-470-84188-5 (Electronic)

  • 278 Index

    Combined Fixed/Reservation Assignment ( C m ) 228

    Combined Free/Demand Assignment Multiple Access (CFDMA) 229

    Congestion control 114 Conjunction of sun and satellite 72-73,95 Connection 103 Corporate networks 16,46

    Coverage 53-60,80 Costs 38-40,96-97,227

    and relay performance 58-60 edge of 54 global 54 multibeam 55 spot beam 55 zone 54

    Cross-polarization discrimination

    Cross-polarization interference 204-208 Cross-polarization isolation 249 Customers

    (XPD) 207,249

    concerns of 86-97 inUSA 34 independence from vendor 86-87

    Czechoslovakia 36

    Data Circuit Terminating Equipment

    Data communications 111-115 Data link layer 113-114 Data networks 86 Data Terminating Equipment (DTE) 1,

    Data transfer 11 Data transmission 19 Delay 105 Delay analysis 150-157 Delay components 150-151 Delay jitter 105 Demand assignment (DA) 21-22,107,

    Demand assignment multiple access

    Demodulator (DEMOD) 28,33,131-134,190 Depointing angle 179 Depointing loss 191,195,247 Direction of vernal point 63 Disaster recovery 88-89 Distance to satellite 69-70

    (DCE) 243



    (DAMA) 141-144


    Distributed control 21 Doppler effect 79 Domier 267,269 Down-converter 27,191 Downlink analysis 186-196 Downlink co-channel interference 202 Downlink interference analysis 213-215 Downlink interference noise 170-171,

    Downlink path loss 189-190 Downlink thermal noise 170 Drift orbit 69

    Earth stations 50,92,125,227 Eastern Europe 36,41 East-west drift 77 Eavesdropping 46 Economic aspects 37-40 Edge of coverage 54 Effective isotropic radiated power


    (EIRP) 28,58 of satellite 188-189 of transmitter 249

    EIRP 17,60,80,128,174-175,178,181, 201-203,212-214,249

    Elevation angle 70-71,76,80,184 Emulation 1 17 Encapsulation 112 End-to-end transfer of data 116 Enquiry/response 13,105 Equipment failure 92 Equipment provider 15 Erlang formula 108 Error control 113,118-121 Europe 35,41,83 European Community (EC) 41 European Free Trade Association (ERA) 41 European Space Agency (ESA) 36 European Technical Standards (ETS) 41 European Telecommunications Standard

    EUTELSAT 15,36,39,83,197,255 External interference 200,209-215

    Failure 88-89,92,93 Federal Communications Commission

    Federal Communications Committee

    Institute (ETSI) 41

    (FCC) 42

    (FCC) 82

  • Index 2 79

    FIFO Ordered Demand Assignment (FODA) 228

    Figure of eight 74-76 Figure of merit of earth station receiving

    equipment 190-197 Figure of merit of satellite receiving

    equipment 58,80,186-187 First in first out (FIFO) delivery 101 Fixed assignment (FA) 20,114,138-145 Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) 22-23 Flexibility 87 Flow control 114,115,121-123 Flux density, at earth surface 189 Forward error correction (FEC) 113,118,

    Frame 220

    TDMA 127,134,141,152 block of data 113

    Free space loss 181,251 Frequency band 22-23,21,25 Frequency Division Multiple Access

    Frequency downconverter 51,27-28,190 Frequency reuse 60-61,168 Frequency synthesiser 28-29 Front end processor (FEP) 158

    Geostationary satellite 65-80

    Global coverage 54 Global Positioning System (GPS) 1 GLOBALSTAR 232 Go-back-N (GBN) 119,239-241 Ground segment 50

    GTE Spacenet 29-31,257

    Hardware protection 96 Hazards 96 HDLC (High Data Level Protocol) 241,243 HEMT FET technology 97 Home office terminal 232

    (FDMA) 25,127,130-136,152-154

    GILAT 265-267

    G/T 58,80,186-l87

    Hub 5-6,13,16,31-33,35 dedicated 26,39 equipments 97 installation 83-84 mini 27,38 shared 26,37,88

    Huges network systems (HNS) 255-257 Hungary 36,41

    IBM SNA protocols 123,243 Ice cloud attenuation 185 Inclination correction 67 Inclination of orbit 63,73,76 India 35 Indoor unit (IDU) 27,29-31,86,97,100,

    Information bit rate 104 Information flow 15-16 Initial pointing error (IPE) 179 Input back-off (IBO) 174,252-255 Input multiplexer (IMUX) 51-52 Installation 83-86 INTELSAT 1,15,36,83 Interactive data 11,105 Interactive exchange of data 102 Interactivity between distributed sites 16 Interarrival time (IAT) 110,236 Interconnectivity 56 Interface protocols 241-245 Interfaces to end equipment 86 Interference 23,24,25,46, 167


    analysis 198-215 from adjacent satellite systems 209-214 noise 167-168 types of 200

    Intermediate frequency amplifier (IF AMP) 190

    Intermodulation analysis 197 noise 168- 170

    (IEC) 41

    (ISO) 41,111

    InternationalElectrotechnical Commission,

    International Standards Organisation

    International Telecommunications Union

    IRIDIUM 232 ISDN 232 ITALSAT 53,232

    Japan 42,43,83 Jitter 105

    Ka-band 22-23'94,183-184,215,233'237 Ku-band 22-26,94,95,97-99,178,

    (ITU) 22-23,41,81-82


    Latin America 36 Launch base 67

  • 280 Index

    Launch vehicle 67 Launching 66-69 Licensing 44

    blanket 42,44 of equipment 82-83 of operation 44,81-82 structure 40

    Line of nodes 63 Link layer 113-114 Links 103

    analysis 165-226 availability 92 capacity 17 downlinks 4,50 full duplex 102 half duplex 102

    outage 94

    parameters 224-226 quality 16-17,91 simplex 102 uplinks 4,50

    inbound 9,102,126,131-136

    outbound 9,102,131-136

    Local area network (LAN) 27,29,114,

    Local oscillator (LO) 52,190-191 Longitudinal drift 69,73 Loss of transponder 46 Low noise amplifier (LNA) 97,190


    Maintenance 95-96 Market share 36 Master International Frequency Register

    Mean time between failures (MTBF) 92 Media access control (MAC) 230 Meshed networks. See Network

    configuration Message generation 235-236 Message length 237 Mexico 36 Military VSAT networks 13 Mobile services 231-232 Morelos 36 Multibeam coverage 55 Multidrop line 123 Multimedia 231 Multiple access 126-158

    (MIFR) 82

    Multiple Channels Per Carrier

    Multiplexed Analogue Components (MAC) 19,20

    Multiplexing 115 Multipoint Communications 268,270-271

    (MCPC) 103,133-136,137

    National Informatics Center Network (NICNET) 35

    NEC 262-264 Network applications 9-13 Network configuration 4-9

    and application 16 meshed 5,9,15,19,126,129-l31 one-way 7,10,16,125 star-shaped 9, 16, 18, 125,131-137 two-way 7,10,125

    Network design 158-162 Network functions 101 Network layer 114-115 Network management system (NMS) 15,

    Network operator 14 Network parameters 222 Network provider 15 Newtons universal law of attraction

    Noise power spectral density 170 Noise temperature 97,172,187,188,

    Non-geostationary satellites 233 Non-zero eccentricity 76-77 Non-zero inclination 74-76 North-south specification 79




    Onboard processing 52-53,232-233 Onboard switching 56 Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) 111

    Operational functions 98-100 Orbit 61-65

    reference model 105,111-115

    corrections 78-79 line of nodes 63 parameters 62-65 perturbations 73-74 plane positoning 64

    Orthogonal polarization 248 OS1 Reference model 105,111-115

  • Index 281

    Outdoor unit (ODU) 27-29,97-99 Output back-off (OBO) 188,189,252-255 Output multiplexer (OMUX) 51-52 Overall carrier power-to-noise power

    spectral density ratio 171,215 Overall link co-channel interference 203 Overall link performance 215 Overall radio frequency link 17

    Packet Assembler-disassembler (PAD) 242,244,245

    Path loss 181-186 Payload 51-52

    regenerative 52-53 transparent 52

    Perigee 64 Permission for installation 83 Physical configuration 116 Physical layer 113,165 Plane of orbit 63 Platform 50 Point mass 73 Poland 36,41 Polarization 248

    Positioning of satellite in space 62 Power amplifiers 253 Power flux density 173-174,249-250 Power versus bandwidth exchange 220 Propagation delay 47,70 Protocol 104,228,241-245

    configuration 116-117 conversion 117-125 go-back-N (GBN) 119,239-240 selective-repeat (SR) 119-121,241 stop-and-wait (SW) 119,238-239

    Polling 123-125

    Protocol Data Units (PDU) 112

    Radiation protection 96 Rain attenuation 94,182-186 Rain fade 94 Random access limitations 147-148 Random access with notification

    Random time division multiple access 127,144-156

    Receiver (RX) 51,190 Receiving station availability 92

    (RAN) 149-150,156

    Recommendations 41

    Regenerative payload 52 Regulatory aspects 4044,81-83 Relay function 49-52 Relay performance and coverage 58-60 Remote Area Business Message Network

    (RABMIN) 35 Remote-to-host backup

    interconnections 89 Reservation/random TDMA 148-149 Response time 90-91,105 Retransmission 147-148 Right ascension of ascending node 63 Romania 36 Round trip time (RTT) 120-123 Routeing of information 114 RS232 19,242 RS422 19,242 RS449 19,243 Russia 36

    Satellite architecture 50 Satellite capacity 15 Satellite failure 93 Satellite News Gathering (SNG) 10,14,

    87,91,269 Satellite Technology Management

    (STM) 261 Satellite velocity 65 Scientific Atlanta 259-260 SDLC (Synchronous Data Link

    Control) 123,243 Selective reject ALOHA 148,154-155 Selective-repeat (SR) 119 Self-interference 168,200-209 Set-up time 87 Shape of orbit 64 Single Channel Per Carrier (SCPC) 103,

    Sliding window protocol 114,121-123,240 Slotted-ALOHA (S-ALOHA) 144-148,

    SNA/SDLC. See SDLC Solid state power amplifiers (SSPA) 52,252 Solidaridad satellite 36 South America 36 Space segment 40,44,50,83,93 Spectral efficiency 220

    redundancy 52



  • 282 lndex

    Spoofing 117 Spot beam coverage 55 Spread spectrum 25,127 Spring equinox 73 Standardization 41-44 Star shaped networks. See Network

    configuration Station keeping window 77 Stop-and-wait (SW) 119,238-239 Stream traffic 108,109,118,230 Sun transit 95 Supervisory control and data acquisition

    (SCADA) 13,14

    TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/

    Teledesic 232 Terminals 1, 13 Terrestrial interference 24,214-215 Terrestrial microwave relays 24 Thermal noise 167

    Time Division Multiple Access

    Intemet Protocol) 230,243

    Throughput 105-106,145

    (TDMA) 25,38,127,134-135,140- 141,144-150,151-156

    Time Division Multiplex (TDM) 39,53,

    Timeslot 127 Total noise 170-172 Traffic characterization 106-110 Traffic forecasts 87,106 Traffic growth 93,87 Traffic intensity 109 Traffic measurements 87,106 Traffic source modelling 107-110,235-

    Trajectory tracking 68 Transmission Control Protocol/Internet

    Transmission delay 18 Transparent payload 52 Transponder 46,51,56

    Transport layer 115 Travelling wave tube (TWT) 51,52,

    Trunking stations 1-2 TTC (Telemetry, Tracking and

    Command) 50,51 Types of traffic 11-12



    Protocol (TCP/IP) 230,243

    failure 89,93


    Types of services 9-10

    Up-converter 27 Uplink

    analysis 172-187 co-channel interference 201-202 interference analysis 211-212 interference noise 167-168 path loss 181-186 thermal noise 170

    user categories 34 VSAT development 34

    USA 42,44,82

    User-to-user baseband link 17

    V11 19,243 V24 19,243 V28 19,244 V35 19,244 Very Small Aperture Terminal. See VSAT Video transmission 19 Voice encoding 19 Voice transmission 19 VSAT

    advantages 45-46 definition 1 drawbacks 46 evolution trends 233 installation 83-84 new services 228-232 origin 33 products 2,255-271 satellites for 79-80

    VSAT network. See Network VSAT station 27

    Wide band amplifier 51 Window

    station keeping 77-79,179-180 sliding 114,121-123,240

    World Satellite Almanac 80 World Satellite Annual 80

    X3 244 X21 19,244 X25 244 X27 243 X28 245 X29 245 X-band 23

    Zone coverage 54