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Gastrointestinal Physiology II The Microbiome, The Liver and The Pancreas Nancy Long Sieber, PhD...

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  • Gastrointestinal Physiology II The Microbiome, The Liver and The Pancreas Nancy Long Sieber, PhD December 8, 2014
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  • http://sportsci.org/news/history/beaumont/Wbeaumont.jpg Dr. William Beaumont with Alexis St. Martin Brief Historical Interlude
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  • St. Martins wound
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  • The Development of the Gut Microbiome Colonization of the gut begins with the passage through the birth canal. Maybe even in utero. Breastfeeding also supports development of healthy biome. Mature biome established by age 2-3, with more diverse diet.
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  • Development of the Gut Microbiome From: Diet and the development of the human intestinal microbiome by Noah Voreades, Anne Kozil, abd Tiffany L. Weir. Front. Microbiol., 22 September 2014
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  • Probiotic Foods Contain healthful bacteria
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  • Prebiotic Foods Contain substances that feed your gut bacteria - specifically insoluble fiber from plants. In addition: Breast milk also contains prebiotics That support the babys microbiome.
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  • What kinds of physiological responses and diseases are linked to an unhealthy microbiome? Diarrhea Obesity and metabolic syndrome Other inflammatory conditions, especially autoimmune diseases, may also be exacerbated by pro-inflammatory gut bacteria.
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  • Fecal Transplantation Used to treat persistent C. difficile infection. 90% effective Other uses?
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  • Important GI Organs: The Pancreas and the Liver And, of course, What can go wrong with them?
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  • The pancreas releases the major digestive enzymes, which are needed to break down starch, proteins and fats.
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  • Pancreatic enzymes are usually released in an inactive form.
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  • Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and the pancreas Pancreatic enzyme secretion uses the same CFTR chloride channel we heard about with cholera This channel is defective in people with CF, and causes them to have problems with the digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. They need supplemental enzymes
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  • Acute Pancreatitis Results from acute inflammation and autodigestion of pancreas Causes Alcohol abuse activates trypsin intracellularly, also can cause inflammation of the sphincter of Oddi & reduce its tone Gallstones can be impacted in the pancreatic duct.
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  • Manifestations of acute pancreatitis: Pain Nausea & vomiting Fever Shock Amylase and lipase in blood Jaundice Acidosis Hyperkalemia
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  • Chronic Pancreatitis Characterized by fibrosis and calcification Loss of exocrine function Usually caused by alcoholism
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  • Pancreatic Insufficiency Usually caused by chronic pancreatitis Leads to : Malabsorption Fat in stool (fat not absorbed) Diarrhea (but not as bad as from intestinal malabsorption, such as celiac disease) Can give replacement enzymes
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  • Pancreatic Cancer High mortality rate (95%) Symptoms usually do not develop until disease has spread.
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  • The Liver
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  • The liver does many things: Fat digestion via production of bile Nutrient storage, synthesis, and mobilization Storage of carbohydrates as glycogen and gluconeogenesis Fat metabolism and cholesterol synthesis Vitamin and trace mineral storage Biotransformation of drugs and toxins Metabolism of hormones Production of plasma proteins Immune surveillance
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  • http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/Resources/GraphicsGallery/Liver/214c.htm
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  • Kupffer cells stained with vital stain (blue)
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  • http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/erg/liver.htm The openings (fenestrations) in the capillaries mean that the hepatocytes are essentially in direct contact with the blood.
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  • Bile duct and sphincter of Oddi
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  • Bile Pigments Bile pigments are breakdown products of hemoglobin. Most important is bilirubin. The pigments are carried to the liver, where they are combined with bile, and are converted into a form that the body can excrete. When this process fails, and bilirubin accumulates in the tissues, it causes the skin and eyes to become yellowish.
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  • Bile Pigments http://www.mfi.ku.dk/ppaulev/chapter23/images/23-1.jpg When bilirubin metabolism is insufficient, then bile pigments accumulate in the tissues, giving the skin and eyes a jaundiced (yellowish) appearance.
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  • Cirrhosis of the Liver
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  • Cirrhosis occurs when scarring and fibrosis lead to the death of hepatocytes.
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  • Portal hypertension can cause bleeding into the GI tract, as well as congestion of blood in the spleen, leading to destruction of platelets http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/pictures/tipspre.gif
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  • The yellow coloring of the eye in a patient with jaundice reflects the accumulation of bile pigments in the connective tissues. Skin also becomes yellowish.
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  • Consequences of Liver Failure Portal Hypertension blood backs up into the GI tract Blood does not pass through liver, so nutrients are not absorbed, also loss of immune surveillance Varices Promotes development of ascites Congestion of blood in spleen, leads to RBC destruction
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  • Consequences of Liver Failure, (cont.) Ascites formation watery fluid in the abdominal cavity Infection Generalized edema Neurologic disorders (from accumulation of ammonia and other toxins)
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  • Consequences of Liver Failure, (cont.) Increased bleeding from lack of liver-produced clotting factors, lack of absorption of vitamin K, hyperactivity of the spleen Endocrine disorders Lack of liver-produced hormone carriers Inability to degrade estrogen
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  • Consequences of Liver Failure, (cont.) Manifestations of decreased bile production Jaundice (build-up of bile pigments leading to yellowish color of eyes and skin) Decreased fat absorption (diarrhea, steatorrhea, deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins)
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  • Consequences of Liver Failure, (cont.) Problems with glucose metabolism sometimes hypoglycemia (since liver is site of gluconeogenesis, sometimes hyperglycemia (since blood bypasses liver, glucose is not absorbed from it). Problems with lipid metabolism liver is the only place where fatty acid can be converted to ketones, which provide energy during fasting.
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  • Consequences of Liver Failure, (cont.) Increased plasma levels of liver enzymes (aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) are indicators of liver damage Problems with salt and water balance due to lack of albumin and angiotensinogen.
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