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Gifted Japan

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  • OUT-OF-SCHOOL EDUCATIONAL

    PROVISION FOR THE GIFTED AND TALENTED

    AROUND THE WORLD

    A report for the Department of Education and Skills

    London, 2002

    PART ONE: THE RESEARCH

    PART TWO: THE CONCLUSIONS

    PROF JOAN FREEMAN PhD, MEd, BSc, Dip Ed Guidance, FBPsS

  • CONTENTS PART ONE: THE RESEARCH

    PREFACE I

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS II

    OVERVIEW III

    CHAPTER 1 1

    WHO ARE THE GIFTED AND TALENTED? 1

    Finding the gifted and talented 3

    CHAPTER 2 5

    INTERNATIONAL PROVISION 5

    Overlap between in-school and out-of-school activities 5

    The development of programs in the USA 6 A Nation at Risk 7 A Warning 10 Criteria for gifted programs 11

    The current picture in the USA 11

    Comparison Between The USA And UK 12 Selection issues 13

    UK and USA legislation 14 The Assisted Places Scheme 15

    CHAPTER 3 17

    THE AMERICAN TALENT SEARCH MODEL 17

    Talent Search selection 19 On- and above-level testing 19 Residential programs 20 Aims of the Talent Searches 21

    Johns Hopkins University - the CTY Model 23 Johns Hopkins University 23 Selection procedures 24

    Duke University Talent Identification Program (TIP) 26 TIP 26 TIP Summer Studies 27 Other TIP programs 28

  • University of Denver 30 Rocky Mountain Talent Search 30

    University of Iowa 30 The Connie Belin International Centre for Talented and Gifted Education 30 Summer camps 31 The five hopes for summer programs 33 Clinical Services 33

    Some other university-based Talent Searches in the USA 35

    Some problems with Talent Searches 37

    CHAPTER 4 39

    TALENT SEARCHES OUTSIDE THE USA 39

    The German Schlerakademien (Pupil Academies) 39 Structure of the Akaemien 39 Selection of participants and instructors 41 Evaluation 43

    The Hamburg Model 44

    The Australian Primary Talent Search (APTS) 46 Talent Search qualifying criteria 48 Results of testing 49 Practical application 50 Holiday enrichment programs 51 Non-standardised identification of talent 52

    A Spanish Talent Search 53

    CHAPTER 5 54

    MAJOR NON TALENT SEARCH APPROACHES 54

    The National Research Centre on the Gifted and Talented 54 The Enrichment Triad/Revolving Door Model 56

    Independent programs 57

    Competitions 58 German competitions 59 Russian competitions 61

    Mentoring and modelling programmes 63 Mentoring Students and Teachers for High-Stakes Science Competitions 64 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy (IMSA) 66 The Young Academy of Sciences 70 The Pinnacle Project model 70

    Distance Learning 72 E-learning 73

  • Commercial Printed Material 75

    Parental and voluntary involvement 75 Parent initiated activities 76

    CHAPTER 6 79

    PROVISION IN WESTERN EUROPE 79

    Germany 80

    Austria 83

    Belgium 84

    France 84

    Switzerland 89

    The Netherlands 90

    Italy 91

    Portugal 92 Spain 92

    Scandinavia 94 Sweden 95 Denmark 96 Norway 96 Finland 96 Iceland 97

    CHAPTER 7 100

    PROVISION IN EASTERN EUROPE 100

    Russia 101 Post Communist changes 103

    Hungary 105

    CHAPTER 8 107

    PROVISION IN ASIA AND THE ANTIPODES 107 Confucianism 107

    China 108 Schooling in China 110 Out-of-school education in China 113 Hong Kong 115

  • Japan 117 Extra-curricular activities 119 Post middle-school 119 After-school education 120

    India 122

    Taiwan 124

    Malaysia 125

    The Philippines 125

    Korea 125

    Indonesia 126

    Thailand 126

    The Antipodes 126 Australia 126 New Zealand 130

    CHAPTER 9 137

    PROVISION IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 137

    Israel 137 Out-of-school educational provision in Israel 139

    Arab Countries 150

    Africa 152 South Africa 152

    CHAPTER 10 153

    PROVISION IN CANADA AND SOUTH AMERICA 153

    Canada 153 Canadian attitudes to gifted education 153 The Centre for Gifted Education at the University of Calgary 154

    South America 158 Brazil 158 Center for Talent Development Lavras (CEDET) 158 Rio de Janeiro 162 Peru 162

    CHAPTER 11 164

    CONCLUSIONS 164

  • Concerns affecting international education of the gifted and talented 164

    Comparison of out-of-school models for the promotion of gifts and talents 166 The Talent Search 166 Self selection by provision 167 Hard work 167 Competitions 168 Voluntary provision 169 Summary points 169 Evaluation of outcomes 170 Application of American ideas 171 The social aspects of special out-of-school education 173

    A framework for the development of gifts and talent using out-of-school activities 174 Effective measures for out-of-school activities for the gifted and talented 175

    Helping children to excellence 175 Freemans Sports Approach 176 The Sports Approach: identification by provision 177

    REFERENCES 179

  • PREFACE The first part of this international survey on out-of-school provision for gifted and

    talented children reviews the style,organisation and effectiveness of the work of major

    centres, i.e. those which are most frequently seen as models to follow because of their

    size and reputations for excellence. The second part (due September 2002) is

    concerned with the finer details of administration and assessment

    However, this first part also includes information on less well-known centres which are

    trying out interesting schemes, not undertaken by the larger ones. They may, for

    example, be innovative in their efforts to find hidden gifted children who have not yet

    exercised their high-level potential, whereas the prominent centres almost always aim

    to enhance already-demonstrated gifts and talents.

    Both parts of this survey are in line with its defined research goals - to increase

    knowledge and understanding of the subject by taking account of ideas and experiences

    from around the world. My intention is not only to present information of practical

    value, but to encourage international collaboration towards achieving the best possible

    provision for gifted children. This is not a one-way process. As traditional barriers

    between natural and social sciences diminish, so the opportunities for inter-disciplinary

    cooperation are multiplying (UNESCO, 1999). As well as learning from elsewhere, I

    hope that the outcome of this survey will include exchanging British ideas with other

    countries. One worthwhile goal could be the establishment of a network of centres of

    excellence around the world.

    Presentation

    To ease the process of reading and avoid interminable inverted commas and references

    in brackets - yet to give credit where that is due - there are places in the text where I

    have simply told the reader where my information came from. Although it was

    tempting to simplify the question of English-English or American-English to one usage,

    words such as program/programme, pupil/student, school principal/head teacher, etc.

    have not been presented uniformly, but chosen to fit their context.

    London, June, 2002

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Surveying demands favours of many people. In response to the scores of requests I

    sent to colleagues all over the world, many dug generously and without hesitation into

    their coffers of knowledge to contribute to this survey. With great kindness, some even

    checked and amended what I had written about their area.

    I am truly grateful for help with this report from my colleagues and friends -

    Dr Roland Persson of Jonkoping, Sweden; Dr Harald Wagner of Bonn, Germany; Prof

    Dr Pieter Span of Utrecht, The Netherlands; Prof Miraca Gross of Sydney, Australia;

    Dr Ulrike Stedtnitz of Zurich, Switzerland; Dr Karen B Rogers of Minnesota, USA;

    Prof Jiannong Shi of Beijing, China; Madame Sophie Cte of Paris, France; Mevrouw

    Marianne van Iterson, of Bunnik, The Netherlands; Prof Javier Tuern of Pamplona,

    Spain; Prof Larry Coleman of Toledo, USA; Dr Netta Maoz of Rehovot, Israel; Dr Uri

    Marchaim of Kiryat Shmona, Israel; Dr Zenita Guenther of Lavras, Brazil; Dr Sheyla

    Blumen-Pardo of Lima, Peru; Dr Paula Olszewski-Kubilius of Chicago, USA; Dr Rena

    Subotnik of Washington, USA and Dr Raphael Wilkins. And to Tim Dracup at the

    Department for Education and Science, thank you for initiating this report and for being

    patient.

  • OVERVIEW

    No educational provision for the gifted and talented works in a cultural vacuum. This

    survey provides a unique view of the ways in which out-of-school education can be

    affected by both cultural assumptions and standards of basic education.

    The overall picture is complex. There is evidence that excellence can come from

    widely differing special provision, or even from no extra provision at all. Although

    there are no programmes for the gifted and talented across Scandinavia and in Japan,

    for example, bright childrens achievements there are often superior to those of the

    countries which do have such programmes. China, a relatively poor country, provides

    widespread non-selective enrichment via its Childrens Palaces, and the results appear

    to be excellent. In both New Zealand and Israel, the governments provide generously,

    often using self-selection. Germany has inspiring competitions with desirable prizes,

    funded partly Federally and partly privately. Brazilian help goes to finding seriously

    deprived potentially talented children. The vast American Talent Searches usually

    select youngsters for summer-s

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