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Glycol Dehydration Systems

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Glycol risk assessments.
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  • GAS AND GLYCOL DEHYDRATION SYSTEMS

    OCTOBER 2015

    Dr. S. M. Anisuzzaman

    Lecturer

    Safety, Environmental Impact & Risk Management (KOG 11203)

    Master of Engineering (Oil & Gas)

    Universiti Malaysia Sabah

    R B KENNEDY ENIS (MK1422074T)

    Student

    Master of Engineering (Oil & Gas)

    Universiti Malaysia Sabah

    Prepared by:

    Prepared for:

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

    1.0 General Overview ................................................................................................................. C1-1 1.1 Petinent Legislation and Regulatory Requirements .............................................................. C1-2 1.1.1 Environmenta Quality Act, 1974 .............................................................................. C1-2

    1.1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act, 1994 ............................................................... C1-2 1.1.3 Factories and Machineries Act, 1967. ....................................................................... C1-2

    1.2 Glycol Dehydration Systems ................................................................................................ C1-3 1.2.1 Types of Glycol ....................................................................................................... C1-3 1.2.2 Components of Dehydration Systems ...................................................................... C1-5 1.2.2.1 Glycol Contractor (Absorption Column) ................................................................. C1-6 1.2.2.2 Flash Drum .............................................................................................................. C1-7

    1.2.2.3 Glycol Regeneration Unit ......................................................................................... C1-7 1.2.2.4 Reboiler ..................................................................................................................... C1-7 1.2.2.5 Condenser..C1-8

    1.2.2.6 Reflux Drum.C1-8

    CHAPTER 2 SAFETY ISSUES AND CHALLEGES

    2.1 BTEX Emission .................................................................................................................... C2-9

    CHAPTER 3 SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT

    3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... C3-10 3.2 Risk Assessment Management Process .............................................................................. C3-10 3.2.1 Hazards Identification ............................................................................................. C3-11

    3.2.2 Risk Analysis .......................................................................................................... C3-12 3.2.2.1 Consequence. .......................................................................................................... C3-12 3.2.2.2 Frequency. ............................................................................................................... C3-12 3.2.2.3 Risk Ranking. .......................................................................................................... C3-14 3.2.3 Risk Mitigating / Risk Control . .............................................................................. C3-15

    3.3 Glycol Dehydration Systems Risk Assessment .................................................................. C3-16 3.3.1 Identified Hazards ................................................................................................... C3-16

    3.3.2.1 Toxic Gasses Release to Atmosphere. .................................................................... C3-16 3.3.2.2 Contacted with TEG. .............................................................................................. C3-16 3.3.2.3 Fire or Explosion Due to Ignition of TEG. ............................................................. C3-17 3.3.2.4 TEG Spill / Leak . ................................................................................................... C3-17

    CHAPTER 4 MITIGATION AND RECOMMENDATION

    4.1 Mitigation and Recommendation ........................................................................................ C4-19

    CHAPTER 5 CASE STUDY

    5.1 TEG Fire at Gas Dehydration Unit ..................................................................................... C5-20 5.1.1 Incident Information ............................................................................................... C5-20

    5.1.2 Incident Detail ......................................................................................................... C5-20 5.1.3 Incident Root Cause ................................................................................................ C5-20 5.1.3 Corrective Action and Recommendation ................................................................ C5-21

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    R B Kennedy Enis SAFETY, ENVIRONMENT IMPACT & RISK MANAGEMENT

    CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

    1.0 General Overview

    This assignment title Gas and Glycol Dehydration System were prepared, presented and submitted by the writer as a Universitys requirement for course subject Safety, Environmental Impact & Risk Management (KOG11303) of Master of Engineering (Oil & Gas) programme.

    Firstly, safety is defined as the prevention of accidents through the use of appropriate technologies to identify the hazards of particular activities to be carried out or equipment/ instrumentation and eliminate or control the identified hazards before an accident occurs.

    Natural gases are found beneath the earth that was formed through the process of organics cooking (organic theory) underneath the earth millions years ago and become a valuable resources to the nations economy such as Malaysia. Productions of natural gases are complex due to its properties that need several refining process so that it can be legally utilised by the consumer or industry since a water content shall be indicated in the agreement contract between supplier and buyer.

    Gas dehydration system is one of the initial processes that shall be carried out before it can be transported, refined and utilised. The system is a technology of plant that created or inverted to separate gases from water vapour. Gas dehydration system is a system or unit to remove water content that mixed with the natural gases and normally this operation is carried out in the upstream stage of oil and gas.

    There are several technics to remove water from gases that which by (1) absorption, using the liquid desiccants, (2) absorption, using solid desiccants and (3) cooling/ condensation below the dew point.

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    R B Kennedy Enis SAFETY, ENVIRONMENT IMPACT & RISK MANAGEMENT

    1.1 Pertinent Legislation and Regulation Requirements

    1.1.1 Environmental Quality Act, 1974

    The Environmental Quality Act (EQA), 1974 [Act 127] (Incorporating latest amendment Act A1441/2012) is an Act relating to the prevention, abatement, control of pollution and enhancement of the environment, and for purposes connected therewith. EQA 1974 forms the main frame for the environmental legal requirements in Malaysia which cover

    matters enumerated within the Federal List of the Constitution.

    1.1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act, 1994

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), 1994 [Act 514] (Incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006) is an Act to make further provisions for securing the safety, health and welfare of persons at work, for protecting others against risks to safety or health in connection with the activities of person at work, to establish the National Council for Occupational Safety and Health, and for matters connected therewith. OSHA 1994 applies throughout Malaysia to the industries as specified in the First & Third Schedules.

    The Act provides a framework for self-regulations to ensure safety and health at work lies with those who create the risks and those who work with the risks, by emphasising on the prevention of accidents, ill health and injury. The Act supersedes and is complementary to any other written law relating occupational safety and health. Salient provisions of the Act include the establishment of a Safety Policy, Safety and Health Committee, employment of a competent safety officer, and the notification of accidents, dangerous occurrence, occupational poisoning and occupational diseases to the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH).

    1.1.3 Factories and Machinery Act, 1967

    The Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 [Act 139] (Incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006) is an act to provide for control of factories with respect to

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    R B Kennedy Enis SAFETY, ENVIRONMENT IMPACT & RISK MANAGEMENT

    matters relating to the safety, health and welfare of person therein, the registration and inspection of machinery and for matters connected therewith. FMA 1967 provides a framework for the control of factories and machinery, through the supervision of the Inspectors by the powers provisioned to them by the Act, with respect to matters relating to the safety, health and welfare of persons, and the registration and inspection of the machinery.

    1.2 Glycol Dehydration Systems

    Glycol Dehydration Systems is the most commonly used in oil and gas industry (which is up to 90%) to remove water vapour from natural gas. Natural gas must be dehydrated (remove water vapour) to prevent hydrates

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