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Goodson-Cecilia in Trastevere

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Early Medieval Europe :cc; ( : ) : , 2007 The Author. Journal Compilation 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, ,occ Garsington Road, Oxford OX : DQ, UK and ,,c Main Street, Malden, MA c:: , USA Blackwell Publishing Ltd Oxford, UK EMED Early Medieval Europe 0963-9462 2007 The Author. Journal Compilation Blackwell Publishing Ltd XXX Original Article The basilica of S. CeciliaCaroline J. Goodson Material memory: rebuilding the basilica of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome C aioii xi J. G ooosox Examining Pope Paschal Is early ninth-century architectural project ofS. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, brings to light the diversity of functionsof tituli in early medieval Rome. Not only was the church a papal basilicaand site of the stational liturgy of Rome, but it was also a shrine to thesaint Cecilia, a popular Roman martyr. The architectural arrangementmakes clear that the papal project incorporated both the papal cult andthe popular cult of the saint by manipulating the archaeology of the siteand translating corporeal relics to the urban church. The basilica of S. Cecilia in Trastevere was made by many men and onewoman. Legend holds that a noble Roman woman and soon-to-bemartyr Cecilia dedicated her home as a church, which was arranged andadministered by Pope Urban I (22230). 1 Most of the structures that * I thank Fabio Barry, Dorigen Caldwell, Tobias Kmpf, Steven Ostrow, Tina Sessa and EmmaStirrup for their thoughts, suggestions and corrections to my work on S. Cecilia in Trastevere.Monsignor Guerino di Tora, Badessa Giovanna and the Benedictine nuns of S. Cecilia, inparticular Suor Letizia, generously facilitated my research by extending permission to documentthe Cappella del Bagno and other parts of the church and excavations. A debt of gratitude isowed to Emma Stirrup for her assistance measuring the chapel in the sweltering summer of2003. Early versions of this article were read at the 2005 Renaissance Society of Americameeting, University of Delaware, and Northwestern University, and I thank those audiencesfor their critical comments, especially Hugh Kennedy who heard it more than once, and JuliaHillner for her precision. 1 The story of Cecilias life, death and her foundation of the church is recorded in the PassioSanctae Ceciliae virgina et martyris , a narrative composed probably in the late fth century.Socit des Bollandistes (eds), Bibliotheca hagiographica latina antiquae et mediae aetatis (Brussels, 1949), no. 1495, edited by H. Delehaye, tudes sur le lgendier romain: Les saintsde novembre et de dcembre , Subsidia hagiographica XXIII (Brussels, 1936), pp. 7396, 194220. Delehaye used an eighth-century manuscript from Paris (Bibliothque Nationale,lat. 10861) and a tenth-century manuscript from Chartres (Bibliothque Municipale deChartres, 144) for his edition of the Passion . Other published editions used the eleventh-century legendary of the monastery, discussed below, p. 50; A. Bosio, Historia passionis beataeCaeciliae virginis, Valeriani, Tiburtii, et Maximi martyrum (Rome, 1600), pp. 1 26. It is notEarly Medieval Europe :cc; ( : ) 2007 The Author. Journal Compilation 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd The basilica of S. Cecilia 3 stand today were built on the orders of Pope Paschal I (81724). Theyunderwent restorations in the third quarter of the eleventh century,under the cardinal Desiderius, abbot of Montecassino, cardinal ofS. Cecilia, and later Pope Victor III (10867), and at the end of thesixteenth century, under Paolo Camillo Sfondrato, cardinale nipote ofPope Gregory XIV (15901) and cardinal of the church from 1591 1618.Through these transformations, the life of the building was tied to thedeath of Cecilia. In the early ninth century, Paschals church was builtto incorporate the remains of structures that coincided with loca sancta (holy or sanctied sites) described in the Passion of Saint Cecilia, thestory of her life and martyrdom. Paschals building project consolidatedthe site of a saints life and martyrdom within the fabric of an urbanpapal church, incorporating the veneration of a saint with the papalmass. At the centre of his new church, beneath the main altar, Paschalplaced the body of Cecilia herself, returning the saint to her home andher holy relics to the place of her martyrdom. The subsequent rebuild-ings of the church recapitulated key events: the death of Cecilia, thediscovery of her body and its placement under the altar. In each of themajor building campaigns at the church, in the ninth, eleventh andsixteenth century, the historical texts about and the archaeology of thesite were key elements in shaping the renovations. 2 In many ways, S. Cecilia is typical of the churches of early medievalRome. Like many of the tituli , early neighbourhood churches, thebeginnings of the church are shrouded in legend. 3 The character of thesaint may very well have emerged from the name of the church, reect-ing its original donation of property from a perhaps rather more mun-dane Caecilia. 4 The titulus s. caeciliae was said to have been founded by clear which manuscripts were used by the fteenth-century hagiographer Mombritius; B.Mombritius, Sanctuarium seu Vitae Sanctorum , 2 vols (Paris, 1910), I, pp. 33241. 2 For an introduction to the church, see R. Krautheimer et al. , Corpus basilicarum christianarumRomae , 5 vols (New York and Vatican City, 193777), I, pp. 94111. On the c .1600 renova-tions, see E. Stirrup, The Altar Sculptures of Virgin Martyrs: The Ideal of Chastity and theDecorous Treatment of Relics in Tridentine Rome, D.Phil thesis, University of Oxford(2002), pp. 11267; T. Kmpf, Framing Cecilias Sacred Body: Paolo Camillo Sfondrato andthe Language of Revelation, Sculpture Journal 6 (2001), pp. 1020; A. Nava Cellini, StefanoMaderno, Francesco Vanni e Guido Reni a Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Paragone 20 (April1969), pp. 1841; E. Loevinson, Documenti di S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Archivio della R.Societ romana della Storia Patria 49 (1926), pp. 356401. 3 F. Guidobaldi, Chiese Titolari di Roma nel tessuto urbano preesistente, Quaeritur InventusColitur , Studi di Antichit Cristiana 40, 2 vols (Vatican City, 1989), I, pp. 38396; C. Pietri,Donateurs et pieux etablissements daprs le lgendier romain (V e VII e s.), in Hagiographie.Cultures et socits IVXII sicle. Actes du Colloque organis Nanterre et Paris 25 mai 1979 (Paris, 1981), pp. 43547; R. Vielliard, Recherches sur les origines de la Rome chrtienne (Macon,1940); J.P. Kirsch, Die rmischen Titelkirchen im Altertum , Studien zur Geschichte und Kulturdes Altertums 9:1/2 (Paderborn, 1918). 4 V. Saxer, La chiesa di Roma dal V al X secolo: amministrazione centrale e organizzazioneterritoriale, in Roma nellalto medioevo , Settimane 48 (Spoleto, 2001), pp. 493633, at pp. 55860.Early Medieval Europe :cc; ( : ) 2007 The Author. Journal Compilation 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 4 Caroline J. Goodson Cecilia herself in her own home in the days before she succumbed tomartyrdom. 5 Whether or not that is true, there is consistent evidenceattesting to a church dedicated to S. Cecilia within the city of Romefrom the sixth century onwards, and perhaps before. 6 Though we donot know when it originated or what it looked like, we can be fairlycertain it was always located in the area where it still stands, in the busyneighbourhood of Trastevere across the river from the majority of theancient monuments of the city. A late eighth-century visitor to Romenoted the location of the earlier church, prior to Paschals rebuilding,as one of the sights to see along the route from the Porta Aurelia acrossthe Tiber River to the city centre, where he then visited monuments suchas the Colosseum and the Baths of Diocletian. 7 Among the early medievalurban churches of Rome, Paschals S. Cecilia is a very well-preservedexample and its study illustrates the ways in which ecclesiastical build-ings served in the life of the city as points of intersection between sacredhistory, historic topography and papal politics.The story of the relationship between Saint Cecilia and S. Ceciliaand the popes and cardinals who shaped that relationship has not beentold. The conventional view of the church is still that presented byRichard Krautheimer, the much-acclaimed architectural historian ofRome. Krautheimer made S. Cecilia and the other churches of Paschallandmarks in western architectural history by holding them up as amedieval revival of Romes fourth- and fth-century basilicas. 8 Accord-ing to his interpretation, the basilicas erected by Paschal I in the rst 5 Delehaye, tudes sur le lgendier romain , p. 219. 6 There exists a funerary inscription referring to what may be the titulus sanctae Caeciliae whichhas been dated between 379464: G.B. De Rossi, Inscriptiones christianae urbis Romae (Rome,185788), no. 816. Another inscription names a presbyter from the titulus , though its datinghas been contested: A. Ferrua and A. Silvagni (eds), Inscriptiones christianae urbis Romaeseptimo saeculo antiquores , ns (Rome, 1922), no. 116, assign a date of the sixth century, andprovide references for earlier scholars earlier chronologies. Presbyters from the titulus Caeciliae and the titulus s. Caeciliae signed the acts of the Roman council of 499 and 595, respectively,and these si

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