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Grade 10Science Practice Test Book
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Read Sample Questions A and B. For Sample A, fi ll in the circle that goes with the answer you choose. Be sure to fi ll in the circle completely and make your mark heavy and dark. If you want to change your answer, completely erase the mark you made before making a new mark. For Sample B, write your answer on the lines provided.
The picture below shows a humpback whale.
This animal is correctly classified into which group?
The table below shows data for five Alaska volcanoes.
Volcano Approximate Height in Feet (2007)
Mt. Griggs 7,602
Mt. Denison 7,605
Mt. Shishaldin 9,373
Mt. Spurr 11,070
Mt. Wrangell 14,163
Give two correct conclusions based on these data.
1. Which human activity can have the greatest positive effect on global climate change by helping to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?
A removing trees to build houses
B recycling plastics to manufacture materials
C limiting internal combustion engines that power automobiles
D using alternatives to chlorofl uorocarbons (CFCs) for refrigeration
2. An incandescent light bulb is shown below.
A typical incandescent light bulb has an energy efficiency of about ten percent. What is the meaning of this statement?
A Ten percent of the bulb’s light energy becomes heat energy.
B Ten percent of the energy used by the bulb becomes light energy.
C The bulb uses ten percent less electrical energy than other bulbs.
D The bulb will save ten percent on electrical energy costs per year.
3. Why do eukaryotic cells require mitochondria?
A to break down cell debris for recycling
B to control division for cell reproduction
C to release stored energy for cell activities
D to package materials inside cells for transport
4. Two people are trying to push a large box across a floor. Each person pushes with an equal amount of force.
The total amount of force they exert on the box is 500 newtons. Despite their efforts, the box will not move. What is the amount of force exerted by the box on each person?
A 0 newtons
B 250 newtons
C 500 newtons
D 1,500 newtons
5. Which statement best explains how iron can become a magnet?
A Electrons are easily removed.
B Electrons spin in a unique direction.
C Atoms are strongly bonded together.
D Atoms have smaller nuclei.
6. Which statement explains why stars appear to change position in Earth’s sky over thousands of years?
A Stars are orbiting a central location in our solar system.
B Stars are viewed from different positions in our solar system.
C Stars are moving apart due to the continuous expansion of the universe.
D Stars are pulled by gravity toward a black hole at the center of the universe.
7. Which is a primary function that kidneys perform for the excretory system?
A They control sensory input using nerve cells.
B They conduct chemical digestion using hormones.
C They remove waste from blood using fi ltration structures.
D They exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide using capillaries.
8. In 1909, Ernest Rutherford conducted an experiment in which he shot a beam of positively-charged particles at a thin gold foil. Based on the model of the atom at that time, Rutherford hypothesized that these particles would pass straight through the gold foil and hit a target (diagram 1). Rutherford’s results are shown in diagram 2.
gold foil target
Which evaluation of Rutherford’s hypothesis is most reasonable?
A It was supported because some of the particles went through the foil without changing direction.
B It was supported because some of the particles changed direction as they went through the foil.
C It was not supported because some of the particles went straight through the foil without changing direction.
D It was not supported because some of the particles changed direction as they went through the foil.
9. Which statement describes the relationship between a structure and function of the lungs?
A The surface area of the lungs allows for the exchange of oxygen with the blood.
B The surface area of the lungs allows for the warming of cold air before entering the blood.
C The softness of the lungs allows for the movement of nutrients from the lungs to the blood.
D The softness of the lungs allows for the absorption of carbon dioxide by the blood in the lungs.
10. A lake is surrounded by hills covered with trees and shrubs. Which statement correctly describes how a change to the plants in this area will affect this environment?
A Adding plants to the hillsides will increase sedimentation in the lake.
B Adding plants to the edge of the lake will increase erosion by the lake.
C Removing plants from the hillsides will increase erosion on the hills.
D Removing plants from the edge of the lake will increase sedimentation on the hills.
11. A diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum is shown below.
x-rays ultraviolet visiblelight
Sunscreen is a lotion used to protect skin from exposure to the Sun. This sunscreen protects a person’s skin from wavelengths that are
A longer than radio waves but shorter than x-rays.
B longer than x-rays but shorter than infrared waves.
C longer than microwaves but shorter than infrared waves.
D longer than visible light waves but shorter than radio waves.
This question is worth 2 points.
12. Study the illustration below.
A string is threaded through a straw that is attached to a long balloon. When the balloon is released, it accelerates along the length of the string from point X to point Y. At point Y, the balloon begins to decelerate until it stops at point Z. The experiment is repeated 3 times and the positions of points Y and Z are recorded.
A. Describe one set of action-reaction forces that are involved in accelerating the balloon from point X to point Y.
B. Describe one set of action-reaction forces that are involved in decelerating the balloon from point Y to point Z.
13. The graphs below show data related to trends in energy production.
1950 1970 1990 2010
Key= petroleum= natural gas= coal
Comparision of User Group Energy Sources100
Key= transportation= industrial= residential and commercial= electric power production
If these energy production trends continue, which user group will be most negatively impacted?
C residential and commercial
D electric power production
14. Which team would be most appropriate for determining whether life exists on Mars?
A two meteorologists and two astronomers
B two physicists and two mathematicians
C a pilot, a navigator, a technician, and an engineer
D a biologist, a chemist, an engineer, and a geologist
15. Alpha particle radiation will most likely result when
A two atoms are near one another.
B the nucleus becomes unstable.
C atoms become charged.
D electrons gain energy.
16. During the early 1900s, Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch developed an economical method for synthesizing ammonia. The result of their research was the development of inexpensive plant fertilizers. Which statement best describes a possible motive for their research?
A to provide a method for reducing acid levels in soils
B to provide a method for reducing nitrogen in the atmosphere
C to fi nd a better way of producing food for the increasing world population
D to fi nd a better way of producing cost-effective household cleaners
17. According to the periodic table, which statement correctly describes the change from a neutral atom of an element to its ion?
A A fl uorine atom forms a F –1 ion by losing one electron.
B A sodium atom forms a Na+1 ion by losing two electrons.
C A magnesium atom forms a Mg+2 ion by gaining two electrons.
D A phosphorus atom forms a P –3 ion by gaining three electrons.
18. A rock cycle diagram is shown below.
What happens to rocks at location 3 in the diagram?
A heating and pressing
B melting and cooling
C weathering and eroding
D compacting and cementing
19. Which statement best describes the Big Bang Theory?
A Galaxies within the universe collided about 13.5 billion years ago forming the present objects in the universe.
B Existing objects in the universe move randomly with the potential of colliding in about 13.5 billion years.
C Galaxies throughout the universe moved toward each other after an event that occurred about 13.5 billion years ago.
D Most objects in the universe are moving away from each other as a result of an event that occurred about 13.5 billion years ago.
20. The table below shows three carbon cycle processes.
Three Carbon Cycle Processes
Process One Type of Chemical Reaction Occurring During the Process
animal respiration sugars + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + energy volcanic eruption carbon monoxide + oxygen → carbon dioxide + energyfossil fuel combustion hydrocarbons + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + energy
How do all three of the processes listed in the table affect another geochemical cycle?
A They affect the water cycle by adding water to the atmosphere.
B They affect the water cycle by removing water from the atmosphere.
C They affect the oxygen cycle by adding oxygen to the atmosphere.
D They affect the oxygen cycle by removing oxygen from the atmosphere.
21. Watson and Crick used pieces of wire, plastic spheres, chemical knowledge, and an x-ray image of a deoxyribonucleic DNA molecule to determine that DNA has a double helix structure. Which process of science were they most likely using?
A publishing results
B constructing a model
C developing procedures
D repeating an experiment
22. Where would a new star most likely form?
A in a nebula
B in a supernova
C in a black hole
D in an asteroid fi eld
23. Which feature would most likely be forming at converging continental tectonic plate boundaries?
A rift valley
B deep trench
C volcanic cone
D uplifted mountain
24. According to the periodic table, how many neutrons are in a potassium atom that has an atomic mass of 41?
25. Geologic activity on an island physically separates a population of animals into two populations. Many generations later, when the two populations are no longer separated, they do not interbreed. What was the result of natural selection during this period of separation?
A a decrease in variation
B a decrease in diversifi cation
C an increase in extinction
D an increase in speciation
26. A student conducted many trials to determine the effect that variables had on the cycle of a pendulum.
length of pull
Pendulum Experiment Data
Length of Pull(cm)
Number of Washers*
Time of One Cycle
(sec)1 40 10 1 1.32 40 20 1 1.33 40 20 2 1.34 55 20 2 1.55 55 20 3 1.5
*Each washer has a mass of 10 grams.
A change in which variable changed the time of one cycle?
A length of string
B length of pull
C mass of washers
D number of washers
This question is worth 4 points.
27. A group of scientists have been observing changes in glacier volume and in ocean water salinity. They believe there is a relationship between these two changes. These scientists think this relationship is also associated with human-caused global climate changes. The graphs below show some of the data scientists collected.
Observed Change in Total Glacier Volume
19701960 1980 1990 2000Year
Predicted Change in Ocean Water Salinity
Explain how an increase in temperature might affect glacier size and ocean water salinity.
Describe one way that a human activity can contribute to global climate change.
Describe how warming ocean water in the Arctic may affect marine organisms.
28. In the late twentieth century as people became more concerned about protecting their environment, scientists researched better ways to
A recycle nonrenewable resources.
B increase pesticide runoff into rivers.
C eliminate the use of renewable resources.
D add chlorofl uorocarbons to the atmosphere.
29. Which structure completes the circulatory pathway?
heart artery ? vein heart
30. Two parallel copper wires are each carrying the same electrical current in the same direction. Which statement explains how they respond to each other?
A They repel each other, because they have similar magnetic fi elds.
B They repel each other, because they have opposite magnetic fi elds.
C They strengthen each other, because they have similar magnetic fi elds.
D They strengthen each other, because they have opposite magnetic fi elds.
31. Glacial moraines are primarily the result of which of these processes?
A transportation and deposition of rocks
B chemical weathering and erosion of rocks
C transportation and metamorphism of rocks
D metamorphism and physical weathering of rocks
32. When an atom of sodium and an atom of fluorine combine to form the salt, sodium fluoride, an ionic bond, is formed. Which statement correctly describes the behavior of the valence electron in the ionic bond?
A An electron from the fl uorine atom moves to the sodium atom forming two ions.
B An electron from the sodium atom moves to the fl uorine atom forming two ions.
C An electron from the fl uorine atom is shared with the sodium atom forming a sodium ion.
D An electron from the sodium atom is shared with the fl uorine atom forming a fl uoride ion.
33. Why do the positions of stars change in the universe?
A stars get smaller as they age
B stars get bigger as they age
C the universe is contracting
D the universe is expanding
34. The illustration below shows the morphological change of two species.
species 1 species 2
Which statement explains why species 1 and species 2 are different?
A An individual changed itself to suit the environment.
B Natural selection can cause gradual speciation changes.
C Interbreeding of species 2 results in no genetic mutations.
D Extinction of ancestor species occurs as a result of interbreeding.
35. A key component of scientific investigation is the review and critique of data by other scientists. This frequently leads to multiple explanations for the results and sometimes causes public discussion. Which of the following is a benefit to society that is most likely derived from this process?
A increased funding for science as people take sides
B increased job opportunities for laboratory scientists
C decreased acceptance of fi ndings based on poor investigations
D decreased emphasis on searching for answers to old questions
36. Which sequence shows the correct pathway through which waste travels in the excretory system?
renal vein kidney ureter urethra bladder
renal artery kidney ureter bladder urethra
kidney ureter renal artery bladder urethra
urethra kidney ureter renal artery bladder
37. A student pushes a hollow ball with a small amount of force causing it to roll quickly across the room. The student then pushes a solid ball with the same amount of force. Which statement demonstrates an understanding of force and its effects on an object?
A The force on both balls was the same; therefore each ball pushes back with the same amount of force.
B The force on both balls was the same; however each ball pushes back with a different amount of force.
C The solid ball pushes back with a greater force than the hollow ball, because the solid ball has a greater mass.
D The hollow ball pushes back with a greater force than the solid ball, because the solid ball moved faster and further.
38. Humans throughout the world compete with other organisms for water resources. Which technique is best used to manage water resources and allow all components of the environment to share them?
A draining wetlands
B restricting irrigation
C building a hydroelectric dam
D diverting rivers through canals
This question is worth 2 points.
39. Organisms such as earthworms and humans have digestive systems made up of a “tube” with food entering through one opening and wastes leaving through another. Simple organisms, like earthworms, tend to have a simple digestive system. Humans, on the other hand, have more complex organs in their digestive system.
A. Develop a model of the human digestive system.
B. Identify one organ in the human digestive system and describe how its structure allows humans to function in environments that simple organisms, like an earthworm, cannot.
40. Which statement correctly explains the movement of stars?
A Stars move in a random motion across the sky.
B Stars are moving farther apart across the universe.
C Stars move in a circle around a central point in the universe.
D Stars are moving closer together toward the center of a large blackhole.
41. Which tool is least helpful for predicting weather?
A wind sock
B rain gauge
42. Which statement is best supported by the Big Bang Theory?
A Galaxies must all be traveling at the same velocities.
B Galaxies have all taken the same length of time to get to their current positions.
C Those galaxies closer to the starting point have been traveling for less time.
D Those galaxies farther from the starting point have been traveling for a longer time.
43. Which statement best describes the progress of science?
A It is much slower now that so much is known.
B It is always rational and uninfl uenced by emotion.
C It will eventually prevent most natural disasters.
D It is interrelated to other events happening in society.
44. Which statement explains the function of the diaphragm and its effect on the chest cavity during inhalation?
A The diaphragm relaxes to decrease volume and decrease pressure.
B The diaphragm contracts to increase volume and decrease pressure.
C The diaphragm relaxes to increase volume and increase pressure.
D The diaphragm contracts to decrease volume and increase pressure.
45. According to the periodic table, the neutral atom of what element has 4 protons, 5 neutrons, and 4 electrons?
C fl uorine
46. The position of galaxies in the universe was once hypothesized to be constant, but evidence gathered by Edwin Hubble indicated that many galaxies are actually racing away from Earth at high speeds. Which statement is best supported by this discovery?
A A hypothesis is the correct answer to a problem.
B Science is a body of knowledge that is subject to change based on data.
C A hypothesis becomes a law when there are data to support the hypothesis.
D Science is a body of knowledge based on the work of well-known scientists.
47. Which landform would most likely be created when two oceanic plates converge?
A a volcanic island arc
B a large watershed area
C a smooth continental shelf
D a chain of continental mountains
48. Examine the population curves for wolves and moose in the graph below.
019651955 1975 1985 1995 2005
Key= wolves = moose
Which statement correctly describes the population relationship between the wolves and moose from 1968 to 1973?
A As the moose population increased the wolf population increased.
B As the moose population increased the wolf population decreased.
C As the wolf population decreased the moose population decreased.
D As the wolf population increased the moose population decreased.
49. Study the table below.
Growth of Bean Plants
Week Average Height of Plants (cm)
Growth Rate (cm/wk)
0 2.2 –
1 7.9 5.7
3 15.2 3.4
4 17.7 2.5
5 19.9 2.2
6 21.2 1.3
7 22.1 0.9
8 22.3 0.2
An experiment is performed and the growth rate of bean plants is calculated. The growth rate is determined by measuring plant height at the end of each week. Which statement correctly interprets the data?
A The growth rate is constant each week.
B The growth rate is increasing each week.
C The growth rate is decreasing at the same rate each week.
D The growth rate is decreasing at a different rate each week.
50. The picture below shows a student pulling on a rope that is attached to a wall.
10 8 6 4 2
14 16 18 20
Which statement correctly describes the amount of force applied by the wall as the student continues to apply a 250-newton force?
A The wall pulls with a force of 125 newtons against the student.
B The wall pulls with a force of 250 newtons against the student.
C The wall exerts twice as much force as the student.
D The wall exerts no force since it is stationary.
51. Which of the following best describes the structure-function relationship of a ligament?
A rigid – connecting bone to bone
B fl exible – connecting bone to bone
C rigid – connecting muscle to bone
D fl exible – connecting muscle to bone
52. The illustration below shows rock layers within a mountain.
Mountain Rock Layers
Which statement best explains the non-horizontal nature of the layers of rocks?
A Igneous rocks ran down a hill.
B Sediments were laid down on a slope.
C Forces of plate tectonics tilted the layers.
D Erosion within a rift valley formed the layers.
53. Which statement accurately compares cooking food with microwaves to cooking food with infrared radiation?
A The higher energy of the microwaves fl ows through food better than the lower energy of infrared radiation.
B The shorter wavelength of microwaves fl ows through food better than the longer wavelengths of infrared radiation.
C Microwaves heat the surface of food, and infrared radiation cooks food by friction from vibrating water molecules.
D Microwaves cook food by friction from vibrating water molecules, and infrared radiation heats food from the surface.
54. Which sequence shows the pathway that food takes in the digestive system?
A stomach, esophagus, large intestine, small intestine
B esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine
C stomach, esophagus, small intestine, large intestine
D esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
55. A scientist is developing a computer model to predict changes in the average surface temperature of Earth over time. Which method would produce the most reliable model?
A using current climate data to predict the average surface temperature 10 years into the future
B using current climate data to predict the average surface temperature 100 years into the future
C using annual climate data from the past 10 years to predict the average surface temperature 100 years into the future
D using annual climate data from the past 100 years to predict the average surface temperature 10 years into the future
This question is worth 4 points.
56. The following chart compares cerebellum mass and body mass for a variety of living things. The cerebellum, a part of the central nervous system, is responsible for coordination and control of voluntary movement.
Body Mass (grams)
cat 5.3 3,500dog 6.0 3,500sheep 21.5 25,000cow 35.7 300,000human 142.0 60,000
A. After studying the chart, student A came to the conclusion that the cat was the most coordinated animal listed. Write two statements using information from the data table that either supports or does not support the student’s conclusion.
B. The human central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Describe two main functions the spinal cord performs.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
26 Fe Iro
30 Zn Zin
14 Si Sili
50 Sn Tin
69 Tm Thuliu
Grade 10Science Practice Book
Copyright © 2008 by Alaska Department of Education & Early Development. The materials contained in this publication may be duplicated by Alaska educators for local classroom use. This permission does not extend to the duplication of materials for commercial use.