GREEK ARCHITECTURE(650- 30 B.C.)
Greek architecture was essentially columnar and trabeated (trabs= a beam).
Dado - portion of a pedestal between its base and cornice. - term applied to the lower portions of walls when decorated separately.
Coffers - sunk panels, caissons or lacunaria formed in ceilings, vaults of domes.
Wooden roofs were untrussed, the rafters being supported by longitudinal beams-wall plates, purlins and ridge-piece-laid on the walls and colonnades themselves or propped or struts from cross beams.
mportant refinements were practised in Greek architecture in order to correct optical illusions. about 600 B.C. Greek architecture sometimes has been called a carpentry in marble .
Ceiling sometimes omitted, leaving an open roof, were treated decoratively with timberpanelled coffers or, within the colonnades around temples, were of flat, stone slabs, coffered to imitate the timber.
Another correction was to make the letters of inscriptions, when raised up on buildings, larger in the upper lines that in the lower so that they might appear all of one size when viewed from below.
Greek Orders The Greeks developed three architectural systems, called orders, each with their own distinctive proportions and detailing. The Greek orders are: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.
The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain. This style was used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily.
The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. Its capital is decorated with a scrolllike design (a volute). This style was found in eastern Greece and the islands.
The Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples. Its capital is very elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaves.
Hellenistic Period (323- 30 B.C.)
Voussoirs - truncated wedge shaped blocks forming an arch.
Pediment - a triangular piece of wall above the entablature enclosed by ranking cornices.
Antifixae - ornamental blocks fixed vertically regular intervals along the lower edge of a roof, to cover the ends of tiles.
Naos-the principal chamber in a Greek temple containing the statue of the Deity. -Types of Naos
A. Henostyle- one column Distyle- two columns Tristyle- three columns Tetrastyle- four columns Pentastyle- five columns Hexastyle- six columns Heptastyle- seven columns Octastyle- eight columns Enneastyle- nine columns Decastyle- ten columns Dodecastyle- twelve columns
In antis temple have from one to four columns between antae at the front. Two is the usual number.
Amphi-antis - temple have from one to four columns between antae at front and rear. Two is the usual number.
Prostyle - temples have a portico of columns at the front.
Amphi- prostyle - temples have a portico of columns at the front and rear.
Peripteral - temples have a single line of columns surrounding the naos.
Pseudo- peripteral - temples have flank columns attached to the naos wall.
Dipteral - temples have a double line of columns surrounding the naos.
Pseudo- dipteral - temples are like the last, but inner range of columns is omitted on the flanks of the Naos.
PericlesRebuilt temples and palaces better than ever The Parthenon
Temple of Zeus 470-457 BCETemple of Zeus 470-457 BCE
Temple of Hera II, Paestum, 460 BCE Similar to Temple of Zeus at Olympia now destroyed Site of Olympic games
Temple of Hera II 460 BCE
E Pediment (Temple of Zeus) 470-456 BCE
Chariot race btw Pelops and King Oinomaos Center Zeus, Oino and wife, Pelops and Hippodamia
The Acropolis in Athens
Acropolis aerial view
Focal point: The Parthenon
Propylaia: The entrance
The Parthenon Ictinos and Kallikrates 447-438 BCE
Statuary from East pediment of Parthenon Helios rising, spectators witnessing
Temple of Athena Nike Kallikrates 427-424 BC
Erechtheion: Ionic Order Acropolis 421 BC Porch of Caryatids
Tomb at Halikarnassos for Mausolos, 4thCent BCE 4th wonder of the world 140 tall