+ All Categories
Home > Documents > Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

Date post: 30-May-2018
Category:
Upload: mcwnotes
View: 229 times
Download: 0 times
Share this document with a friend

of 27

Transcript
  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    1/27

    Kidney and Urinary System

    CTB Lab 9

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    2/27

    General Kidney Features

    (macroscopic structure)

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    3/27

    Kidney

    Retroperitoneal

    Encapsulated w/ Dense Irregular CT

    Cortex

    outermost region

    Cortex composed of

    Renal corpuscles (little circles)

    Proximal/Distal Tubules

    Capillaries

    Medullary rays

    Kidney (monkey):

    RC renal corpuscles

    V interlobular veinCx cortex

    MR medullary ray

    AV arcuate vein

    AA arcuate artery

    G glomerulus

    IA interlobular artery

    RP renal papilla

    C calyxP renal pelvis

    U ureter

    Ai interlobar artery

    T tubule

    Zoom to ~150% to really see the

    arteries and veins

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    4/27

    Renal Corpuscle1. Glomerulus tuft of fenestrated capillaries

    2. Mesangial cells modified sm muscle cells, support glomerulus, maybe maintain Glomerular bsmt membrane

    3. Bowmans Capsule double walled epithelial layer surrounding glomerulus (Visceral + Parietal)

    Question 1: *Parietal Layer of Bowmans Capsule is made up of Simple Squamous Epithelial cells

    Visceral layer of Bowmans Capsule consists ofPodocytesQ2: *Nuclei within Glomerulus belong to 3 types of cells: Capillary endothelial cells, Podocytes, Mesangial Cells

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    5/27

    Renal Corpuscle

    Schematic

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    6/27

    Renal corpuscle:

    A afferent arteriole

    C glomerular capillary

    E endothelial cell

    GBM glomerular basementmembrane

    I interstitium

    M mesangium

    N mesangial cell nucleus

    PCT proximal convoluted tubule

    S squamous cell

    Renal Corpuscle

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    7/27

    Glomerular Filter SchematicGlomerulusBC Bowman's capsuleBM basement membraneBS Bowman's space (urinary space)C capillary loopE endothelial cellF fenestrationsFS filtration slitM mesangial cellMM mesangial matrixP podocyteP1 podocyte primary processP2 podocyte secondary foot process

    Q3: **The Clear Space between the Glomerulusand Parietal Layer of Bowmans Capsule is called theUrinary Space (Bowmans Space in Wheatersdiagrams)

    **The Urinary Space contains Plasma Ultrafiltrate itpassed from capillaries into it.

    Q4: **3 Components of the Filtration barrier going

    from glomerular caps to urinary space:1) Fenestrated capillary endothelial cells (ECs)2) Fused basal laminae of cap ECs & podocytes3) Diaphragm-covered filtration slits betweenpodocyte foot processes

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    8/27

    Ultrastructure of Podocytes & Endothelial CellsGlomerulus

    BC Bowman's capsule BM basement membrane

    BS Bowman's space C capillary loop

    E endothelial cell F fenestrationsFS filtration slit M mesangial cell

    MM mesangial matrix P podocyte

    P1 podocyte primary process

    P2 podocyte secondary foot process

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    9/27

    Slide 27 Kidney PAS

    Note intense staining within glomerulus

    It indicates the Basal Lamina that contributes to the glomerular filtration barrier.

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    10/27

    Back to slide 26

    Afferent Arteriolefeeds glomerular caps

    Efferent Arterioledrains glomerular caps

    Both enter/exit the renal corpuscle at theVascular Pole

    Urinary Poleopposite from Vascular pole; where plasma ultrafiltrate drains from corpuscle.Q5: **Plasma Ultrafiltrate drains from urinary space into proximal tubule.

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    11/27

    Nephrons functional units of the kidney,

    composed of four things:

    Proximal and distal

    convoluted tubulesBB brush border

    BM basement membraneC peritubular capillaries

    DCT distal convoluted tubule

    PCT proximal convoluted tubul

    1- Renalcorpuscle

    2- Proximal tubule

    3- Loop of Henle

    4- Distal Tubule

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    12/27

    How to Distinguish Renal Tubes

    -No brush border-Makes lumen appear wider/open

    -Have a brush border (microvilli)-More Prox tubules than Distal;so will see more of these in Xsection

    Extra info:

    PalePaleEosinophilic & Granular(b/c abundant mitochondria,basal membrane infoldings)

    Cytoplasmicstaining

    Many centrallylocated

    Many centrally located(beccause cells are smaller)

    Few basally located(because cells are so large)

    Nuclei in agiven plane ofsection

    DistinctIndistinct(lateral borders highlyinterdigitate)

    Indistinct(lateral borders highlyinterdigitate)

    Cell borders

    -Open

    -Scalloped edge b/ccells bulge inward

    -Open

    -Wide

    -Smooth contour

    Occluded

    Jagged outline

    LumenCharacteristics

    Cuboidal ColumnarLow CuboidalIn other words, shorter cellsHigh CuboidalIn other words, Large cells

    Type ofEpithelium

    Collecting DuctDistal TubuleProximal Tubule

    Q6:**Cells in the Proximal Tubule function to resorb lots:

    Active Reabsorption = Na/Cl

    Passive Reabsorption = water (follows NaCl)

    Facilitated Reabsorption = Glucose / AAs / Proteins

    Q7: **Distal Tubule Cells only resorbe Na/Cl

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    13/27

    B Bowman's space

    CP mesangial cell cytoplasmic processes

    MC mesangial cell

    MM mesangial matrix

    P1 podocyte primary process

    P2 podocyte secondary foot process;

    BM basement membraneBME basement membrane of endothelium

    Cap capillary

    E endothelium

    J junctional complex

    L lysosome

    M mitochondrion

    Mv microvilli

    P cell processes

    S supporting tissueV pinocytotic vesicle

    E endothelial cell

    Structure of the Tubules with

    adjacent capillaries for

    reabsorption

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    14/27

    More Comparison of Proximal vs Distal Tubules

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    15/27

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    16/27

    MACULA DENSA:Place where the Distal Tubule passes close by the Vascular Pole

    The Distal Tubules Columnar Cells are Tightly Packed here

    Function: monitors the sodium concentration and volume of ultrafiltrate in the tubule

    MACULA DENSA

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    17/27

    MACULA DENSAQ7: ** Macula densa is part of a larger structure called the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus, which

    includes specialized cells in a portion of the afferent arteriole.

    Q8: ** The secretory product of the juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent arteriole is Renin.

    S /C

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    18/27

    See/Compare:

    -Glomerulus

    -Macula densa

    -Proximal tubule

    -Distal tubule

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    19/27

    Loop of Henle(Intermediate Tubule)

    Collecting tubules and ductsA thick ascending limb of loop of Henle

    T thin limb of loop of Henle

    CD collecting duct

    CT collecting tubule

    IC intercalated cell

    V vasa recta

    A U-shaped tube connecting the

    proximal and distal tubules

    First section of Henles loop is a thick

    descending limb; goes from cortex

    medulla via Medullary Rays

    Thin loops dip down into the

    medulla and go back up to

    the cortex.

    To identify look for squamous

    cells, but they shouldnt have

    bright RBCs within those

    are capillaries.

    Dont forget that Henles Loop functions as a Countercurrent Multiplier.

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    20/27

    Collecting tubules and ductsBM tubular basement membrane

    CD collecting duct

    IC intercalated cell

    S supporting tissue

    *The nephron stops at the end of the

    distal tubule.. Doesnt include the

    collecting duct.

    *Dont fret about distinguishing

    collecting ducts vs collecting tubules.

    *But you will need to be able to

    distinguish collecting tubules from

    distal/proximal tubules.

    Collecting Ducts have:

    -Larger lumens

    -Distinct intercellular borders

    -Scalloped edges of lumens

    -Many central nuclei

    -Pale cytoplasm

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    21/27

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    22/27

    Note how the Thin loops have Squamous epithelium compared to the Cuboidal epithelial

    cells in the thick desc/ascending loops, and cuboidal/columnar in collecting ducts.

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    23/27

    Kidney Stroma

    (slide 28)

    As you can see the stromal component in the kidney is primarily Reticular fibers

    and not as predominant as in other organs.

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    24/27

    Ureterin or your outSlide 30Ureter

    A adventitia

    C circular muscle layer of ureter

    L longitudinal muscle layer of ureter

    LP lamina propria

    V blood vessel

    Q10:Transitional epithelium lines thelumen of the ureter.

    Q11: Within the muscularis the

    Inner layer = LongitudinalOuter layer = Circular

    Therefore the section on slide 30 was

    taken from the upper 2/3rds of ureter.

    Q12: This arrangement is opposite of

    that found in the tubular organs of the

    GI tract. Hmph.

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    25/27

    One more look at the Transitional Epithelium lining the Ureter

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    26/27

    Bladder

    IL inner longitudinal muscle layer of bladder

    OC outer circular muscle layer of bladderOL outer longitudinal muscle layer of bladder

    A adventitia

    Um umbrella cell

    LP lamina propria

    The Bladder Mucosal layer is transitional epithelium

    aka, Urothelium.

    Q13: Fibrous CT composed of Elastin underlies the

    mucosal layer. The fibers are refractile/pink staining.

    Q14: Because the bladder is saccular, it has 3 layers

    of smooth muscle in its walls. (See left)

  • 8/14/2019 Henle Loop Fenestrated Capillary

    27/27

    Q15: When fixed, the bladder in slide 31 was in the relaxed state.

    Q16: Approximately 95% of bladder cancers arise from Transitional cell carcinoma.

    Q17: A reliable reference listing most common causes of cancer in the US population is www.cancer.gov The US

    NIH National Cancer Institute homepage..

    Most Common Causes of Cancer: Bladder, Melonoma, Breast, Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma, Colon/Rectal, Pancreatic,

    Endometrial, Prostate, Kidney, Skin, Leukemia, Thyroid, and Lung.Incidence differs by factors including genetics environmental exposures etc

    http://www.cancer.gov/http://www.cancer.gov/

Recommended