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Hoagies' Gifted: Testing and assessment of the Gifted

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerTesting and Assessmentof Gifted ChildrenApples and grapefruit?

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  • New Jersey Association for Gifted Children (NJAGC)This workshop is brought to you by the New Jersey Association for Gifted Children, An Affiliate Group of NJEAVisit us on the Convention Floor in the Affiliates Section of Main StreetLatest state requirements for gifted educationMembership information Enter a drawing for a free membershipProfessional development opportunities in gifted educationNJAGC conference in March 2014Awards Discover what NJAGC can do for you.www.njagc.orgPhone: 856-273-7530

    2003-2013 Carolyn Kottmeyer

  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerHoagies Gifted Education PageThe all things gifted page1150+ pages = OverwhelmingSite-wide search on every page!Not supported by advertising or grantsAffiliates programsClick on Shop Hoagies Pagewww.hoagiesgifted.org/shop.htm

  • Hoagies Gifted Education PageFacebook / LinkedIn / Twitter feedResearch summariesQuick events and contestsNewsGifted Parent, Teacher & Professional Q&A

    2003-2013 Carolyn Kottmeyer

  • 2003-2013 Carolyn Kottmeyer1, 2, 3, TestingGrade Level Achievement TestOut-of-level achievement testIndividual Achievement TestGroup Ability TestIndividual Ability / IQ Test

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerAbility Test TermsCriterion-referenced (CRT)Measure how well a person has learned a specific body of knowledge and skills Content based on its significance in the curriculumNorm-referenced (NRT)Compare an individual's score against the scores of a group who took the same exam, the norm group or standardization sampleContent is chosen by how well it discriminates among studentsSome tests allow both comparisons

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerScoring termsMeanAverage score on testIQ test expected to have mean of 100Standard deviation (SD)Statistical term: difference from normTwo standard deviations above average is considered gifted130+ (for standard deviation of 15)

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerNormal DistributionDistribution of IQ Scoreshttp://encarta.msn.com/media_461540296/Distribution_of_IQ_Scores.html

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerScoring termsStandard scoreLooks like IQ score, but may be very limitedMean = 100standard deviation may or may not = 15Age EquivalentGrade EquivalentAge / grade of average students with this score

    (http://alpha.fdu.edu/psychology/oat_cereal.htm)

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerScoring termsPercent Correct90% means 90/100 (or 45/50 or 9/10) correctPercentileIf 10% of norming group got 100% correct, perfect score is 90th percentile50th percentile means averageRaw scoreItems correct of items attempted

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerGrade Level Achievement TestStandardized for one grade level onlyOr less early elementary grades have different norms / tests available for fall and spring testingGrade equivalents compare how child of grade x would do on this grade levels test NOT how this child would do on grade level x test!Group testTesting in the classroom has built-in distractions

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerGrade Level Achievement TestNationally normedITBS, CAT-5, SAT 9, Terra Nova, CTBS, MATNorm referenced (ITBS scores as both norm and criterion referenced)State mandated testsESPA, GEPA, PSSA (Pennsylvania), TAAS, TAKS (Texas)Criterion referencedMCAS (Massachusetts)Norm referenced, sort of

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerOut-of-Level Achievement TestComprehensive achievement testsDeveloped for Talent Search or private schoolsMore comprehensive content than typical group achievement testsGiven to students 2-5 years younger than normsCombs out upper level achievement95th-99th percentiles are spread across entire percentile spectrum on higher level test

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerOut-of-Level TestingUsed by Talent Search programsJohns Hopkins CTY / Northwestern CTD / Duke TIP / Rocky Mountain Talent SearchCarnegie Mellon C-MITESIdentify gifted students vs. high achieversThose still scoring in higher percentiles on 2-4 grade level higher testUsually 50th percentile or aboveExamples: SCAT, Plus, Explore, SAT

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerIndividual Achievement TestLess questions per grade level, but more grade levels coveredNorm-referenced scoringCompares child to average child of age/grade levelDoes NOT evaluate child on specific curriculum contentExamplesWIAT (Wechsler)K-TEA (Kaufman) PIAT (Peabody)WJ-III (Woodcock Johnson)

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerIndividual Achievement TestWatch for test ceilingsAverage 12th grade math = Algebra IAverage 12th grade reading levelUse WJ-III for older gifted kids12th grade ceilings on WIAT / PIAT / K-TEA18th grade ceiling on WJ-III18th grade is NOT post-graduate

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerIndividual Achievement Test ScoresScores includePercentileStandard scoreAge and grade equivalentIf school doesnt share all scores, insist!FERPACan also report score as if in higher gradeChild is rising 3rd grader, report scores also as a rising 4th grader to see how child would compare to potential classmates

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerCurriculum Based Assessment (CBA)Most valid for comparing childs achievement to schools curriculumUses actual curriculum materialsStandard midterm or final examCompiled from end of chapter testsNOT chapter test after chapter test after chapter test after

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerCurriculum Based Assessment (CBA)Conducted thoughtfullyReview may be allowedAnswer terminology questions during testingScored reasonably85% - 90% correctPerfection is NOT the goalIf the child doesnt get required 85-90%, parts of subject already mastered need to be skipped

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerTest Scores vs. Classroom PlacementCurriculum Based Assessment CBA level = grade level

    Out of level Achievement TestComprehensive and above level

    Individual Achievement TestNot as comprehensive for each grade levelCompared to average students (norm-referenced)Useful for comparing child to heterogeneous elementary school classroom

    Group Achievement TestTested grade level onlyShows child is at or below grade level

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerAbility / IQ TestAbility vs. Intelligence?Terms are interchangeableSome tests are more widely accepted, and have a more stable test/retest and test to test correlationBuros Mental Measurements YearbookLibrary reference section orwww.unl.edu/buros/

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerGroup Screening MeasuresBe awareNormalization sample sizeMean, deviation, and standard measure of errorHard ceiling scoreGATES and othersSurvey only as good as teacher-trainingSAGES and othersGroup test of both ability and achievement

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerGroup Ability TestSame problems as group achievement testsWritten for a single grade levelAdministered in classroom environmentGroup ability tests often underestimate scores later received on individual tests Examples:OLSAT (Otis Lennon Scholastic Abilities Test)CogAT (Cognitive Abilities Test) Co-normed with ITBS

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerGroup Ability TestGifted children often over-think the questionsNo chance for tester to say, What did you mean by that? Whats a more common answer?Study shows Reverse correlation between group ability test scores and gifted childrenThe more gifted, the LOWER the test score!Study shows LD/2e children underestimatedThese children are more accurately identified by individual IQ test

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerIndividual Ability TestConsidered best estimate of abilityStill not perfect!Test style vs. childs strengths Tester vs. child fitExamples:Wechsler series (WPPSI-III, WISC-IV, WAIS-IV)Stanford-Binet (SB-5)Differential Ability Scales (DAS-II)

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerIntelligence (IQ) TestLess commonly used individual testsWJ-III cognitive (Woodcock Johnson) Different definition of intelligence Excellent for locating LDs in 2e childK-ABC (Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children)Lots more Inventory of Tests

    www.hoagiesgifted.org/tests.htm

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerIntelligence (IQ) TestNonverbal testsNaglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT)UNIT (Universal Nonverbal)Ravens (group)Research shows NO cultural fairness in non-verbal testsDavid Lohman, University of Iowa

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerIQ Test CeilingsWISC-IV, WPPSI-III and SB-5Ceiling of Full Scale 160 (SD=15)WJ-III CognitiveCeiling of GIA depends on student age (SD=15)DAS (Differential Abilities Scales)Ceiling of General 175 (SD=15)Other tests usually ceiling=160, SD=15

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerIQ Subtest CeilingsWISC-IV / SB-5Subtests at scaled scores 17-19 (99th percentile) Penalties for careful and thoughtful completion (speed bonus)By some age, a child can get every WISC-III question right, and still score under 130 due to time penalties! Better on WISC-IV, but still strong time bias

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  • 2003-2013 Carolyn KottmeyerIQ TestingWISC (Wechsler)

    "He [Dr. Wechsler] rejected most attempts that I made to add easy or hard items to the WISC-R saying firmly, 'My scales are meant for people with average or near-average intelligence, clinical patients who score between 70 and 130.'" "They are clinical tests." When I reminded him that psychologists commonly use his scales for the extremes, and want to make distinctions with the 'below 70' and 'above 130' groups, he answered, "Then that is their misfortune. It's not what I tell them to do, and it's not what a good clinician ought to do. They should know better." (Ka

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