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Page 1: HOLY BIBLE · Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Carol Stream, Illinois HOLY BIBLE GIANT PRINT EDITION
Page 2: HOLY BIBLE · Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Carol Stream, Illinois HOLY BIBLE GIANT PRINT EDITION

H O L Y B I B L EN e w L i v i n g T ra n s l a t i o n

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Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.Carol Stream, Illinois



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Visit Tyndale online at www.newlivingtranslation.com and www.tyndale.com.

Presentation pages copyright © 2008 by Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

This Bible is an edition of the Holy Bible, New Living Translation.

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation.All rights reserved.

The text of the Holy Bible, New Living Translation, may be quoted in any form (written, visual, electronic, oraudio) up to and inclusive of five hundred (500) verses without express written permission of the publisher,provided that the verses quoted do not account for more than twenty-five percent (25%) of the work in whichthey are quoted, and provided that a complete book of the Bible is not quoted.

When the Holy Bible, New Living Translation, is quoted, one of the following credit lines must appear on thecopyright page or title page of the work:

Scripture quotations are taken from the Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004,2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., CarolStream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations are taken from the Holy Bible, New LivingTranslation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission ofTyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

Scripture quotations marked NLT are taken from the Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright© 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers,Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

When quotations from the NLT text are used in nonsalable media, such as church bulletins, orders of service,newsletters, transparencies, or similar media, a complete copyright notice is not required, but the initials NLTmust appear at the end of each quotation.

Quotations in excess of five hundred (500) verses or twenty-five percent (25%) of the work, or other permissionrequests, must be approved in writing by Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Send requests by e-mail to:[email protected] or call 630-668-8300, ext. 5023.

Publication of any commentary or other Bible reference work produced for commercial sale that uses the NewLiving Translation requires written permission for use of the NLT text.

This Bible is typeset in the typeface Lucerna, designed by Brian Sooy & Co. exclusively for Tyndale HousePublishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Tyndale House Publishers and Wycliffe Bible Translators share the vision for an understandable,accurate translation of the Bible for every person in the world. Each sale of the Holy Bible, New LivingTranslation, benefits Wycliffe Bible Translators. Wycliffe is working with partners around the world toaccomplish Vision 2025—an initiative to start a Bible translation program in every language group thatneeds it by the year 2025.

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Alphabetical Listing of Bible Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A7A Note to Readers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A9Introduction to the New Living Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . A11NLT Bible Translation Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A21


GENESIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3EXODUS . . . . . . . . . . . . 88LEVITICUS . . . . . . . . . . 159NUMBERS . . . . . . . . . . 210DEUTERONOMY . . . . . . 280JOSHUA . . . . . . . . . . . . 340JUDGES . . . . . . . . . . . . 380RUTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4191 SAMUEL . . . . . . . . . . 4252 SAMUEL . . . . . . . . . . 4751 KINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . 5202 KINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . 5711 CHRONICLES . . . . . . . 6222 CHRONICLES . . . . . . . 675EZRA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733NEHEMIAH . . . . . . . . . 751ESTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . 777JOB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790PSALMS . . . . . . . . . . . . 843PROVERBS . . . . . . . . . . 978

ECCLESIASTES. . . . . . . 1026SONG OF SONGS . . . . . 1039ISAIAH . . . . . . . . . . . 1049JEREMIAH . . . . . . . . . 1157LAMENTATIONS . . . . . 1260EZEKIEL . . . . . . . . . . . 1271DANIEL . . . . . . . . . . . 1353HOSEA. . . . . . . . . . . . 1378JOEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1396AMOS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1403OBADIAH . . . . . . . . . . 1417JONAH. . . . . . . . . . . . 1420MICAH . . . . . . . . . . . 1423NAHUM . . . . . . . . . . . 1434HABAKKUK . . . . . . . . 1439ZEPHANIAH . . . . . . . . 1444HAGGAI . . . . . . . . . . . 1450ZECHARIAH . . . . . . . . 1453MALACHI . . . . . . . . . . 1469

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MATTHEW . . . . . . . . . 1477MARK . . . . . . . . . . . . 1535LUKE. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1572JOHN. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1632ACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1675ROMANS . . . . . . . . . . 17311 CORINTHIANS . . . . . 17572 CORINTHIANS . . . . . 1781GALATIANS . . . . . . . . 1797EPHESIANS. . . . . . . . . 1806PHILIPPIANS. . . . . . . . 1814COLOSSIANS. . . . . . . . 18201 THESSALONIANS . . . 18262 THESSALONIANS . . . 1831

1 TIMOTHY . . . . . . . . 18342 TIMOTHY . . . . . . . . 1841TITUS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1846PHILEMON . . . . . . . . . 1849HEBREWS . . . . . . . . . 1851JAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . 18701 PETER . . . . . . . . . . . 18762 PETER . . . . . . . . . . . 18831 JOHN . . . . . . . . . . . 18882 JOHN . . . . . . . . . . . 18953 JOHN . . . . . . . . . . . 1896JUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1897REVELATION . . . . . . . 1900


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Alphabetical Listing of Bible Books

ACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1675AMOS . . . . . . . . . . . . 14031 CHRONICLES . . . . . . . 6222 CHRONICLES . . . . . . . 675COLOSSIANS. . . . . . . . 18201 CORINTHIANS . . . . . 17572 CORINTHIANS . . . . . 1781DANIEL . . . . . . . . . . . 1353DEUTERONOMY . . . . . . 280ECCLESIASTES. . . . . . . 1026EPHESIANS. . . . . . . . . 1806ESTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . 777EXODUS . . . . . . . . . . . . 88EZEKIEL . . . . . . . . . . . 1271EZRA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733GALATIANS . . . . . . . . 1797GENESIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3HABAKKUK . . . . . . . . 1439HAGGAI . . . . . . . . . . . 1450HEBREWS . . . . . . . . . 1851HOSEA. . . . . . . . . . . . 1378ISAIAH . . . . . . . . . . . 1049JAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1870JEREMIAH . . . . . . . . . 1157JOB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790JOEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1396JOHN. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16321 JOHN . . . . . . . . . . . 18882 JOHN . . . . . . . . . . . 18953 JOHN . . . . . . . . . . . 1896

JONAH. . . . . . . . . . . . 1420JOSHUA . . . . . . . . . . . . 340JUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1897JUDGES . . . . . . . . . . . . 3801 KINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . 5202 KINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . 571LAMENTATIONS . . . . . 1260LEVITICUS . . . . . . . . . . 159LUKE. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1572MALACHI . . . . . . . . . . 1469MARK . . . . . . . . . . . . 1535MATTHEW . . . . . . . . . 1477MICAH . . . . . . . . . . . 1423NAHUM . . . . . . . . . . . 1434NEHEMIAH . . . . . . . . . 751NUMBERS . . . . . . . . . . 210OBADIAH . . . . . . . . . . 14171 PETER . . . . . . . . . . . 18762 PETER . . . . . . . . . . . 1883PHILEMON . . . . . . . . . 1849PHILIPPIANS. . . . . . . . 1814PROVERBS . . . . . . . . . . 978PSALMS . . . . . . . . . . . . 843REVELATION . . . . . . . 1900ROMANS . . . . . . . . . . 1731RUTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4191 SAMUEL . . . . . . . . . . 4252 SAMUEL . . . . . . . . . . 475SONG OF SONGS . . . . . 10391 THESSALONIANS . . . 1826


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2 THESSALONIANS . . . 18311 TIMOTHY . . . . . . . . 18342 TIMOTHY . . . . . . . . 1841

TITUS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1846ZECHARIAH . . . . . . . . 1453ZEPHANIAH . . . . . . . . 1444


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A Note to Readers

T H E H O L Y B I B L E , N E W L I V I N G T R A N S L A T I O N ,was first published in 1996. It quickly became one of the mostpopular Bible translations in the English-speaking world. Whilethe NLT’s influence was rapidly growing, the Bible TranslationCommittee determined that an additional investment in scholarlyreview and text refinement could make it even better. So shortlyafter its initial publication, the committee began an eight-year pro-cess with the purpose of increasing the level of the NLT’s precisionwithout sacrificing its easy-to-understand quality. This second-generation text was completed in 2004, with minor changes sub-sequently introduced in 2007, 2013, and 2015.

The goal of any Bible translation is to convey the meaning andcontent of the ancient Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts as accu-rately as possible to contemporary readers. The challenge for ourtranslators was to create a text that would communicate as clearlyand powerfully to today’s readers as the original texts did to read-ers and listeners in the ancient biblical world. The resulting trans-lation is easy to read and understand, while also accuratelycommunicating the meaning and content of the original biblicaltexts. The NLT is a general-purpose text especially good for study,devotional reading, and reading aloud in worship services.

We believe that the New Living Translation—which combines thelatest biblical scholarship with a clear, dynamic writing style—willcommunicate God’s word powerfully to all who read it. We publishit with the prayer that God will use it to speak his timeless truth tothe church and the world in a fresh, new way.

The Publishers


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Translation Philosophy and MethodologyEnglish Bible translations tend to be governed by one of two general translationtheories. The first theory has been called “formal-equivalence,” “literal,” or“word-for-word” translation. According to this theory, the translator attempts torender each word of the original language into English and seeks to preservethe original syntax and sentence structure as much as possible in transla-tion. The second theory has been called “dynamic-equivalence,” “functional-equivalence,” or “thought-for-thought” translation. The goal of this translationtheory is to produce in English the closest natural equivalent of the messageexpressed by the original-language text, both in meaning and in style.

Both of these translation theories have their strengths. A formal-equivalencetranslation preserves aspects of the original text—including ancient idioms,term consistency, and original-language syntax—that are valuable for scholarsand professional study. It allows a reader to trace formal elements of theoriginal-language text through the English translation. A dynamic-equivalencetranslation, on the other hand, focuses on translating the message of theoriginal-language text. It ensures that the meaning of the text is readily appar-ent to the contemporary reader. This allows the message to come through withimmediacy, without requiring the reader to struggle with foreign idioms andawkward syntax. It also facilitates serious study of the text’s message and clarityin both devotional and public reading.

The pure application of either of these translation philosophies would createtranslations at opposite ends of the translation spectrum. But in reality, all trans-lations contain a mixture of these two philosophies. A purely formal-equivalencetranslation would be unintelligible in English, and a purely dynamic-equivalencetranslation would risk being unfaithful to the original. That is why translationsshaped by dynamic-equivalence theory are usually quite literal when the originaltext is relatively clear, and the translations shaped by formal-equivalence theoryare sometimes quite dynamic when the original text is obscure.

The translators of the New Living Translation set out to render the messageof the original texts of Scripture into clear, contemporary English. As they did so,they kept the concerns of both formal-equivalence and dynamic-equivalence in


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mind. On the one hand, they translated as simply and literally as possible whenthat approach yielded an accurate, clear, and natural English text. Many wordsand phrases were rendered literally and consistently into English, preservingessential literary and rhetorical devices, ancient metaphors, and word choicesthat give structure to the text and provide echoes of meaning from one passageto the next.

On the other hand, the translators rendered the message more dynamicallywhen the literal rendering was hard to understand, was misleading, or yieldedarchaic or foreign wording. They clarified difficult metaphors and terms to aidin the reader’s understanding. The translators first struggled with the meaningof the words and phrases in the ancient context; then they rendered the mes-sage into clear, natural English. Their goal was to be both faithful to the ancienttexts and eminently readable. The result is a translation that is both exegeticallyaccurate and idiomatically powerful.

Translation Process and TeamTo produce an accurate translation of the Bible into contemporary English, thetranslation team needed the skills necessary to enter into the thought patternsof the ancient authors and then to render their ideas, connotations, and effectsinto clear, contemporary English. To begin this process, qualified biblical schol-ars were needed to interpret the meaning of the original text and to check itagainst our base English translation. In order to guard against personal andtheological biases, the scholars needed to represent a diverse group of evan-gelicals who would employ the best exegetical tools. Then to work alongsidethe scholars, skilled English stylists were needed to shape the text into clear,contemporary English.

With these concerns in mind, the Bible Translation Committee recruitedteams of scholars that represented a broad spectrum of denominations, theo-logical perspectives, and backgrounds within the worldwide evangelical com-munity. (These scholars are listed at the end of this introduction.) Each book ofthe Bible was assigned to three different scholars with proven expertise in thebook or group of books to be reviewed. Each of these scholars made a thoroughreview of a base translation and submitted suggested revisions to the appropri-ate Senior Translator. The Senior Translator then reviewed and summarizedthese suggestions and proposed a first-draft revision of the base text. This draftserved as the basis for several additional phases of exegetical and stylistic com-mittee review. Then the Bible Translation Committee jointly reviewed andapproved every verse of the final translation.

Throughout the translation and editing process, the Senior Translators andtheir scholar teams were given a chance to review the editing done by the team ofstylists. This ensured that exegetical errors would not be introduced late in the

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process and that the entire Bible Translation Committee was happy with the finalresult. By choosing a team of qualified scholars and skilled stylists and by settingup a process that allowed their interaction throughout the process, the New Liv-ing Translation has been refined to preserve the essential formal elements of theoriginal biblical texts, while also creating a clear, understandable English text.

The New Living Translation was first published in 1996. Shortly after itsinitial publication, the Bible Translation Committee began a process of fur-ther committee review and translation refinement. The purpose of this con-tinued revision was to increase the level of precision without sacrificing thetext’s easy-to-understand quality. This second-edition text was completed in2004, with minor changes subsequently introduced in 2007, 2013, and2015.

Written to Be Read AloudIt is evident in Scripture that the biblical documents were written to be readaloud, often in public worship (see Nehemiah 8; Luke 4:16-20; 1 Timothy 4:13;Revelation 1:3). It is still the case today that more people will hear the Bible readaloud in church than are likely to read it for themselves. Therefore, a new trans-lation must communicate with clarity and power when it is read publicly. Claritywas a primary goal for the NLT translators, not only to facilitate private readingand understanding, but also to ensure that it would be excellent for public read-ing and make an immediate and powerful impact on any listener.

The Texts behind the New Living TranslationThe Old Testament translators used the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible asrepresented in Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (1977), with its extensive systemof textual notes; this is an update of Rudolf Kittel’s Biblia Hebraica (Stuttgart,1937). The translators also further compared the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Septua-gint and other Greek manuscripts, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the SyriacPeshitta, the Latin Vulgate, and any other versions or manuscripts that shed lighton the meaning of difficult passages.

The New Testament translators used the two standard editions of the GreekNew Testament: the Greek New Testament, published by the United Bible Societ-ies (UBS, fourth revised edition, 1993), and Novum Testamentum Graece, editedby Nestle and Aland (NA, twenty-seventh edition, 1993). These two editions,which have the same text but differ in punctuation and textual notes, represent,for the most part, the best in modern textual scholarship. However, in cases wherestrong textual or other scholarly evidence supported the decision, the translatorssometimes chose to differ from the UBS and NA Greek texts and followed variantreadings found in other ancient witnesses. Significant textual variants of this sortare always noted in the textual notes of the New Living Translation.

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Translation IssuesThe translators have made a conscious effort to provide a text that can be easilyunderstood by the typical reader of modern English. To this end, we sought touse only vocabulary and language structures in common use today. We avoidedusing language likely to become quickly dated or that reflects only a narrowsubdialect of English, with the goal of making the New Living Translation asbroadly useful and timeless as possible.

But our concern for readability goes beyond the concerns of vocabulary andsentence structure. We are also concerned about historical and cultural barriersto understanding the Bible, and we have sought to translate terms shrouded inhistory and culture in ways that can be immediately understood. To this end:

•We have converted ancient weights and measures (for example, “ephah”[a unit of dry volume] or “cubit” [a unit of length]) to modern English(American) equivalents, since the ancient measures are not generallymeaningful to today’s readers. Then in the textual footnotes we offerthe literal Hebrew, Aramaic, or Greek measures, along with modernmetric equivalents.

•Instead of translating ancient currency values literally, we have expressedthem in common terms that communicate the message. For example, inthe Old Testament, “ten shekels of silver” becomes “ten pieces of silver”to convey the intended message. In the New Testament, we have oftentranslated the “denarius” as “the normal daily wage” to facilitate under-standing. Then a footnote offers: “Greek a denarius, the payment for afull day’s labor.” In general, we give a clear English rendering and thenstate the literal Hebrew, Aramaic, or Greek in a textual footnote.

•Since the names of Hebrew months are unknown to most contemporaryreaders, and since the Hebrew lunar calendar fluctuates from year to yearin relation to the solar calendar used today, we have looked for clear waysto communicate the time of year the Hebrew months (such as Abib) referto. When an expanded or interpretive rendering is given in the text, atextual note gives the literal rendering. Where it is possible to define aspecific ancient date in terms of our modern calendar, we use moderndates in the text. A textual footnote then gives the literal Hebrew date andstates the rationale for our rendering. For example, Ezra 6:15 pinpointsthe date when the postexilic Temple was completed in Jerusalem: “thethird day of the month Adar.” This was during the sixth year of KingDarius’s reign (that is, 515 B.C.). We have translated that date as March 12,with a footnote giving the Hebrew and identifying the year as 515 B.C.

•Since ancient references to the time of day differ from our modern meth-ods of denoting time, we have used renderings that are instantly under-standable to the modern reader. Accordingly, we have rendered specific

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times of day by using approximate equivalents in terms of our common“o’clock” system. On occasion, translations such as “at dawn the nextmorning” or “as the sun was setting” have been used when the biblicalreference is more general.

•When the meaning of a proper name (or a wordplay inherent in a propername) is relevant to the message of the text, its meaning is often illumi-nated with a textual footnote. For example, in Exodus 2:10 the text reads:“The princess named him Moses, for she explained, ‘I lifted him out of thewater.’ ” The accompanying footnote reads: “Moses sounds like a Hebrewterm that means ‘to lift out.’ ”

Sometimes, when the actual meaning of a name is clear, that meaningis included in parentheses within the text itself. For example, the text atGenesis 16:11 reads: “You are to name him Ishmael (which means ‘Godhears’), for the Lord has heard your cry of distress.” Since the originalhearers and readers would have instantly understood the meaning ofthe name “Ishmael,” we have provided modern readers with the sameinformation so they can experience the text in a similar way.

•Many words and phrases carry a great deal of cultural meaning that wasobvious to the original readers but needs explanation in our own culture.For example, the phrase “they beat their breasts” (Luke 23:48) in ancienttimes meant that people were very upset, often in mourning. In our trans-lation we chose to translate this phrase dynamically for clarity: “Theywent home in deep sorrow.” Then we included a footnote with the literalGreek, which reads: “Greek went home beating their breasts.” In othersimilar cases, however, we have sometimes chosen to illuminate the exist-ing literal expression to make it immediately understandable. For exam-ple, here we might have expanded the literal Greek phrase to read: “Theywent home beating their breasts in sorrow.” If we had done this, we wouldnot have included a textual footnote, since the literal Greek clearlyappears in translation.

•Metaphorical language is sometimes difficult for contemporary readersto understand, so at times we have chosen to translate or illuminate themeaning of a metaphor. For example, the ancient poet writes, “Your neckis like the tower of David” (Song of Songs 4:4). We have rendered it “Yourneck is as beautiful as the tower of David” to clarify the intended positivemeaning of the simile. Another example comes in Ecclesiastes 12:3,which can be literally rendered: “Remember him . . . when the grindingwomen cease because they are few, and the women who look through thewindows see dimly.” We have rendered it: “Remember him before yourteeth—your few remaining servants—stop grinding; and before youreyes—the women looking through the windows—see dimly.” We clarified

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such metaphors only when we believed a typical reader might be con-fused by the literal text.

•When the content of the original language text is poetic in character, wehave rendered it in English poetic form. We sought to break lines in waysthat clarify and highlight the relationships between phrases of the text.Hebrew poetry often uses parallelism, a literary form where a secondphrase (or in some instances a third or fourth) echoes the initial phrasein some way. In Hebrew parallelism, the subsequent parallel phrases con-tinue, while also furthering and sharpening, the thought expressed in theinitial line or phrase. Whenever possible, we sought to represent theseparallel phrases in natural poetic English.

•The Greek term hoi Ioudaioi is literally translated “the Jews” in manyEnglish translations. In the Gospel of John, however, this term doesn’talways refer to the Jewish people generally. In some contexts, it refersmore particularly to the Jewish religious leaders. We have attempted tocapture the meaning in these different contexts by using terms such as“the people” (with a footnote: Greek the Jewish people) or “the Jewishleaders,” where appropriate.

•One challenge we faced was how to translate accurately the ancient bib-lical text that was originally written in a context where male-orientedterms were used to refer to humanity generally. We needed to respectthe nature of the ancient context while also trying to make the translationclear to a modern audience that tends to read male-oriented language asapplying only to males. Often the original text, though using masculinenouns and pronouns, clearly intends that the message be applied to bothmen and women. A typical example is found in the New Testament let-ters, where the believers are called “brothers” (adelphoi). Yet it is clearfrom the content of these letters that they were addressed to all thebelievers—male and female. Thus, we have usually translated this Greekword as “brothers and sisters” in order to represent the historical situa-tion more accurately.

We have also been sensitive to passages where the text applies gen-erally to human beings or to the human condition. In some instances wehave used plural pronouns (they, them) in place of the masculine singular(he, him). For example, a traditional rendering of Proverbs 22:6 is: “Trainup a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not turnfrom it.” We have rendered it: “Direct your children onto the right path,and when they are older, they will not leave it.” At times, we have alsoreplaced third person pronouns with the second person to ensure clarity.A traditional rendering of Proverbs 26:27 is: “He who digs a pit will fallinto it, and he who rolls a stone, it will come back on him.” We have

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rendered it: “If you set a trap for others, you will get caught in it yourself.If you roll a boulder down on others, it will crush you instead.”

We should emphasize, however, that all masculine nouns and pro-nouns used to represent God (for example, “Father”) have been main-tained without exception. All decisions of this kind have been driven bythe concern to reflect accurately the intended meaning of the originaltexts of Scripture.

Lexical Consistency in TerminologyFor the sake of clarity, we have translated certain original-language terms con-sistently, especially within synoptic passages and for commonly repeated rhe-torical phrases, and within certain word categories such as divine names andnon-theological technical terminology (e.g., liturgical, legal, cultural, zoological,and botanical terms). For theological terms, we have allowed a greater semanticrange of acceptable English words or phrases for a single Hebrew or Greekword. We have avoided some theological terms that are not readily understoodby many modern readers. For example, we avoided using words such as “justifi-cation” and “sanctification,” which are carryovers from Latin translations. Inplace of these words, we have provided renderings such as “made right withGod” and “made holy.”

The Spelling of Proper NamesMany individuals in the Bible, especially the Old Testament, are known by morethan one name (e.g., Uzziah/Azariah). For the sake of clarity, we have tried to usea single spelling for any one individual, footnoting the literal spelling wheneverwe differ from it. This is especially helpful in delineating the kings of Israel andJudah. King Joash/Jehoash of Israel has been consistently called Jehoash, whileKing Joash/Jehoash of Judah is called Joash. A similar distinction has been usedto distinguish between Joram/Jehoram of Israel and Joram/Jehoram of Judah.All such decisions were made with the goal of clarifying the text for the reader.When the ancient biblical writers clearly had a theological purpose in theirchoice of a variant name (e.g., Esh-baal/Ishbosheth), the different names havebeen maintained with an explanatory footnote.

For the names Jacob and Israel, which are used interchangeably for both theindividual patriarch and the nation, we generally render it “Israel” when it refersto the nation and “Jacob” when it refers to the individual. When our renderingof the name differs from the underlying Hebrew text, we provide a textual foot-note, which includes this explanation: “The names ‘Jacob’ and ‘Israel’ are ofteninterchanged throughout the Old Testament, referring sometimes to the indi-vidual patriarch and sometimes to the nation.”

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The Rendering of Divine NamesAll appearances of ’el, ’elohim, or ’eloah have been translated “God,” exceptwhere the context demands the translation “god(s).” We have generally ren-dered the tetragrammaton (YHWH) consistently as “the Lord,” utilizing a formwith small capitals that is common among English translations. This will distin-guish it from the name ’adonai, which we render “Lord.” When ’adonai andYHWH appear together, we have rendered it “Sovereign Lord.” This also distin-guishes ’adonai YHWH from cases where YHWH appears with ’elohim, which isrendered “Lord God.” When YH (the short form of YHWH) and YHWH appeartogether, we have rendered it “Lord God.” When YHWH appears with the termtseba’oth, we have rendered it “Lord of Heaven’s Armies” to translate the mean-ing of the name. In a few cases, we have utilized the transliteration, Yahweh,when the personal character of the name is being invoked in contrast to anotherdivine name or the name ofsome other god (for example, see Exodus 3:15; 6:2-3).

In the Gospels and Acts, the Greek word christos has normally been trans-lated as “Messiah” when the context assumes a Jewish audience. When a Gentileaudience can be assumed (which is consistently the case in the Epistles and Rev-elation), christos has been translated as “Christ.” The Greek word kurios is con-sistently translated “Lord,” except that it is translated “Lord” wherever the NewTestament text explicitly quotes from the Old Testament, and the text there hasit in small capitals.

Textual FootnotesThe New Living Translation provides several kinds of textual footnotes, alldesignated in the text with an asterisk:

•When for the sake of clarity the NLT renders a difficult or potentiallyconfusing phrase dynamically, we generally give the literal rendering ina textual footnote. This allows the reader to see the literal source of ourdynamic rendering and how our translation relates to other more literaltranslations. These notes are prefaced with “Hebrew,” “Aramaic,” or “Greek,”identifying the language of the underlying source text. For example, in Acts2:42 we translated the literal “breaking of bread” (from the Greek) as “theLord’s Supper” to clarify that this verse refers to the ceremonial practice ofthe church rather than just an ordinary meal. Then we attached a footnoteto “the Lord’s Supper,” which reads: “Greek the breaking of bread.”

•Textual footnotes are also used to show alternative renderings, prefacedwith the word “Or.” These normally occur for passages where an aspectof the meaning is debated. On occasion, we also provide notes on wordsor phrases that represent a departure from long-standing tradition. Thesenotes are prefaced with “Traditionally rendered.” For example, the foot-

Introduction to the New Living Translation A18

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note to the translation “serious skin disease” at Leviticus 13:2 says:“Traditionally rendered leprosy. The Hebrew word used throughout thispassage is used to describe various skin diseases.”

•When our translators follow a textual variant that differs significantlyfrom our standard Hebrew or Greek texts (listed earlier), we documentthat difference with a footnote. We also footnote cases when the NLTexcludes a passage that is included in the Greek text known as the TextusReceptus (and familiar to readers through its translation in the King JamesVersion). In such cases, we offer a translation of the excluded text in afootnote, even though it is generally recognized as a later addition to theGreek text and not part of the original Greek New Testament.

•All Old Testament passages that are quoted in the New Testament areidentified by a textual footnote at the New Testament location. Whenthe New Testament clearly quotes from the Greek translation of theOld Testament, and when it differs significantly in wording from theHebrew text, we also place a textual footnote at the Old Testament loca-tion. This note includes a rendering of the Greek version, along with across-reference to the New Testament passage(s) where it is cited (forexample, see notes on Psalms 8:2; 53:3; Proverbs 3:12).

•Some textual footnotes provide cultural and historical information onplaces, things, and people in the Bible that are probably obscure to mod-ern readers. Such notes should aid the reader in understanding the mes-sage of the text. For example, in Acts 12:1, “King Herod” is named in thistranslation as “King Herod Agrippa” and is identified in a footnote asbeing “the nephew of Herod Antipas and a grandson of Herod the Great.”

•When the meaning of a proper name (or a wordplay inherent in a propername) is relevant to the meaning of the text, it is either illuminated witha textual footnote or included within parentheses in the text itself. Forexample, the footnote concerning the name “Eve” at Genesis 3:20 reads:“Eve sounds like a Hebrew term that means ‘to give life.’ ” This wordplayin the Hebrew illuminates the meaning of the text, which goes on to saythat Eve “would be the mother of all who live.”

AS WE SUBMIT this translation for publication, we recognize that any translationof the Scriptures is subject to limitations and imperfections. Anyone who hasattempted to communicate the richness of God’s Word into another languagewill realize it is impossible to make a perfect translation. Recognizing these lim-itations, we sought God’s guidance and wisdom throughout this project. Nowwe pray that he will accept our efforts and use this translation for the benefit ofthe church and of all people.

We pray that the New Living Translation will overcome some of the barriers

A19 Introduction to the New Living Translation

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of history, culture, and language that have kept people from reading andunderstanding God’s Word. We hope that readers unfamiliar with the Bible willfind the words clear and easy to understand and that readers well versed in theScriptures will gain a fresh perspective. We pray that readers will gain insightand wisdom for living, but most of all that they will meet the God of the Bibleand be forever changed by knowing him.

The Bible Translation Committee

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PENTATEUCHDaniel I. Block, Senior Translator,

Wheaton College

GENESISAllen Ross, Beeson Divinity School,

Samford UniversityGordon Wenham, Trinity College,


EXODUSRobert Bergen, Hannibal-LaGrange

CollegeDaniel I. Block, Wheaton CollegeEugene Carpenter, Bethel College,

Mishawaka, Indiana

LEVITICUSDavid Baker, Ashland Theological

SeminaryVictor Hamilton, Asbury CollegeKenneth Mathews, Beeson Divinity

School, Samford University

NUMBERSDale A. Brueggemann, Assemblies of

God Division of Foreign MissionsR. K. Harrison, Wycliffe CollegePaul R. House, Beeson Divinity School,

Samford UniversityGerald L. Mattingly, Johnson Bible


DEUTERONOMYJ. Gordon McConville, University

of Gloucester

Eugene H. Merrill, Dallas TheologicalSeminary

John A. Thompson, University ofMelbourne

HISTORICAL BOOKSBarry J. Beitzel, Senior Translator,

Trinity Evangelical DivinitySchool

JOSHUA, JUDGESCarl E. Armerding, Schloss Mittersill

Study CentreBarry J. Beitzel, Trinity Evangelical

Divinity SchoolLawson Stone, Asbury Theological


1 & 2 SAMUELRobert Gordon, Cambridge

UniversityV. Philips Long, Regent CollegeJ. Robert Vannoy, Biblical Theological


1 & 2 KINGSBill T. Arnold, Asbury Theological

SeminaryWilliam H. Barnes, North Central

UniversityFrederic W. Bush, Fuller Theological


1 & 2 CHRONICLESRaymond B. Dillard, Westminster

Theological SeminaryA21

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David A. Dorsey, Evangelical Schoolof Theology

Terry Eves, Erskine College

RUTH, EZRA—ESTHERWilliam C. Williams, Vanguard

UniversityH. G. M. Williamson, Oxford


WISDOM BOOKSTremper Longman III, Senior

Translator, Westmont College

JOBAugust Konkel, Providence

Theological SeminaryTremper Longman III, Westmont

CollegeAl Wolters, Redeemer College

PSALMS 1–75Mark D. Futato, Reformed

Theological SeminaryDouglas Green, Westminster

Theological SeminaryRichard Pratt, Reformed Theological


PSALMS 76–150David M. Howard Jr., Bethel

Theological SeminaryRaymond C. Ortlund Jr., Immanuel

Church, Nashville, TennesseeWillem VanGemeren, Trinity

Evangelical Divinity School

PROVERBSTed Hildebrandt, Gordon CollegeRichard Schultz, Wheaton CollegeRaymond C. Van Leeuwen, Eastern


ECCLESIASTES, SONG OF SONGSDaniel C. Fredericks, Belhaven


David Hubbard, Fuller TheologicalSeminary

Tremper Longman III, WestmontCollege

PROPHETSJohn N. Oswalt, Senior Translator,

Asbury Theological Seminary

ISAIAHJohn N. Oswalt, Asbury Theological

SeminaryGary Smith, Union UniversityJohn Walton, Wheaton College

JEREMIAH, LAMENTATIONSG. Herbert Livingston, Asbury

Theological SeminaryElmer A. Martens, Mennonite

Brethren Biblical Seminary

EZEKIELDaniel I. Block, Wheaton CollegeDavid H. Engelhard, Calvin

Theological SeminaryDavid Thompson, Asbury

Theological Seminary

DANIEL, HAGGAI—MALACHIJoyce Baldwin Caine, Trinity College,

BristolDouglas Gropp, Catholic University

of AmericaRoy Hayden, Oral Roberts School

of TheologyAndrew Hill, Wheaton CollegeTremper Longman III, Westmont


HOSEA—ZEPHANIAHJoseph Coleson, Nazarene

Theological SeminaryRoy Hayden, Oral Roberts School

of TheologyAndrew Hill, Wheaton CollegeRichard Patterson, Liberty University

Bible Translation Team A22

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GOSPELS AND ACTSGrant R. Osborne, Senior Translator,

Trinity Evangelical DivinitySchool

MATTHEWCraig Blomberg, Denver SeminaryDonald A. Hagner, Fuller Theological

SeminaryDavid Turner, Grand Rapids Baptist


MARKRobert Guelich, Fuller Theological

SeminaryGeorge Guthrie, Union

UniversityGrant R. Osborne, Trinity

Evangelical Divinity School

LUKEDarrell Bock, Dallas Theological

SeminaryScot McKnight, North Park

UniversityRobert Stein, The Southern Baptist

Theological Seminary

JOHNGary M. Burge, Wheaton CollegePhilip W. Comfort, Coastal Carolina

UniversityMarianne Meye Thompson, Fuller

Theological Seminary

ACTSD. A. Carson, Trinity Evangelical

Divinity SchoolWilliam J. Larkin, Columbia

International UniversityRoger Mohrlang, Whitworth



Translator, Wheaton College

ROMANS, GALATIANSGerald Borchert, Northern Baptist

Theological SeminaryDouglas J. Moo, Wheaton CollegeThomas R. Schreiner, The Southern

Baptist Theological Seminary

1 & 2 CORINTHIANSJoseph Alexanian, Trinity

International UniversityLinda Belleville, Bethel College,

Mishawaka, IndianaDouglas A. Oss, Central Bible CollegeRobert Sloan, Houston Baptist


EPHESIANS—PHILEMONHarold W. Hoehner, Dallas

Theological SeminaryMoises Silva, Gordon-Conwell

Theological SeminaryKlyne Snodgrass, North Park

Theological Seminary

HEBREWS, JAMES, 1 & 2 PETER,JUDEPeter Davids, St. Stephen’s Uni

versityNorman R. Ericson, Wheaton CollegeWilliam Lane, Seattle Pacific

UniversityJ. Ramsey Michaels, S. W. Missouri

State University

1–3 JOHN, REVELATIONGreg Beale, Westminster Theological

SeminaryRobert Mounce, Whitworth

UniversityM. Robert Mulholland Jr., Asbury

Theological Seminary

SPECIAL REVIEWERSF. F. Bruce, University of ManchesterKenneth N. Taylor, Translator,

The Living Bible

A23 Bible Translation Team

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COORDINATING TEAMMark D. Taylor, Director and Chief

StylistRonald A. Beers, Executive Director

and StylistMark R. Norton, Managing Editor

and O.T. Coordinating Editor

Philip W. Comfort, N.T. CoordinatingEditor

Daniel W. Taylor, Bethel University,Senior Stylist

Sean A. Harrison, Editor and StylistJames A. Swanson, Lexical


Bible Translation Team A24

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The Account of Creation 1

In the beginning God created theheavens and the earth.* 2 The

earth was formless and empty, anddarkness covered the deep waters.And the Spirit of God was hoveringover the surface of the waters.3Then God said, “Let there be light,”

and there was light. 4And Godsaw that the light was good. Thenhe separated the light from thedarkness. 5God called the light“day” and the darkness “night.”

And evening passed andmorning came, marking thefirst day.

6Then God said, “Let there bea space between the waters,to separate the waters of theheavens from the waters ofthe earth.” 7And that is whathappened. God made this spaceto separate the waters of the earthfrom the waters of the heavens.8God called the space “sky.”

And evening passed andmorning came, marking thesecond day.

9Then God said, “Let the watersbeneath the sky flow together

into one place, so dry groundmay appear.” And that is whathappened. 10God called the dryground “land” and the waters“seas.” And God saw that it wasgood. 11Then God said, “Let theland sprout with vegetation—every sort of seed-bearingplant, and trees that grow seed-bearing fruit. These seeds willthen produce the kinds ofplants and trees from whichthey came.” And that is whathappened. 12The land producedvegetation—all sorts of seed-bearing plants, and trees withseed-bearing fruit. Their seedsproduced plants and trees of thesame kind. And God saw that itwas good.

13And evening passed andmorning came, marking thethird day.

14Then God said, “Let lights appearin the sky to separate the dayfrom the night. Let them be signsto mark the seasons, days, andyears. 15Let these lights in the skyshine down on the earth.” Andthat is what happened. 16Godmade two great lights—the larger

1:1 Or In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth, . . . Or When God began tocreate the heavens and the earth, . . .


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one to govern the day, and thesmaller one to govern the night.He also made the stars. 17Godset these lights in the sky to lightthe earth, 18to govern the day andnight, and to separate the lightfrom the darkness. And God sawthat it was good.

19And evening passed andmorning came, marking thefourth day.

20Then God said, “Let the watersswarm with fish and other life.Let the skies be filled with birdsof every kind.” 21So God createdgreat sea creatures and everyliving thing that scurries andswarms in the water, and everysort of bird—each producingoffspring of the same kind. AndGod saw that it was good. 22ThenGod blessed them, saying, “Befruitful and multiply. Let the fishfill the seas, and let the birdsmultiply on the earth.”

23And evening passed andmorning came, marking the fifthday.

24Then God said, “Let the earthproduce every sort of animal,each producing offspring ofthe same kind—livestock, smallanimals that scurry along theground, and wild animals.” Andthat is what happened. 25Godmade all sorts of wild animals,livestock, and small animals,

each able to produce offspringof the same kind. And God sawthat it was good.

26Then God said, “Let us makehuman beings* in our image, tobe like us. They will reign overthe fish in the sea, the birds inthe sky, the livestock, all the wildanimals on the earth,* and thesmall animals that scurry alongthe ground.”27So God created human beings*

in his own image.In the image of God he

created them;male and female he created

them.28Then God blessed them and

said, “Be fruitful and multiply.Fill the earth and govern it. Reignover the fish in the sea, the birdsin the sky, and all the animalsthat scurry along the ground.”

29Then God said, “Look! I havegiven you every seed-bearingplant throughout the earth andall the fruit trees for your food.30And I have given every greenplant as food for all the wildanimals, the birds in the sky, andthe small animals that scurryalong the ground—everythingthat has life.” And that is whathappened.

31Then God looked over all hehad made, and he saw that it wasvery good!

G E N E S I S 1 4

1:26a Or man; Hebrew reads adam. 1:26b As in Syriac version; Hebrew reads all the earth.1:27 Or the man; Hebrew reads ha-adam.

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And evening passed andmorning came, marking thesixth day. 2

So the creation of the heavensand the earth and everything

in them was completed. 2On theseventh day God had finishedhis work of creation, so herested* from all his work. 3AndGod blessed the seventh day anddeclared it holy, because it wasthe day when he rested from allhis work of creation.

4 This is the account of the creationof the heavens and the earth.

The Man and Woman in EdenWhen the Lord God made the earthand the heavens, 5neither wildplants nor grains were growing onthe earth. For the Lord God had notyet sent rain to water the earth, andthere were no people to cultivatethe soil. 6Instead, springs* cameup from the ground and wateredall the land. 7Then the Lord Godformed the man from the dust ofthe ground. He breathed the breathof life into the man’s nostrils, andthe man became a living person.

8Then the Lord God planted a gar-den in Eden in the east, and there heplaced the man he had made. 9TheLord God made all sorts of treesgrow up from the ground—trees thatwere beautiful and that produceddelicious fruit. In the middle of the

garden he placed the tree of life andthe tree of the knowledge of goodand evil.

10A river flowed from the land ofEden, watering the garden and thendividing into four branches. 11Thefirst branch, called the Pishon,flowed around the entire land ofHavilah, where gold is found. 12Thegold of that land is exceptionallypure; aromatic resin and onyx stoneare also found there. 13The secondbranch, called the Gihon, flowedaround the entire land of Cush.14The third branch, called the Ti-gris, flowed east of the land of As-shur. The fourth branch is calledthe Euphrates.

15The Lord God placed the manin the Garden of Eden to tend andwatch over it. 16But the Lord Godwarned him, “You may freely eat thefruit of every tree in the garden—17 except the tree of the knowledgeof good and evil. If you eat its fruit,you are sure to die.”

18Then the Lord God said, “It isnot good for the man to be alone. Iwill make a helper who is just rightfor him.” 19So the Lord God formedfrom the ground all the wild ani-mals and all the birds of the sky.He brought them to the man* tosee what he would call them, andthe man chose a name for each one.20He gave names to all the livestock,all the birds of the sky, and all thewild animals. But still there was nohelper just right for him.

5 G E N E S I S 2

2:2 Or ceased; also in 2:3. 2:6 Or mist. 2:19 Or Adam, and so throughout the chapter.

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21So the Lord God caused theman to fall into a deep sleep. Whilethe man slept, the Lord God tookout one of the man’s ribs* andclosed up the opening. 22 Then theLord God made a woman from therib, and he brought her to the man.

23“At last!” the man exclaimed.

“This one is bone from mybone,

and flesh from my flesh!She will be called ‘woman,’

because she was taken from‘man.’”

24 This explains why a man leaveshis father and mother and is joinedto his wife, and the two are unitedinto one.

25Now the man and his wife wereboth naked, but they felt no shame.

The Man and Woman Sin 3

The serpent was the shrewdestof all the wild animals the Lord

God had made. One day he askedthe woman, “Did God really say youmust not eat the fruit from any ofthe trees in the garden?”

2“Of course we may eat fruit fromthe trees in the garden,” the womanreplied. 3“It’s only the fruit fromthe tree in the middle of the gardenthat we are not allowed to eat. Godsaid, ‘You must not eat it or eventouch it; if you do, you will die.’”

4 “You won’t die!” the serpent re-plied to the woman. 5“God knowsthat your eyes will be opened as

soon as you eat it, and you will belike God, knowing both good andevil.”

6 The woman was convinced. Shesaw that the tree was beautiful andits fruit looked delicious, and shewanted the wisdom it would giveher. So she took some of the fruitand ate it. Then she gave some toher husband, who was with her, andhe ate it, too. 7At that moment theireyes were opened, and they sud-denly felt shame at their nakedness.So they sewed fig leaves together tocover themselves.

8 When the cool evening breezeswere blowing, the man* and hiswife heard the Lord God walkingabout in the garden. So they hidfrom the Lord God among thetrees. 9Then the Lord God called tothe man, “Where are you?”

10He replied, “I heard you walkingin the garden, so I hid. I was afraidbecause I was naked.”

11“Who told you that you werenaked?” the Lord God asked. “Haveyou eaten from the tree whose fruitI commanded you not to eat?”

12The man replied, “ It was thewoman you gave me who gave methe fruit, and I ate it.”

13Then the Lord God asked thewoman, “What have you done?”

“The serpent deceived me,” shereplied. “That’s why I ate it.”

14Then the Lord God said to theserpent,

G E N E S I S 3 6

2:21 Or took a part of the man’s side. 3:8 Or Adam, and so throughout the chapter.

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“Because you have done this,you are cursed

more than all animals,domestic and wild.

You will crawl on your belly,groveling in the dust as long

as you live.15 And I will cause hostility between

you and the woman,and between your offspring

and her offspring.He will strike* your head,

and you will strike his heel.”16Then he said to the woman,

“I will sharpen the pain of yourpregnancy,

and in pain you will givebirth.

And you will desire to controlyour husband,

but he will rule over you.*”17And to the man he said,

“Since you listened to your wifeand ate from the tree

whose fruit I commandedyou not to eat,

the ground is cursed becauseof you.

All your life you will struggleto scratch a living from it.

18 It will grow thorns and thistlesfor you,

though you will eat of itsgrains.

19 By the sweat of your browwill you have food to eat

until you return to the groundfrom which you were made.

For you were made from dust,and to dust you will return.”

Paradise Lost: God’s Judgment20Then the man—Adam—namedhis wife Eve, because she would bethe mother of all who live.* 21Andthe Lord God made clothing fromanimal skins for Adam and his wife.

22Then the Lord God said, “Look,the human beings* have becomelike us, knowing both good and evil.What if they reach out, take fruitfrom the tree of life, and eat it?Then they will live forever!” 23So theLord God banished them from theGarden of Eden, and he sent Adamout to cultivate the ground fromwhich he had been made. 24Aftersending them out, the Lord Godstationed mighty cherubim to theeast of the Garden of Eden. And heplaced a flaming sword that flashedback and forth to guard the way tothe tree of life.

Cain and Abel 4

Now Adam* had sexual rela-tions with his wife, Eve, and

she became pregnant. When shegave birth to Cain, she said, “ Withthe Lord’s help, I have produced* a

7 G E N E S I S 4

3:15 Or bruise; also in 3:15b. 3:16 Or And though you will have desire for your husband, / he willrule over you. 3:20 Eve sounds like a Hebrew term that means “to give life.” 3:22 Or the man;Hebrew reads ha-adam. 4:1a Or the man; also in 4:25. 4:1b Or I have acquired. Cain sounds likea Hebrew term that can mean “produce” or “acquire.”

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man!” 2Later she gave birth to hisbrother and named him Abel.

When they grew up, Abel becamea shepherd, while Cain cultivatedthe ground. 3When it was time forthe harvest, Cain presented some ofhis crops as a gift to the Lord. 4Abelalso brought a gift—the best por-tions of the firstborn lambs fromhis flock. The Lord accepted Abeland his gift, 5 but he did not acceptCain and his gift. This made Cainvery angry, and he looked dejected.

6“Why are you so angry?” theLord asked Cain. “Why do you lookso dejected? 7 You will be acceptedif you do what is right. But if you re-fuse to do what is right, then watchout! Sin is crouching at the door,eager to control you. But you mustsubdue it and be its master.”

8One day Cain suggested to hisbrother, “Let’s go out into thefields.”* And while they were in thefield, Cain attacked his brother,Abel, and killed him.

9Afterward the Lord asked Cain,“Where is your brother? Where isAbel?”

“I don’t know,” Cain responded.“Am I my brother’s guardian?”

10 But the Lord said, “ What haveyou done? Listen! Your brother’sblood cries out to me from theground! 11Now you are cursed andbanished from the ground, whichhas swallowed your brother’s

blood. 12No longer will the groundyield good crops for you, no matterhow hard you work! From now onyou will be a homeless wanderer onthe earth.”

13Cain replied to the Lord, “Mypunishment* is too great for me tobear! 14You have banished me fromthe land and from your presence;you have made me a homelesswanderer. Anyone who finds mewill kill me!”

15The Lord replied, “No, for I willgive a sevenfold punishment toanyone who kills you.” Then theLord put a mark on Cain to warnanyone who might try to kill him.16So Cain left the Lord’s presenceand settled in the land of Nod,* eastof Eden.

The Descendants of Cain17Cain had sexual relations withhis wife, and she became pregnantand gave birth to Enoch. Then Cainfounded a city, which he namedEnoch, after his son. 18 Enoch had ason named Irad. Irad became thefather of* Mehujael. Mehujael be-came the father of Methushael.Methushael became the father ofLamech.

19Lamech married two women.The first was named Adah, and thesecond was Zillah. 20Adah gavebirth to Jabal, who was the first ofthose who raise livestock and live in

G E N E S I S 4 8

4:8 As in Samaritan Pentateuch, Greek and Syriac versions, and Latin Vulgate; Masoretic Text lacks“Let’s go out into the fields.” 4:13 Or My sin. 4:16 Nod means “wandering.” 4:18 Or the ancestorof, and so throughout the verse.

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tents. 21His brother’s name was Ju-bal, the first of all who play the harpand flute. 22Lamech’s other wife,Zillah, gave birth to a son namedTubal-cain. He became an expert inforging tools of bronze and iron.Tubal-cain had a sister named Naa-mah. 23 One day Lamech said to hiswives,

“Adah and Zillah, hear my voice;listen to me, you wives of

Lamech.I have killed a man who

attacked me,a young man who

wounded me.24 If someone who kills Cain is

punished seven times,then the one who kills me will

be punished seventy-seventimes!”

The Birth of Seth25Adam had sexual relations withhis wife again, and she gave birth toanother son. She named him Seth,*for she said, “God has granted meanother son in place of Abel, whomCain killed.” 26 When Seth grew up,he had a son and named him Enosh.At that time people first began toworship the Lord by name.

The Descendants of Adam 5

This is the written account ofthe descendants of Adam.

When God created human beings,*

he made them to be like himself.2 He created them male and female,and he blessed them and calledthem “human.”3When Adam was 130 years old,

he became the father of a sonwho was just like him—in hisvery image. He named his sonSeth. 4After the birth of Seth,Adam lived another 800 years,and he had other sons anddaughters. 5Adam lived930 years, and then he died.

6When Seth was 105 years old,he became the father of* Enosh.7After the birth of* Enosh, Sethlived another 807 years, and hehad other sons and daughters.8Seth lived 912 years, and thenhe died.

9When Enosh was 90 years old,he became the father of Kenan.10After the birth of Kenan, Enoshlived another 815 years, and hehad other sons and daughters.11Enosh lived 905 years, andthen he died.

12When Kenan was 70 years old, hebecame the father of Mahalalel.13After the birth of Mahalalel,Kenan lived another 840 years,and he had other sons anddaughters. 14Kenan lived910 years, and then he died.

15When Mahalalel was 65 yearsold, he became the father ofJared. 16After the birth of Jared,

9 G E N E S I S 5

4:25 Seth probably means “granted”; the name may also mean “appointed.” 5:1 Or man; Hebrewreads adam; similarly in 5:2. 5:6 Or the ancestor of; also in 5:9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 25. 5:7 Or the birthof this ancestor of; also in 5:10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 26.

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Mahalalel lived another 830years, and he had other sonsand daughters. 17Mahalalel lived895 years, and then he died.

18When Jared was 162 years old,he became the father of Enoch.19After the birth of Enoch, Jaredlived another 800 years, and hehad other sons and daughters.20Jared lived 962 years, and thenhe died.

21When Enoch was 65 yearsold, he became the father ofMethuselah. 22After the birth ofMethuselah, Enoch lived in closefellowship with God for another300 years, and he had other sonsand daughters. 23Enoch lived365 years, 24walking in closefellowship with God. Then oneday he disappeared, becauseGod took him.

25When Methuselah was 187years old, he became the fatherof Lamech. 26After the birthof Lamech, Methuselah livedanother 782 years, and he hadother sons and daughters.27Methuselah lived 969 years,and then he died.

28When Lamech was 182 yearsold, he became the father of ason. 29Lamech named his sonNoah, for he said, “May he bringus relief* from our work andthe painful labor of farmingthis ground that the Lord hascursed.” 30After the birth of

Noah, Lamech lived another595 years, and he had othersons and daughters. 31Lamechlived 777 years, and then hedied.

32After Noah was 500 years old, hebecame the father of Shem,Ham, and Japheth.

A World Gone Wrong 6

Then the people began to mul-tiply on the earth, and daugh-

ters were born to them. 2The sons ofGod saw the beautiful women* andtook any they wanted as their wives.3Then the Lord said, “My Spirit willnot put up with* humans for such along time, for they are only mortalflesh. In the future, their normallifespan will be no more than120 years.”

4In those days, and for some timeafter, giant Nephilites lived on theearth, for whenever the sons of Godhad intercourse with women, theygave birth to children who becamethe heroes and famous warriors ofancient times.

5The Lord observed the extent ofhuman wickedness on the earth,and he saw that everything theythought or imagined was consis-tently and totally evil. 6 So the Lord

was sorry he had ever made themand put them on the earth. It brokehis heart. 7And the Lord said, “I willwipe this human race I have createdfrom the face of the earth. Yes, and

G E N E S I S 6 10

5:29 Noah sounds like a Hebrew term that can mean “relief” or “comfort.” 6:2 Hebrew daughters ofmen; also in 6:4. 6:3 Greek version reads will not remain in.

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I will destroy every living thing—allthe people, the large animals, thesmall animals that scurry alongthe ground, and even the birdsof the sky. I am sorry I ever madethem.” 8 But Noah found favor withthe Lord.

The Story of Noah9This is the account of Noah and hisfamily. Noah was a righteous man,the only blameless person living onearth at the time, and he walked inclose fellowship with God. 10 Noahwas the father of three sons: Shem,Ham, and Japheth.

11Now God saw that the earth hadbecome corrupt and was filled withviolence. 12God observed all thiscorruption in the world, for every-one on earth was corrupt. 13So Godsaid to Noah, “I have decided todestroy all living creatures, for theyhave filled the earth with violence.Yes, I will wipe them all out alongwith the earth!

14“Build a large boat* from cy-press wood* and waterproof it withtar, inside and out. Then constructdecks and stalls throughout its inte-rior. 15Make the boat 450 feet long,75 feet wide, and 45 feet high.*16Leave an 18-inch opening* belowthe roof all the way around the boat.Put the door on the side, and buildthree decks inside the boat—lower,middle, and upper.

17“Look! I am about to cover theearth with a flood that will destroyevery living thing that breathes.Everything on earth will die. 18 ButI will confirm my covenant withyou. So enter the boat—you andyour wife and your sons and theirwives. 19Bring a pair of every kind ofanimal—a male and a female—intothe boat with you to keep them aliveduring the flood. 20 Pairs of everykind of bird, and every kind of ani-mal, and every kind of small animalthat scurries along the ground, willcome to you to be kept alive. 21Andbe sure to take on board enoughfood for your family and for all theanimals.”

22 So Noah did everything exactlyas God had commanded him.

The Flood Covers the Earth 7

When everything was ready, theLord said to Noah, “Go into the

boat with all your family, for amongall the people of the earth, I can seethat you alone are righteous. 2 Takewith you seven pairs—male andfemale—of each animal I have ap-proved for eating and for sacrifice,*and take one pair of each of the oth-ers. 3Also take seven pairs of everykind of bird. There must be a maleand a female in each pair to ensurethat all life will survive on the earthafter the flood. 4 Seven days fromnow I will make the rains pour

11 G E N E S I S 7

6:14a Traditionally rendered an ark. 6:14b Or gopher wood. 6:15 Hebrew 300 cubits[138 meters] long, 50 cubits [23 meters] wide, and 30 cubits [13.8 meters] high. 6:16 Hebrewan opening of 1 cubit [46 centimeters]. 7:2 Hebrew of each clean animal; similarly in 7:8.

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down on the earth. And it will rainfor forty days and forty nights, untilI have wiped from the earth all theliving things I have created.”

5So Noah did everything as theLord commanded him.

6Noah was 600 years old whenthe flood covered the earth. 7Hewent on board the boat to escapethe flood—he and his wife and hissons and their wives. 8With themwere all the various kinds of ani-mals—those approved for eatingand for sacrifice and those thatwere not—along with all the birdsand the small animals that scurryalong the ground. 9They enteredthe boat in pairs, male and female,just as God had commanded Noah.10After seven days, the waters of theflood came and covered the earth.

11When Noah was 600 years old,on the seventeenth day of the sec-ond month, all the undergroundwaters erupted from the earth, andthe rain fell in mighty torrents fromthe sky. 12The rain continued to fallfor forty days and forty nights.

13That very day Noah had goneinto the boat with his wife and hissons—Shem, Ham, and Japheth—and their wives. 14With them in theboat were pairs of every kind of ani-mal—domestic and wild, large andsmall—along with birds of everykind. 15Two by two they came intothe boat, representing every livingthing that breathes. 16A male andfemale of each kind entered, just as

God had commanded Noah. Thenthe Lord closed the door behindthem.

17For forty days the floodwatersgrew deeper, covering the groundand lifting the boat high above theearth. 18As the waters rose higherand higher above the ground, theboat floated safely on the surface.19Finally, the water covered even thehighest mountains on the earth,20rising more than twenty-two feet*above the highest peaks. 21All theliving things on earth died—birds,domestic animals, wild animals,small animals that scurry along theground, and all the people. 22Every-thing that breathed and lived on dryland died. 23God wiped out everyliving thing on the earth—people,livestock, small animals that scurryalong the ground, and the birdsof the sky. All were destroyed. Theonly people who survived wereNoah and those with him in theboat. 24And the floodwaters cov-ered the earth for 150 days.

The Flood Recedes 8

But God remembered Noah andall the wild animals and live-

stock with him in the boat. He senta wind to blow across the earth, andthe floodwaters began to recede.2The underground waters stoppedflowing, and the torrential rainsfrom the sky were stopped. 3 So thefloodwaters gradually receded

G E N E S I S 8 12

7:20 Hebrew 15 cubits [6.9 meters].

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Prologue: Christ, the Eternal Word 1

1In the beginning the Wordalready existed.

The Word was with God,and the Word was God.

2 He existed in the beginningwith God.

3 God created everything throughhim,

and nothing was createdexcept through him.

4 The Word gave life to everythingthat was created,*

and his life brought light toeveryone.

5 The light shines in the darkness,and the darkness can never

extinguish it.*6God sent a man, John the Bap-

tist,* 7to tell about the light so thateveryone might believe because ofhis testimony. 8John himself wasnot the light; he was simply a wit-ness to tell about the light. 9The onewho is the true light, who gives lightto everyone, was coming into theworld.

10He came into the very world hecreated, but the world didn’t recog-

nize him. 11He came to his own peo-ple, and even they rejected him.12But to all who believed him andaccepted him, he gave the right tobecome children of God. 13They arereborn—not with a physical birth re-sulting from human passion or plan,but a birth that comes from God.

14So the Word became human*and made his home among us. Hewas full of unfailing love and faith-fulness.* And we have seen hisglory, the glory of the Father’s oneand only Son.

15John testified about him whenhe shouted to the crowds, “This isthe one I was talking about when Isaid, ‘Someone is coming after mewho is far greater than I am, for heexisted long before me.’”

16From his abundance we have allreceived one gracious blessing afteranother.* 17For the law was giventhrough Moses, but God’s unfailinglove and faithfulness came throughJesus Christ. 18No one has ever seenGod. But the unique One, who ishimself God,* is near to the Father’sheart. He has revealed God to us.

1:3-4 Or and nothing that was created was created except through him. The Word gave lifeto everything. 1:5 Or and the darkness has not understood it. 1:6 Greek a man named John.1:14a Greek became flesh. 1:14b Or grace and truth; also in 1:17. 1:16 Or received the graceof Christ rather than the grace of the law; Greek reads received grace upon grace. 1:18 Somemanuscripts read But the one and only Son.


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The Testimony of John the Baptist19This was John’s testimony whenthe Jewish leaders sent priests andTemple assistants* from Jerusalemto ask John, “Who are you?” 20Hecame right out and said, “I am notthe Messiah.”

21“Well then, who are you?” theyasked. “Are you Elijah?”

“No,” he replied.“Are you the Prophet we are ex-

pecting?”*“No.”22“Then who are you? We need

an answer for those who sent us.What do you have to say aboutyourself?”

23John replied in the words of theprophet Isaiah:

“I am a voice shouting in thewilderness,

‘Clear the way for the Lord’scoming!’”*

24Then the Pharisees who hadbeen sent 25asked him, “If you aren’tthe Messiah or Elijah or the Prophet,what right do you have to baptize?”

26John told them, “I baptize with*water, but right here in the crowdis someone you do not recognize.27Though his ministry follows mine,I’m not even worthy to be his slaveand untie the straps of his sandal.”

28This encounter took place inBethany, an area east of the JordanRiver, where John was baptizing.

Jesus, the Lamb of God29The next day John saw Jesus com-ing toward him and said, “Look!The Lamb of God who takes awaythe sin of the world! 30He is the oneI was talking about when I said,‘A man is coming after me who isfar greater than I am, for he existedlong before me.’ 31I did not recog-nize him as the Messiah, but I havebeen baptizing with water so thathe might be revealed to Israel.”

32Then John testified, “I saw theHoly Spirit descending like a dovefrom heaven and resting upon him.33I didn’t know he was the one, butwhen God sent me to baptize withwater, he told me, ‘The one onwhom you see the Spirit descendand rest is the one who will baptizewith the Holy Spirit.’ 34I saw thishappen to Jesus, so I testify that heis the Chosen One of God.*”

The First Disciples35The following day John was againstanding with two of his disciples.36As Jesus walked by, John lookedat him and declared, “Look! Thereis the Lamb of God!” 37When John’stwo disciples heard this, they fol-lowed Jesus.

38Jesus looked around and sawthem following. “What do youwant?” he asked them.

They replied, “Rabbi” (whichmeans “Teacher”), “where are youstaying?”

1633 J O H N 1

1:19 Greek and Levites. 1:21 Greek Are you the Prophet? See Deut 18:15, 18; Mal 4:5-6.1:23 Isa 40:3. 1:26 Or in; also in 1:31, 33. 1:34 Some manuscripts read the Son of God.

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39“Come and see,” he said. It wasabout four o’clock in the afternoonwhen they went with him to theplace where he was staying, andthey remained with him the rest ofthe day.

40Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother,was one of these men who heardwhat John said and then followedJesus. 41Andrew went to find hisbrother, Simon, and told him, “Wehave found the Messiah” (whichmeans “Christ”*).

42Then Andrew brought Simon tomeet Jesus. Looking intently at Si-mon, Jesus said, “Your name isSimon, son of John—but you willbe called Cephas” (which means“Peter”*).

43The next day Jesus decided togo to Galilee. He found Philip andsaid to him, “Come, follow me.”44Philip was from Bethsaida, An-drew and Peter’s hometown.

45Philip went to look for Nathanaeland told him, “We have found thevery person Moses* and the proph-ets wrote about! His name is Jesus,the son of Joseph from Nazareth.”

46“Nazareth!” exclaimed Nathan-ael. “Can anything good come fromNazareth?”

“Come and see for yourself,” Philipreplied.

47As they approached, Jesus said,“Now here is a genuine son of Isra-el—a man of complete integrity.”

48“How do you know about me?”Nathanael asked.

Jesus replied, “I could see you un-der the fig tree before Philip foundyou.”

49Then Nathanael exclaimed,“Rabbi, you are the Son of God—theKing of Israel!”

50Jesus asked him, “Do you be-lieve this just because I told you Ihad seen you under the fig tree?You will see greater things thanthis.” 51Then he said, “I tell you thetruth, you will all see heaven openand the angels of God going up anddown on the Son of Man, the onewho is the stairway between heavenand earth.*”

The Wedding at Cana 2

The next day* there was a wed-ding celebration in the village

of Cana in Galilee. Jesus’ motherwas there, 2and Jesus and his dis-ciples were also invited to the cele-bration. 3The wine supply ran outduring the festivities, so Jesus’mother told him, “They have nomore wine.”

4“Dear woman, that’s not ourproblem,” Jesus replied. “My timehas not yet come.”

5But his mother told the servants,“Do whatever he tells you.”

6Standing nearby were six stonewater jars, used for Jewish cere-monial washing. Each could hold

J O H N 2 1634

1:41 Messiah (a Hebrew term) and Christ (a Greek term) both mean “anointed one.” 1:42 The namesCephas (from Aramaic) and Peter (from Greek) both mean “rock.” 1:45 Greek Moses in the law.1:51 Greek going up and down on the Son of Man; see Gen 28:10-17. “Son of Man” is a title Jesusused for himself. 2:1 Greek On the third day; see 1:35, 43.

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twenty to thirty gallons.* 7Jesus toldthe servants, “Fill the jars with wa-ter.” When the jars had been filled,8he said, “Now dip some out, andtake it to the master of ceremo-nies.” So the servants followed hisinstructions.

9When the master of ceremoniestasted the water that was now wine,not knowing where it had comefrom (though, of course, the ser-vants knew), he called the bride-groom over. 10“A host always servesthe best wine first,” he said. “Then,when everyone has had a lot todrink, he brings out the less expen-sive wine. But you have kept thebest until now!”

11This miraculous sign at Cana inGalilee was the first time Jesus re-vealed his glory. And his disciplesbelieved in him.

12After the wedding he went toCapernaum for a few days withhis mother, his brothers, and hisdisciples.

Jesus Clears the Temple13It was nearly time for the JewishPassover celebration, so Jesus wentto Jerusalem. 14In the Temple area hesaw merchants selling cattle, sheep,and doves for sacrifices; he also sawdealers at tables exchanging foreignmoney. 15Jesus made a whip fromsome ropes and chased them all outof the Temple. He drove out thesheep and cattle, scattered the

money changers’ coins over thefloor, and turned over their tables.16Then, going over to the people whosold doves, he told them, “Get thesethings out of here. Stop turning myFather’s house into a marketplace!”

17Then his disciples rememberedthis prophecy from the Scriptures:“Passion for God’s house will con-sume me.”*

18But the Jewish leaders demand-ed, “What are you doing? If Godgave you authority to do this, showus a miraculous sign to prove it.”

19“All right,” Jesus replied. “De-stroy this temple, and in three daysI will raise it up.”

20“What!” they exclaimed. “It hastaken forty-six years to build thisTemple, and you can rebuild it inthree days?” 21But when Jesus said“this temple,” he meant his ownbody. 22After he was raised from thedead, his disciples remembered hehad said this, and they believedboth the Scriptures and what Jesushad said.

Jesus and Nicodemus23Because of the miraculous signsJesus did in Jerusalem at the Pass-over celebration, many began totrust in him. 24But Jesus didn’t trustthem, because he knew all aboutpeople. 25No one needed to tell himabout human nature, for he knewwhat was in each person’s heart.

1635 J O H N 2

2:6 Greek 2 or 3 measures [75 to 113 liters]. 2:17 Or “Concern for God’s house will be my undoing.”Ps 69:9.

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There was a man named Nico-demus, a Jewish religious leader

who was a Pharisee. 2After dark oneevening, he came to speak withJesus. “Rabbi,” he said, “we all knowthat God has sent you to teach us.Your miraculous signs are evidencethat God is with you.”

3Jesus replied, “I tell you the truth,unless you are born again,* you can-not see the Kingdom of God.”

4“What do you mean?” exclaimedNicodemus. “How can an old mango back into his mother’s womband be born again?”

5Jesus replied, “I assure you, noone can enter the Kingdom ofGod without being born of waterand the Spirit.* 6Humans can re-produce only human life, but theHoly Spirit gives birth to spirituallife.* 7So don’t be surprised when Isay, ‘You* must be born again.’ 8Thewind blows wherever it wants. Justas you can hear the wind but can’ttell where it comes from or whereit is going, so you can’t explain howpeople are born of the Spirit.”

9“How are these things possible?”Nicodemus asked.

10Jesus replied, “You are a re-spected Jewish teacher, and yet youdon’t understand these things? 11Iassure you, we tell you what weknow and have seen, and yet you

won’t believe our testimony. 12But ifyou don’t believe me when I tell youabout earthly things, how can youpossibly believe if I tell you aboutheavenly things? 13No one has evergone to heaven and returned. Butthe Son of Man* has come downfrom heaven. 14And as Moses liftedup the bronze snake on a pole in thewilderness, so the Son of Man mustbe lifted up, 15so that everyone whobelieves in him will have eternallife.*

16“For this is how God loved theworld: He gave* his one and onlySon, so that everyone who believesin him will not perish but have eter-nal life. 17God sent his Son into theworld not to judge the world, but tosave the world through him.

18“There is no judgment againstanyone who believes in him. Butanyone who does not believe in himhas already been judged for not be-lieving in God’s one and only Son.19And the judgment is based on thisfact: God’s light came into the world,but people loved the darkness morethan the light, for their actions wereevil. 20All who do evil hate the lightand refuse to go near it for fear theirsins will be exposed. 21But thosewho do what is right come to thelight so others can see that they aredoing what God wants.*” 3

J O H N 3 1636

3:3 Or born from above; also in 3:7. 3:5 Or and spirit. The Greek word for Spirit can also betranslated wind; see 3:8. 3:6 Greek what is born of the Spirit is spirit. 3:7 The Greek word for youis plural; also in 3:12. 3:13 Some manuscripts add who lives in heaven. “Son of Man” is a title Jesusused for himself. 3:15 Or everyone who believes will have eternal life in him. 3:16 Or For Godloved the world so much that he gave. 3:21 Or can see God at work in what he is doing.

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John the Baptist Exalts Jesus22Then Jesus and his disciples leftJerusalem and went into the Judeancountryside. Jesus spent some timewith them there, baptizing people.

23At this time John the Baptistwas baptizing at Aenon, near Salim,because there was plenty of waterthere; and people kept coming tohim for baptism. 24(This was beforeJohn was thrown into prison.) 25Adebate broke out between John’sdisciples and a certain Jew* overceremonial cleansing. 26So John’sdisciples came to him and said,“Rabbi, the man you met on theother side of the Jordan River, theone you identified as the Messiah,is also baptizing people. And every-body is going to him instead ofcoming to us.”

27John replied, “No one can receiveanything unless God gives it fromheaven. 28You yourselves know howplainly I told you, ‘I am not the Mes-siah. I am only here to prepare theway for him.’ 29It is the bridegroomwho marries the bride, and thebridegroom’s friend is simply gladto stand with him and hear his vows.Therefore, I am filled with joy at hissuccess. 30He must become greaterand greater, and I must become lessand less.

31“He has come from above and isgreater than anyone else. We are ofthe earth, and we speak of earthlythings, but he has come from

heaven and is greater than anyoneelse.* 32He testifies about what hehas seen and heard, but how few be-lieve what he tells them! 33Anyonewho accepts his testimony can af-firm that God is true. 34For he is sentby God. He speaks God’s words, forGod gives him the Spirit withoutlimit. 35The Father loves his Son andhas put everything into his hands.36And anyone who believes in God’sSon has eternal life. Anyone whodoesn’t obey the Son will never ex-perience eternal life but remainsunder God’s angry judgment.”

Jesus and the Samaritan Woman 4

Jesus* knew the Pharisees hadheard that he was baptizing and

making more disciples than John2(though Jesus himself didn’t bap-tize them—his disciples did). 3So heleft Judea and returned to Galilee.

4He had to go through Samariaon the way. 5Eventually he came tothe Samaritan village of Sychar,near the field that Jacob gave to hisson Joseph. 6Jacob’s well was there;and Jesus, tired from the long walk,sat wearily beside the well aboutnoontime. 7Soon a Samaritanwoman came to draw water, andJesus said to her, “Please give me adrink.” 8He was alone at the timebecause his disciples had gone intothe village to buy some food.

9The woman was surprised, forJews refuse to have anything to do

1637 J O H N 4

3:25 Some manuscripts read some Jews. 3:31 Some manuscripts do not include and is greater thananyone else. 4:1 Some manuscripts read The Lord.