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How Developers Stay Current Using Twitter

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"Software Engineering at the Speed of Light: How Developers Stay Current Using Twitter", Leif Singer, Fernando Figueira Filho, Margaret-Anne Storey
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  • 1.Software Engineering at the Speed of Light: How Developers Stay Current Using Twitter Leif Singer Fernando Figueira Filho Margaret-Anne Storey @LSinger @FFilho_ @MargaretStorey

2. 2 3. 3 #icse14 #twitter4se @lsinger 4. Why & how do developers use Twitter? What value does it provide? What challenges does it pose? How do developers cope with these challenges? Why do other developers not use Twitter for work? 4 5. RELATED WORK 6. Related Work In Software Engineering: Analysis of sampled tweet contents [Bougie et al. 2011] Classication of tweets [Tian et al. 2012] Qualitative investigation of Drupals Twitter use [Wang et al. 2013] 6 But how and why do developers tweet? 7. STUDY DESIGN 8. Study Design Exploratory Survey: get a feel for attitudes emailed 1,160 active GitHub users 271 responded Interviews: deeper insights about value, challenges 27 from exploratory survey Analysis: Grounded Theory codes, categories, themes, memos, Validation Survey: do developers agree? emailed 10,000 active GitHub users 1,413 responded 8 9. FINDINGS 10. 1,413 Validation Survey Participants 10 ave enough time to even though they nnect with Western m our exploratory oor match for their their friends or col- context, with a low es, preferably with e multiple clicks to iated the brief and ur exploratory sur- his limitation. The that many posters cically mentioned o contain anything e link-shorteners in ctice. [E29] ons. nversation. I dont two or three people ... its nice. And I very much. [P4] survey and interviews. 1,413 GitHub users answered our validation survey. Fig. 1 provides some details on the demographics of these respon- dents. All except one respondent said they develop software in some capacity, with the majority (81%) being professional software developers. Roughly two-thirds of our respondents said they use Twitter at least once a week (adopters). 70% wanted to be notied of the results of our study. 81% 19% 67% 33% 70% 30% (a) (b) (c) Figure 1: Validation survey respondents. (a) 81% (1,145) professional, 19% (267) non- professional developers, 1 non-developer; (b) 67% (940) use Twitter at least once a week, 33% (473) do not; (c) 70% (993) were interested in study results. A large part of the survey consisted of statements, each related to a theme from our ndings. For these statements, we measured agreement using a ve-point Likert-type scale. 6 https:/ / docs. google. com/ forms/ d/ 1 FxuT3 ORoSjMqQks7hF2 gRyncjfJ8D0 QBXJaqfmy97pU/ (a) 81% / 1,145 professional developers (b) 67% / 940 use Twitter at least once a week (c) 70% / 993 interested in results 11. Results Value Awareness Learning Relationships Challenges & Coping Strategies Non-adoption 11 12. VALUE: AWARENESS 13. Value: Awareness 13 Following developers and projects Following thought leaders Promoting project activities Just-in-time awareness I think the main advantage is to be in contact with people who are developing things that I use. There are people developing libraries and I can communicate with them through Twitter. [P11] 14. 14 Value: Awareness opers follow other developers, projects, news curators, and thought leaders. This allows them to stay aware of new practices and resources in a timely manner and provides them with access to diverse opinions. Developers also pro- mote their projects and activities, which may in turn help the dissemination of knowledge and increase the adoption of practices and tools. (1) On Twitter, I follow leaders in my technological niche, which helps me stay current about the latest technologies and practices. 13% 71% 130 developers 673 developers (2) Twitter helps me promote projects and technologies I work with. 20% 58% 194 developers 541 developers (3) Twitter helps me keep up to date about technologies and tools I use for software development. 14% 69% 137 developers 650 developers (4) Twitter helps me stay aware of new trends and practices in soft- ware development. (1) On Twitter, I follow leaders in my technological niche, which helps me stay current about the latest technologies and practices. 13% 71% 130 developers 673 developers (2) Twitter helps me promote projects and technologies I work with. 20% 58% 194 developers 541 developers (3) Twitter helps me keep up to date about technologies and tools I use for software development. 14% 69% 137 developers 650 developers (4) Twitter helps me stay aware of new trends and practices in soft- ware development. 17% 65% 161 developers 611 developers strongly disagree disagree strongly agree agree Figure 1: Results from our validation survey. 15. VALUE: LEARNING 16. Value: Learning 16 Extending knowledge Learning serendipitously 17. 17 Kelly Sommers @kellabyte 15 RETWEETS 29 FAVORITES Twitter is like the best study group I've ever had. Reply Retweet Favorited 1:21 AM - 28 Dec 13 Following More Reply to @kellabyte mrb @mrb_bk @kellabyte same! 28 Dec Details Reply Retweet Favorite More Scott Saad @saadware @kellabyte Curious how you use twitter as study group. You prefer it over community sites like Stackoverow? Or as a supplement? 28 Dec Details Reply Retweet Favorite More Kelly Sommers @kellabyte @saadware I think they are for dierent purposes. Twitter seems very social and organic in how conversations ow and ppl just jump in 28 Dec Details Reply Retweet Favorite More Kelly Sommers @kellabyte @saadware Ive had the privilege to see such amazing people jump into a random technical debate and bring so much value. 28 Dec Details Reply Retweet Favorite More Corey Donohoe @atmos @mrb_bk you guys are doing it right. ! 28 Dec Details Reply Retweet Favorite More Home Connect Discover Me Search 78,60978,609 TWEETSTWEETS 286286 FOLLOWINGFOLLOWING 16,38016,380 FOLLOWERSFOLLOWERS Kelly Sommers @kellabyte DataStax MVP for Apache Cassandra and Windows Azure MVP, Mobile dev maven, backend brat, big data and distributed diva, Relentless learner. I void warranties. Canada kellabyte.com Follow 18. Value: Learning 18 ing in conversations helps them learn. Developers said that the qualities and constraints of Twitter enabled serendipi- tous, undirected learning, sometimes giving them access to resources they wouldnt have been able to nd themselves. While participants viewed learning as an investment, they also thought it was fun and rewarding. (5) Twitter helps me extend my knowledge by exposing me to tech- nologies and practices I should learn in software development. 18% 60% 173 developers 565 developers (6) Twitter has helped me become a better programmer. 39% 31% 368 developers 291 developers (7) Twitter helps me learn about things I wasnt actively looking for. 11% 72% 109 developers 677 developers strongly disagree disagree strongly agree agree resources they wouldnt have been able to nd themselves. While participants viewed learning as an investment, they also thought it was fun and rewarding. (5) Twitter helps me extend my knowledge by exposing me to tech- nologies and practices I should learn in software development. 18% 60% 173 developers 565 developers (6) Twitter has helped me become a better programmer. 39% 31% 368 developers 291 developers (7) Twitter helps me learn about things I wasnt actively looking for. 11% 72% 109 developers 677 developers strongly disagree disagree strongly agree agree Figure 1: Results from our validation survey.Figure 3: Results from our validation survey (RQ2) for developers who use Twitter at least once a week. 19. VALUE: RELATIONSHIPS 20. Value: Relationships 20 Managing ones image Building community Discovery of interesting developers Achieving trust and rapport Work validation and feedback on projects Job opportunities 149 developers 627 developers (12) Twitter helps me build trust or rapport with other developers. 23% 49% 211 developers 452 developers (13) Twitter helps me receive validation from others for my work. 35% 34% 329 developers 318 developers (14) Twitter helps me give and get feedback about projects I work with. 30% 44% 277 developers 409 developers (15) Twitter helps me access job opportunities. 44% 28% 411 developers 260 developers strongly disagree disagree strongly agree agree 21. CHALLENGES 22. Challenge: Maintaining a Relevant Network 22 value of Twitter is in the network can become obsolete move, new job, different technologies, can become too large overwhelming When you follow 1,000 accounts, many things you see are just not for you. [P16] 23. Challenge: Consuming Content 23 lots of content to consume Twitter can impact productivity by leading to distractions (16) I carefully decide whom I follow in order to avoid information overload on my Twitter feed. 12% 72% 115 developers 672 developers (17) On Twitter, I usually follow people on a trial basis and unfollow them if they post irrelevant or too much content. 17% 67% 162 developers 628 developers (18) I nd it hard to cope with the amount of information I receive on Twitter. 34% 41% 319 developers 386 developers (19) I appreciate the succinctness of 140 characters per post on Twit- ter. 11% 68% 110 developers 632 developers (20) Twitter is ne for short discussions. 24. COPING STRATEGIES 25. Strategy: Following Relevant Developers 25 nd key developers from ones niche, follow them nd similar people mentioned by key developers, consider following them look at source code before deciding to follow real-life recommendations from co-workers look for geographically close developers read bio for rst impression; #followers, #tweets 26. Strategy: Unfollowing Developers on Twitter 26 own and others interests change continuously adapt network following on a trial basis: relevant? volume OK? can always unfollow routines for purging following lists 27. 27 d d d % e- e- is ve ht we at e n n- e- developers told us that this helps them manage the vol- ume of posts they have to skim. A few developers said that on Google+, which has no such limit, skimming was much harder. Therefore, they were more likely to feel over- whelmed. 800 400 00! 200! 400! 600! 800! discuss:'adopters' Legend Twitter Blogs In Person Email Chat Other Google+ Facebook Figure 6: The channels Twitter adopters said they use for longer discussions. Oine Discussions 28. NON-ADOPTION 29. Barriers 29 Too much noise Peer adoption 140 character constraint Poor support for conversations Unsure of the benets I dont understand it and I dont see any purpose for it. [E43] 30. LIMITATIONS 31. not generalizable to corporate settings other cultures other microblogging tools perhaps not even to other active GitHub users! but: validation survey was encouraging 31 Limitations 32. FUTURE WORK 33. Future Work inuence on practice & tool diffusion challenges of appropriation SE-specic tools? how it ts with other tools? different personalities, contexts, needs, non-adoption difcult to study other cultures... 33 Western Educated Industrialized Rich Democratic 34. CONCLUSIONS 35. @LSinger @FFilho_ @MargaretStorey Twitter provides value to professional developers awareness, learning, relationships appropriated, not made for this problem? Found challenges & strategies our readers agree: helpful! Non-adoption interesting, difcult to investigate Developers are an appreciative audience Do you use Twitter to support your research? If yes, tell us how by using #twitter4ser 36. AFTERMATH 37. 109 retweets. 42 favorites. 270 tweets from others. 38 new followers. Leif Singer @lsinger 109 RETWEETS 42 FAVORITES How Software Developers Use Twitter: study results are in! to.leif.me/how-software-d (HN: news.ycombinator.com/item? id=6802578) Reply Delete Favorite 6:10 PM - 26 Nov 13 More Reply to @lsinger Ramon Roche @mrpollo @lsinger awesome read man, glad I could be part of it, 26 Nov Home Connect Discover Me Search 38. Comments on the blog post. WHAT'S THIS?ALSO ON LEIF SINGER'S BLOG ICSE 2013: Four Days of San Francisco 2 comments 17 days ago Leif Singer Thanks Olga, and thanks for the company. :) On Testing Culture in GitHub Projects 3 comments 16 days ago Robert Rouse Not necessarily. Testing what your application does when, say, the input is longer than the eld length in the database is valid if the Reply Edit Reply Leif Singer a day agoMod LukasEder That looks great, thanks for sharing! Reminds me of Daniel Jalkut's "Elements of Twitter Style" -- could be helpful for some as well: http://www.red- sweater.com/blo... Reply HackBoy 3 days ago Glad to have helped you with this research :D Reply Luis 3 days ago And now you have a new follower on twitter. Great post! Reply realloc 3 days ago Thanks for sharing! Reply behemoth 3 days ago great work,really really interesting Reply Kenneth Kinyanjui 3 days ago I am proud to have been part of the research. This will be surely some important info to us especially as developers and how we interact and continue with development Reply Duane Johnson 3 days ago Glad to have followed your tweet here! Thanks making all of your research public and available to developers! 5 Subscribe Add Disqus to your site Share Share Share Share Share Share Share Share Reply Reply david karapetyan 3 days ago For all the devs that get their tech x from twitter I suggest looking somewhere else like ruby weekly, javascript weekly, ..., X weekly and also reddit.com/r/programming, reddit.com/r/ruby, etc. Edit Reply Leif Singer 2 days agoMod david karapetyan In another study we're doing we found especially the weekly newsletters to be an important source to be right now. Email's having a comeback, who would've thought? I like it. 1 Reply r0ash 3 days ago Dicult to being social generally is another reason for some developers, not using Twitter or fb etc. Edit Reply Leif Singer 2 days agoMod r0ash I heard that in another study before, actually. Personally, I think "acting socialable" is something you can practice and get better at. So why not start on Twitter, Reddit, IRC, etc. where you can hide behind a disposable identity? You can always start over with a new one. Reply r0ash 9 hours agoLeif Singer Thanks, completely agree, this habit could be acquired, all one have to do is to nd what fascinates him/her and what content/topic to discuss. Just started once again :) but with real identity. 1 Reply LukasEder 3 days ago I participated in that study and I'm glad to see that the general opinion matches my own experience. Twitter is really both an awesome source of niche information, fun, and also a great channel to promote my own information o my blog (http://blog.jooq.org). It is a great place to connect with key players in my industry, which would otherwise be out of reach (I've talked to Eric Meijer, Arun Gupta, and other luminaries!) But I'd like to point out that I have friends who are in the sports industry, and they feel the same way about Twitter. These ndings really aren't innate to Twitter users who are developers. 1 Share Share Share Share Share Share Share Edit Reply seem to be likable. People like likable people. That doesn't mean you have to agree with everything -- just have some basic manners and provide potential value (see above) to others. - Same goes for your tweets (and possibly blog posts) -- be authentic, have manners, share what you're learning. - Finally, you could try posting your questions under hashtags. Some communities are known to monitor questions about their niche and answer those. IIRC the Drupal paper we cite in our report said something like that. Most of the above of course is completely unscientic and just how I experience Twitter. YMMV. Reply whatever 2 days agoLeif Singer I think there's some good advice on here on how to maximize success at the Twitter Game, especially the use of a prole image and bio, but it's also why I typically use google and ask questions as stackexchange, expertsexexchange, reddit, irc, and seek out specialized forums before asking anything on twitter. (Of course there are downsides to the prole image and bio and that's the obnoxious behaviors of recruiters and interviewers. It makes it scary to ask a dumb question on the net, or even a newbie question.) Edit Reply Leif Singer 2 days agoMod whatever Yes, why not use other channels if they're better suited for the question you have? In our study, Twitter seemed to be much more valuable for serendipitious / undirected learning than for needing an answer to a specic problem right now. Reply AsherBond 2 days ago I was asked to participate in community research and when the results and ndings were shared I also shared these ndings with my followers. A good leader is a good follower and I think thought leaders are good at following Technology which leads the software industry. Edit Reply Leif Singer 2 days agoMod AsherBond Thanks Asher! I'm blown away by all the tweets, retweets, and favorites this blog post got. Very thankful. whatever 2 days ago So I have followed 30 dozen thought leaders and 1200 dozen of the people in their networks. But only 16 people follow me, half of those spammers. So just how do I ask a question? #PissingIntoTheWind Share Share Share Share Share Edit Reply sports industry Likewise super interesting. Our study was focused on developers of course, but there are tons of other publications where people studied Twitter (users) in dierent contexts. It could be neat to compare ndings across elds, actually. Reply see more LukasEder 2 days agoLeif Singer > would you care to chime in the comment on asking questions / talking to thought leaders above? I'm not sure if I understood this. You want me to link to the discussions that I've had? Here's the one with Eric Meijer: https://twitter.com/headintheb... tech.pro/blog/1689/does Txs ;-) Java 8, Scala, Clojure, ...are why I jumped ship. The JVM is the stable thus smart choice for the enterprise. 5:41 AM - 2 Nov 2013 Does Java 8 Still Need LINQ? Or is it Better than LINQ? By jOOQ @JavaOOQ LINQ was one of the best things that happened to the .NET software engineering ecosystem in a long time. With its introduction of lambda expressions and... Erik Meijer @headinthebox FollowFollow Edit Reply Leif Singer a day agoMod LukasEder You want me to link to the discussions that I've had? Well, I basically wanted to know whether you had any hints on how to approach / get the attention of famous people, because @whatever had brought that up above. So you wrote a great blog post that caught the attention of Erik -- that's awesome, and I think is pretty much in line with what I thought might help: put out great content that others nd interesting. If you're a novice, tell others what you're learning. Reply LukasEder a day agoLeif Singer Ah, well, I'm generally following Alex Turnbull's advice here: http://groovehq.com/blog/1000-... Essentially, it is about engaging without spamming Share Share Share Share Reply Reply david karapetyan 3 days ago For all the devs that get their tech x from twitter I suggest looking somewhere else like ruby weekly, javascript weekly, ..., X weekly and also reddit.com/r/programming, reddit.com/r/ruby, etc. Edit Reply Leif Singer 2 days agoMod david karapetyan In another study we're doing we found especially the weekly newsletters to be an important source to be right now. Email's having a comeback, who would've thought? I like it. 1 Reply r0ash 3 days ago Dicult to being social generally is another reason for some developers, not using Twitter or fb etc. Edit Reply Leif Singer 2 days agoMod r0ash I heard that in another study before, actually. Personally, I think "acting socialable" is something you can practice and get better at. So why not start on Twitter, Reddit, IRC, etc. where you can hide behind a disposable identity? You can always start over with a new one. Reply r0ash 9 hours agoLeif Singer Thanks, completely agree, this habit could be acquired, all one have to do is to nd what fascinates him/her and what content/topic to discuss. Just started once again :) but with real identity. 1 Reply LukasEder 3 days ago I participated in that study and I'm glad to see that the general opinion matches my own experience. Twitter is really both an awesome source of niche information, fun, and also a great channel to promote my own information o my blog (http://blog.jooq.org). It is a great place to connect with key players in my industry, which would otherwise be out of reach (I've talked to Eric Meijer, Arun Gupta, and other luminaries!) But I'd like to point out that I have friends who are in the sports industry, and they feel the same way about Twitter. These ndings really aren't innate to Twitter users who are developers. 1 Leif Singer 2 days agoMod LukasEder great place to connect with key players Interesting -- would you care to chime in the comment on asking questions / talking to thought leaders above? Share Share Share Share Share Share Share Edit Reply follow over time. - Have a prole image and bio that shows you're an actual human being. You don't need to reveal your identity / gender / etc. but anything beyond the default image helps. It helps if you seem to be likable. People like likable people. That doesn't mean you have to agree with everything -- just have some basic manners and provide potential value (see above) to others. - Same goes for your tweets (and possibly blog posts) -- be authentic, have manners, share what you're learning. - Finally, you could try posting your questions under hashtags. Some communities are known to monitor questions about their niche and answer those. IIRC the Drupal paper we cite in our report said something like that. Most of the above of course is completely unscientic and just how I experience Twitter. YMMV. Reply whatever 2 days agoLeif Singer I think there's some good advice on here on how to maximize success at the Twitter Game, especially the use of a prole image and bio, but it's also why I typically use google and ask questions as stackexchange, expertsexexchange, reddit, irc, and seek out specialized forums before asking anything on twitter. (Of course there are downsides to the prole image and bio and that's the obnoxious behaviors of recruiters and interviewers. It makes it scary to ask a dumb question on the net, or even a newbie question.) Edit Reply Leif Singer 2 days agoMod whatever Yes, why not use other channels if they're better suited for the question you have? In our study, Twitter seemed to be much more valuable for serendipitious / undirected learning than for needing an answer to a specic problem right now. Reply AsherBond 2 days ago I was asked to participate in community research and when the results and ndings were shared I also shared these ndings with my followers. A good leader is a good follower and I think thought leaders are good at following Technology which leads the software industry. Edit Reply Leif Singer 2 days agoMod AsherBond Thanks Asher! I'm blown away by all the tweets, retweets, and favorites this blog post got. Very thankful. whatever 2 days ago So I have followed 30 dozen thought leaders and 1200 dozen of the people in their networks. But only 16 people follow me, half of those spammers. So just how do I ask a question? #PissingIntoTheWind Share Share Share Share Share Reply For all the devs that get their tech x from twitter I suggest looking somewhere else like ruby weekly, javascript weekly, ..., X weekly and also reddit.com/r/programming, reddit.com/r/ruby, etc. Edit Reply Leif Singer 2 days agoMod david karapetyan In another study we're doing we found especially the weekly newsletters to be an important source to be right now. Email's having a comeback, who would've thought? I like it. 1 Reply r0ash 3 days ago Dicult to being social generally is another reason for some developers, not using Twitter or fb etc. Edit Reply Leif Singer 2 days agoMod r0ash I heard that in another study before, actually. Personally, I think "acting socialable" is something you can practice and get better at. So why not start on Twitter, Reddit, IRC, etc. where you can hide behind a disposable identity? You can always start over with a new one. Reply r0ash 9 hours agoLeif Singer Thanks, completely agree, this habit could be acquired, all one have to do is to nd what fascinates him/her and what content/topic to discuss. Just started once again :) but with real identity. 1 Reply LukasEder 3 days ago I participated in that study and I'm glad to see that the general opinion matches my own experience. Twitter is really both an awesome source of niche information, fun, and also a great channel to promote my own information o my blog (http://blog.jooq.org). It is a great place to connect with key players in my industry, which would otherwise be out of reach (I've talked to Eric Meijer, Arun Gupta, and other luminaries!) But I'd like to point out that I have friends who are in the sports industry, and they feel the same way about Twitter. These ndings really aren't innate to Twitter users who are developers. 1 Leif Singer 2 days agoMod LukasEder great place to connect with key players Interesting -- would you care to chime in the comment on asking questions / talking to thought leaders above? Share Share Share Share Share Share Edit Reply follow over time. - Have a prole image and bio that shows you're an actual human being. You don't need to reveal your identity / gender / etc. but anything beyond the default image helps. It helps if you seem to be likable. People like likable people. That doesn't mean you have to agree with everything -- just have some basic manners and provide potential value (see above) to others. - Same goes for your tweets (and possibly blog posts) -- be authentic, have manners, share what you're learning. - Finally, you could try posting your questions under hashtags. Some communities are known to monitor questions about their niche and answer those. IIRC the Drupal paper we cite in our report said something like that. Most of the above of course is completely unscientic and just how I experience Twitter. YMMV. Reply whatever 2 days agoLeif Singer I think there's some good advice on here on how to maximize success at the Twitter Game, especially the use of a prole image and bio, but it's also why I typically use google and ask questions as stackexchange, expertsexexchange, reddit, irc, and seek out specialized forums before asking anything on twitter. (Of course there are downsides to the prole image and bio and that's the obnoxious behaviors of recruiters and interviewers. It makes it scary to ask a dumb question on the net, or even a newbie question.) Edit Reply Leif Singer 2 days agoMod whatever Yes, why not use other channels if they're better suited for the question you have? In our study, Twitter seemed to be much more valuable for serendipitious / undirected learning than for needing an answer to a specic problem right now. Reply AsherBond 2 days ago I was asked to participate in community research and when the results and ndings were shared I also shared these ndings with my followers. A good leader is a good follower and I think thought leaders are good at following Technology which leads the software industry. Edit Reply Leif Singer 2 days agoMod AsherBond Thanks Asher! I'm blown away by all the tweets, retweets, and favorites this blog post got. Very thankful. whatever 2 days ago So I have followed 30 dozen thought leaders and 1200 dozen of the people in their networks. But only 16 people follow me, half of those spammers. So just how do I ask a question? #PissingIntoTheWind Share Share Share Share Share 39. Hector Zarate (@iOSCowboy) blogs about our blog post. Tweeting Developers Published 27 Nov 2013 For a long time I saw Twitter as a source of mild entertainment which occasionally brought me up to update on something relevant. But that point of view changed recently, when I cherry-picked who I'm following and discovered the interaction I can have with some great developers. In no time it became a valuable tool that updates me on what's happening in my tech niche, tips me about new interesting things to learn and puts me in touch with other cool people doing cool stu. But don't take my word for granted. Leif Singer (@lsinger), a mad scientist from the University of Victoria in Canada, made a thorough research on How Software Developers Use Twitter. He wrote a great post about it on his blog that I just can't recommend enough. It includes a tl;dr and usage strategies for developers using Twitter. Pure gold. Check it out. You know, for science! 40. YES, WE DO HAVE BACKUP SLIDES! 41. 41 Staying Aware Spreading Information Managing Relationships Twitter Adopters 800 400 00! 200! 400! 600! 800! stay%aware:%adopters% 800 400 00! 200! 400! 600! 800! spread:(adopters( 800 400 00! 200! 400! 600! 800! rel:%adopters% Twitter Non-Adopters 400 200 00! 100! 200! 300! 400! stay%aware:%non,adopters% 400 200 00! 100! 200! 300! 400! spread:(non+adopters( 400 200 00! 100! 200! 300! 400! rel:%non(adopters% Legend Twitter Google+ Chat Facebook Other Email Blogs News Aggregators In Person igure 7: The channels Twitter adopters and non-adopters use for dierent activities 42. Exploratory Survey Participants: GitHub 42 NA: 100 EU: 69 NO: 49 SA: 13 AU: 3 CA: 5 WA: 7 MA: 5 EA: 3 AF: 0 hirable: 80 not hirable: 171 public_repos followers following followers/following created_at updated_at public_gists contributions MEDIAN 15 7 5 0.857142857142857 2011-01-27 21:56:32 UTC 2013-09-06 11:08:00 UTC 2 226 MIN 0 0 0 0 2008-01-30 23:19:18 UTC 2013-06-06 11:37:00 UTC 0 0 MAX 301 1321 621 456 2013-05-27 14:43:57 UTC 2013-09-07 07:16:27 UTC 235 57875 AVG 27 40 23 5 2010-12-02 18:11:37 UTC 2013-09-02 11:37:34 UTC 12 814 STDEV: 35 134 57 33 503d 12h 2m 7s 627ms 10d 23h 0m 40s 720ms 26 3785 43. Exploratory Survey Participants: Twitter 43 Since Last tweeted at Tweets Favorites Listed Following Followers followers/following MEDIAN 2009-05-04 09:03:37 +0000 2013-09-05 13:10:45 +0000 1124 19 5 169 144 1 MIN 2006-10-26 14:04:33 +0000 2008-01-30 13:57:31 +0000 0 0 0 0 0 0 MAX 2013-05-06 15:40:39 +0000 2013-09-07 05:36:12 +0000 41079 9107 949 2600 11469 125 AVG 2009-07-08 06:44:04 +0000 2013-07-25 03:03:33 +0000 3356 251 32 287 490 3 STDEV: 526d 20h 54m 18s 872ms 185d 23h 19m 18s 564ms 6398 882 103 369 1218 10 44. Interviewees: GitHub 44 public_repos followers following followers/following created_at updated_at public_gists contributions MEDIAN 25 13 11 2 2010-08-10 22:10:48 UTC 2013-09-06 17:50:24 UTC 5 385 MIN 2 0 0 0 2008-02-02 23:25:39 UTC 2013-09-03 23:19:51 UTC 0 18 MAX 133 936 162 23 2013-04-24 21:22:13 UTC 2013-09-07 07:02:06 UTC 88 3068 AVG 38 72 21 4 2010-06-15 11:05:34 UTC 2013-09-06 08:44:21 UTC 13 728 STDEV: 37 189 32 6 488d 10h 5m 44s 457ms 0d 22h 6m 31s 167ms 19 878 NA: 12 EU: 8 NO: 1 SA: 3 AU: 1 CA: 0 WA: 0 MA: 1 EA: 1 hirable: 9 not hirable: 18 45. Interviewees: Twitter 45 Since Last tweeted at Tweets Favorites Listed Following Followers followers/following MEDIAN 2009-04-02 15:13:28 +0000 2013-09-06 15:28:18 +0000 2210.5 18.5 7.5 165.0 195.5 0.969495091164095 MIN 2007-07-11 00:01:42 +0000 2013-07-24 13:07:57 +0000 4.0 0.0 0.0 23.0 11.0 0.162878787878788 MAX 2012-02-10 20:12:06 +0000 2013-09-07 05:35:37 +0000 29644.0 2101.0 739.0 1999.0 7921.0 19.8 AVG 2009-03-19 22:57:10 +0000 2013-09-02 13:10:19 +0000 4983.1 129.2 55.4 337.0 716.4 2.8 STDEV: 418d 1h 26m 3s 456ms 11d 0h 58m 3s 698ms 7139.5 410.2 153.1 461.5 1635.4 4.4 46. Validation Survey Participants: GitHub 46 hirable: 482 not hirable: 931 bio public_repos followers following created_at updated_at public_gists contributions median 17 8 7 2011-01-20 10:36:26 UTC 2013-11-09 03:45:03 UTC 2 203 min 0 0 0 2008-01-12 16:46:24 UTC 2013-05-31 19:08:18 UTC 0 0 max 742 1191 1338 2013-11-07 00:07:11 UTC 2013-11-11 04:05:47 UTC 1549 8159 avg 28 28 22 2010-12-18 11:52:17 UTC 2013-11-05 11:13:12 UTC 15 450 stdev 43 71 58 501d 8h 54m 19s 425ms 14d 14h 16m 22s 356ms 57 686 47. Validation Survey Participants: Twitter 47 Since Last tweeted at Tweets Favorites Listed Following Followers MEDIAN 1657d 4h 11m 24s 23d 21h 38m 51s 1087 26 185 154 MIN 2658d 23h 10m 7s 2055d 21h 44m 56s 0 0 0 0 MAX 55d 9h 32m 18s 21d 20h 34m 38s 155210 48918 4056 31678 AVG 1551d 15h 54m 19s 972ms 46d 11h 9m 0s 414ms 3982 387 307 519 STDEV: 577d 19h 8m 52s 816ms 123d 5h 34m 50s 731ms 9988 2250 411 1782

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