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Http:// else gal/TalmudMap/Gemara.html else gal/TalmudPage.html

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  • http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~else gal/TalmudMap/Gemara.html http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~else gal/TalmudPage.html
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  • Tannaim Repeaters of Torah + tradition. Collected in Mishnah
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  • http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsega l/TalmudMap/Mishnah.html MISHNAH: continued to attract commentaries: Now traditional to print the MISHNAH along with respected commentaries made in Middle Ages.
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  • Mishnah Discusses HALACHAH Jewish Law. HEBREW Uses Bible, but does not discuss it directly. NOT essays, but discussions.
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  • Mishnah: 2 uses Mishnah: A collection of discussions mishnah: each discrete discussion The Mishnah is made up of all the mishnahs
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  • First mishnah When to recite Evening Shema? R. Eliezer, From when the priests enter to eat offerings, until end of first watch Sages, Until Midnight R. Gamaliel, Until dawn
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  • Resolution Gamaliel, If it is not dawn yet, you must recite Shema, even if Sages say you have only until Midnight.
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  • Why did sages say until Midnight? To keep a man far from sin. Fence around the Torah
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  • 2. When to recite the morning Shema? When you can tell apart blue and white. R. Eliezer says, Blue and Green, and do it before sunrise. R. Joshua says, within 3 hours of sunrise: like reading Torah. NO RESOLUTION. First option preferable
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  • 3. Recline, or stand for shema? Shammai: evening you must recline morning you must stand When you lie down and when you rise up. (Deut. 6:7) Hillel: However you want And as you go about your way
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  • If Hillel is right, then why does Bible say when you lie down rise up Majority position: since Shema-time is about the time people go to bed and wake up. Very simple answer, but it needs to be said.
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  • R. Tarfon Recites according to Shammai Moral: following Shammai is dangerous But Hillels position is not binding on everyone.
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  • 4. Number of blessings They say no changes to the custom. Seal off a blessing No description of what this means.
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  • 5. Exodus at night? Unclear references.
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  • Issue: Mishnah not final word more questions raised than answered
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  • Interpretation. Mishnah requires study, interpretation. Rabbinic interpreters recorded their work over the centuries.
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  • Tannaim Repeaters of Torah + tradition. Collected in Mishnah
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  • Mishnah Discussed by the AMORAIM Famous discussions remembered Others hypothetical R. So-&-so would have said
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  • Discussions Gemara = Traditions of the Amoraim concerning Mishnah
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  • Gemara collected Gemara discussions on particular mishnah paragraphs are collected with the Mishnah quotations.
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  • New Tradition: Talmud Discussions stemming from Mishnah.
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  • MISHNAH + GEMARA ---------------- TALMUD On handout diagram, A & B sections are the Talmud proper Surrounding sections are later additions by medieval commentators, etc.
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  • 2 Talmuds JERUSALEM BABYLONIAN 4th c. CE6th c. CE. YerushalmiBavli
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  • Bavli Longer More Authoritative Better edited THE Talmud usually refers to Bavli.
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  • Extent More than Mishnah discussed Each mishnah followed by Gemara Gemara on short mishnahs can go on for pages
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  • Gemara on Mishnah Berakhot 1. T: When to recite evening Shema? G. Where is the Tanna standing? Why start with evening? Start with the Morning!
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  • G. Answer Tanna stands on scripture: When you lie down rise up Amora adds: he can also argue from creation: Evening and morning (Gen. 1:5)
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  • Proof-text Reference to a passage to prove a halakhic opinion. Bible Early Rabbinic discussions outside Mishnah Tosefta Midrash
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  • Amora: Troubled by lack of concern for proof by the Tanna. Assumes Tanna MUST have had a biblical reason for his opinion, so Amora fills the need.
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  • Goal of Talmud: Mishnah and Written Torah MUST be shown to be inter-related. Show Mishnah to be consistent.
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  • Problem Mishnah puts: Evening first in 1.1. Morning first in 1.4. Amora in Gemara first proved 1.1 based on Torah, now 1.4 disregards the principle!
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  • Solution: Simple, but must be made clear: Tanna spoke of evening then morning, but continued to talk of morning since he was on the subject Then returned to the evening CHIASTIC structure.
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  • G. Question: When is it evening? Tanna mentioned the offerings? Why? Amora assumes that Tanna knew: evening was when the time the stars come out. Answer: to teach something else: the time of the priests ate the offerings.
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  • Digression: Ritual impurity Does the coming of evening remove some impurity? Yes
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  • Back to the point Mishnah refers to offerings A baraita refers to a poor mans evening meal. Solution: both events were simultaneous.
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