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Human Computer Interaction

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This paper explains how to increase performance for user interfaces by developing zooming tools for mobile devices
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Human-Computer Interaction Human-Computer Interacti on Edited by Ioannis Pavlidis In-TechIV Published by In-Tech Abstractingandnon-profituseofthematerial ispermittedwithcredittothesource.Statementsand opinions expressed inthechapters are these ofthe individual contributors andnotnecessarily those of theeditors or publisher.No responsibility is acceptedforthe accuracy of informationcontained inthe publishedarticles.Publisherassumesnoresponsibilityliabilityforanydamageorinjurytopersonsor propertyarising outoftheuseofanymaterials, instructions,methods or ideascontainedinside.After this work has beenpublished by theIn-Teh, authors havethe rightto republish it, inwhole or part, in any publication of which they are an author or editor, and the make other personal use of the work. 2008 In-tech http://intechweb.org/Additional copies can be obtained from:[email protected] First published October 2008 Printed in Croatia A catalogue record for this book is available from the University Library Rijeka under no. 120102043 Human-Computer Interaction, Edited by Ioannis Pavlidis p.cm. ISBN 978-953-7619-19-0 1. Human-Computer. 2. Interaction I. Ioannis Pavlidis V Preface This book is an assembly of essays on stateof the artconcepts,methodologies, and sys-tems in the fast moving field of humancomputer interaction. Twentyone chapters describe either progress in main themes or introduce totally new themes, never conceived before.As the use of mobile devices proliferates, a major challenge is how to present effectively visualinformationonalimitedrealestate.K.B.LeeintroducesZoomableUserInterfaces (ZUI) to address this problem. R. Michalski examines the effect of graphical panels characteristics on usability.He fur-ther connects this to gender differences.N.Juristoetal.arguethatparticularusabilityissueshaveasignificantimpactonsoft-ware design and thus, need to be considered early in the development cycle, stating with the requirements formulation.F. Naya et al. introduce Computer Aided Sketching (CASk) as a means to bridge the dis-connect between CAD and the initial design stages of a product.S. Nilsson provides a detailed account of Augmented Reality (AR) as the technology that aimstomergetherealandvirtualworld.ARisseennotonlyasaproductivityenhancing tool but also as an entertaining spice to the daily routine.R. de Oliveira and H.V. da Rocha, propose multidevice design via the maintenance of a ConsistencyPriorities hierarchy defined in three levels. The first two levels give support to the users expectation, while the third level provides task personalization. M.Ferreetal.introduceMasterFinger2,anoveltwofingerhapticinterfacethatim-proveshapticinteraction.Theinterfaceisbasedonanopenarchitecture,whichallowsthe control of each finger independently via Ethernet.J. Park and S.H. Park address the issue of effective visual interfaces in vehicle information systems and aircraft cockpits.The aim is to reduce cognitive workload, which is paramount to safety in vehicular and avionic applications. D.Shastrietal.describeanewcontactfreemethodologytomeasurethecognitiveload arising when the vehicle driver speaks at the sametime over the cell phone.Thistechnol-ogy opens the way for objective usability measurements in vehicular applications and more.S.Rangarajanetal.describeanovelmultimodalsystemcombiningapressuresensing floor and a visual motion capture system. X.Renetal.introducestheAdaptiveHybridCursortechniquethattakesadvantageof pressuresensitive input devices.In fact, pressure is used to control the zoom ratio of inter-face contents.U.SeifertandJ.H.Kimdelveintocognitivemusicologyasanovelapproachtohu-manrobot interaction in artistic contexts.B.SenerandO.Pedgleyaddresstheinadequaciesof3DCADsystemsintheearly(and most creative) stages of industrial design.Y.LuandS.Smithpresentanewtypeofecommercesystem,ARecommerce,which visually brings virtual products into real physical environments for user interaction. VIA.Song,ononechapter,focusesonthedesignofmultidimensionalforcesensorsfor haptic human computer interaction. He pays particular attention on the design principles of a novel 4 DOF force/torque sensor.On another chapter, he focuses on the design of soft haptic display devices for humancomputer interaction.F.Steinickeetal.introducenewcollaborative3Duserinterfaceconceptsforeveryday working environments. They describe a system that allows displaying and interacting with both mono as well as stereoscopic content in parallel.Y.Suhetal.presentaContextAwareAugmentedReality(CAMAR)systemthatsup-ports two main functionalities. One is the intuitive and personalized control of smart appli-ances. The other is enabling media contents to be shared selectivelyan interactively among a group of people.J. Takatalo et al. concentrate on the psychological analysis of the user experience in digital games.Theypresentthreedifferentpsychologicalframeworksthathavebeenusedinthe study of complex environments.E.V. Mora et al. introduce a new model to improve the quality of life of people who live with chronic diseases following Ambient Intelligence principles. The model is validated in a solution to assess heart failure patients remotely.T. Yamaguchi et al. present SharedWell,a collaborative public and private, interactive display,suitedforstrategiccooperativetasks.Thedisplayenablesuserstodynamically choose negotiation partners, create cooperative relationships and strategically control the in-formation they share and conceal. Editor Ioannis Pavlidis Eckhard Pfeiffer Professor Director, Computational Physiology Lab Department of Computer Science Email: [email protected] Houston, TXUSA VII Contents Preface V 1.Using Zooming Applications for Mobile Devices001 Kwang B. Lee 2.The effects of panel location, target size, and gender on efficiency in sim-ple direct manipulation tasks 011 Rafal Michalski 3.Moving usability forward to the beginning of the software development process 023 Natalia Juristo, Ana Moreno and Maria-Isabel Sanchez-Segura 4.Sketch-Based Interfaces for Parametric Modelling043 Ferran Naya, Manuel Contero, Nuria Aleixos, Joaquim A. Jorge and Pedro Company 5.Having Fun at Work: Using Augmented Reality in Work Realated Tasks057 Susanna Nilsson 6.Multi-Device Desing in Contexts of Interchange and Task Migration075 Rodrigo de Oliveira and Heloisa Vieira da Rocha 7.Multifinger Haptic Interfacesfor Collaborative Enviroments101 Manuel Ferre, Maria Oyarz, Alexandre Campos and Mary Monroy 8.Visual Information Presentation in Continuous Control Systems using Visual Enhancements 113 Jaekyu Park and Sung Ha park 9.Contact-free Stress Monitoring for Users Divided Attention127 Dvijesh Shastri, Avinash Wesley and Ioannis Pavlidis 10.Design Optimization of Pressure Sensing Floor for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction 135 Sankar Rangarajan, Assegid Kidan, Gang Qian and Stjepan Rajko 11.Improving Target Acquisitions through Utilizing Pen Pressure163 Xiangshi Ren, Jibin Yin, Shengdong Zhao and Yang Li 12.Towards a Conceptual Framework and an Empirical Methodology in Re-search on Artistic Human-Robot Interaction 177 Uwe Seifert and Jin Hyun Kim VIII13.Novel Multimodal Interaction for Industrial Design195 Bahar Sener and Owain Pedgley 14.Augmented Reality E-Commerce: How the Technology benefits Peoples Lives 215 Yuzhu Lu and Shana Smith 15.Multi-Dimensional Force Sensor Design for Haptic Human-Computer Inter-action 239 Aiguo Song 16.Softness Haptic Display Device for Human-Computer Interaction257 Aiguo Song, Jia Liu and Juan Wu 17.3D User Interfaces for Collaborative Work279 Frank Steinicke, Gerd Bruder, Klaus Hinrichs, Timo Ropinski and Marco Lopes 18.Context-aware Mobile AR system for Personalization, Selective Sharing, and Interaction of Contents in Ubiquitous Computing Environments 295 Youngjung Suh, Youngmin Park, Hyoseok Yoon and Woontack Woo 19.User Experience in Digital Games315 Jari Takatalo, Jukka Hakkinen, Jyrki Kaistinen and Gote Nyman 20.Iterative user interaction design for wearable and mobile solutions to as-sess cardiovascular chronic diseases 335 Elena Villalba Mora, Dario Salvi, Manuel Ottaviano, Ignacio Peinado and Maria Te-resa Arredondo Waldmeyer 21.Strategic Negotiations in Tabletop355 Tokuo Yamaguchi, Sriram Subramanian, Yoshifumi Kitamura and Fumio Kishino 1 Using Zooming Applications for Mobile Devices Kwang B. Lee Department of Computer Science University of Northern Virginia U.S.A. 1. Introduction Althoughmobiledevices,cellularphones,PersonalDigitalAssistants(PDAs)andother handhelddeviceshavehardwareconstraintssuchassmallscreen,smallstorage,lowCPU speed,andlowresolution,theirpopularityhasbeenenormouslyincreasing.Thisis enhancingtheopportunitiesforresearcherstoovercomethoseopenproblemscausedof small size hardware constraints. However, still the biggest difficulty is that these devices are too difficult to load todays visual information because most current information is based on alargevisualdocumentation.Howdowepresentinformationeffectivelyonmobile devices? This is a main challenge for mobile interface developers since viewing is becoming more and more crucial point in our daily lives. One of the methods is to build a Zoomable User Interfaces (ZUIs) by using several zooming tools so that the amount of information, which needs to be handled by users, can be shown on a small screen unlimitedly. Smooth zooming technology helps users to interact with their senseofthefocus-and-contextbyshiftingthecognitiveloadtothehumanvisualsystem, anditcanprovideapossiblesolutionthatsatisfiestheabovedemandsbymeansof increasingtheeffectivenessforusingthesmallscreen.Thussupportingzoomingtoolson mobiledevicesisanecessaryitemwithenablinguserstoeffectivelycontrolthezooming methods.Thegoalofthispaperistoincreasetheperformanceofuserinterfacesbydeveloping zoomingtoolsonmobiledevices.Threezoomingapproacheswillbeintroducedinthis paper.First,focuszoomingtools,whichconsistsofthemagnifyingglassthatwas introducedfromaBifocalDisplay(Apperley,Tzavaras,andSpence,1982),thegray scaling and blurring lens that was introduced from a Focus+Context Visualization (Giller, Tscheligim,Schrammel,Frhlich,andRabl,2001),willbeproposed.Second,filezooming tools including zoom-in and zoom-out functions to enlarge or reduce data and images based onthegeometriczoomingtechnologywillbeproposed.Finally,searchzoomingtools, whichhavetwofunctionssupportapopupzoomingandashadowzoomingfunctionsto assistusereasytocontrolforseeingmanyfilesonthedevice,willbeintroduced. Furthermore, the paper addresses a new usability testing method which combines heuristic, scenarios,andquestionnaireapproachesinordertoeffectivelytakeexperimentalresults fromusers.Itstestingmethodsandprocedureswillbeintroducedbyconductingusability test with user.HumanComputer Interaction 2 Inthispaper,wefirstdescribethebasiczoomingtechniqueandprototypeonaPDAin section2.Insection3,weintroduceanewmobileusabilitytestingmethod,andconduct usability testing and show the results in section 4. Finally, we conclude by describing some of our experiences in building the system and outlining future work. 2. Basic Zooming Structure Inthissection,wediscussthetheoreticalbackgroundforbasiczoomingtechniqueson mobile devices, and mention the necessary concept needed to support our approaches. 2.1 Magnifying Process Themagnifyingprocessestransferpixelsfromaspecifiedsourcepantoaspecified destination pan, which is the magnifying glass, altering the pixels according to the selected raster operation code. To magnify data, a source pan containing source data on the original screenissmallerthanthemagnifyingglasspan,asseeninFigure1(a).Thus,theratioto magnifydatawillbedecidedbycomparingthesizeoftwopans,asourcepananda magnifying glass pan. D1: The size of source pan, (x1y1) D2: The size of the magnifying glass pan, (x2y2) R1,R2: Magnifying ratio L1,L2: Data loss area H: Height (a) Magnifying process (b) Zoom-in and zoom-out process Fig. 1. Zooming process on a PDA screen Adegreeofinterest(DOI)functionmapwhichwasintroducedbyFurnas(Furnas,1986) indicates the level of interest in the item and it can be used to control how available space is allocatedamongstitems.TheDOIconcepthasbeenchangedovertimeaccordingtothe changeofuserinteractionsuchassearchingprocessandthemovingfocus.So,insteadof using DOI, we suggest another approach to calculate how much data is magnified and how much data is lost. Inthemagnifyingglass,thetechniqueallowsusertodeterminetheglasssizeand magnifyingratiobasedonthevaryinginterestlevelsofparts.Tocalculatethemagnifying Using Zooming Applications for Mobile Devices 3 ratio, we can use three factors: the source pan (D1) that is based on the original source data; the data loss (L1+L2) that is an obscured region due to the big magnifying glass; and finally, thedestinationpan(D2)thatisthetargetwindowforcopiedthesourcedata.Thus,the magnifying ratio depends on the size of each pan and data loss 2.2 Zooming Process Zoomingprocessesarecopyingbitmapsfromthesourcerectangleandtransferringthem intoadestinationrectanglebystretchingorcompressingthesizeofbitmapstofitthe dimensionsofthedestinationrectangle,ifnecessary.Bythezoomingsize,S,andthe zoomingratio,R={036 32-36 27-31 22-26Frequency12108642029.1%41.7%12.5%16.7%

Human-Computer Interaction 226 Computer ExperienceComputer ExperiencePro A Lot Avg A LittleFrequency1210864204.2%29.1%41.7%25%

Online Shoppng frequencyOnline Shoppng frequency>Often Often Avg A Little NoFrequency1210864204.2%29.1%41.7%20.8%4.2% Fig. 12. Participants self description 4.3 Results 4.3.1 Overall Evaluation Thefirstresearchquestioninthequestionnairewasdesignedtocaptureoverallfeelings about the three different types of e-commerce systems, without being affected or guided by laterquestions.TheparticipantsoverallevaluationsarelistedinTable1,bylocationsand by experience orders, which were also separately tested using Factorial ANOVA. PARTICIPANT RATINGLOCATIONSUBJECTS TVRAR 1245 2155 3134 4235 5134 6245 Open space office (1) Mean/Std. Dev1.5/0.5483.667/0.8164.667/0.516 7354 8254 9234 10155 11345 12135 Cubicle office (2) Mean/Std. Dev2/0.8944.167/0.9834.5/0.548 13355 14135 15335 16544 17135 18 135 Single-user single-room office (3) Mean/Std. Dev 2.333/1.6333.5/0.8374.833/0.408 Augmented Reality E-Commerce: How the Technology Benefits People's Lives 227 19345 20345 21234 22124 23344 24554 Multi-user single-room shared office (4) Mean/Std. Dev 2.833/1.3293.667/1.0334.333/0.516 Mean 2.1673.754.583 Std. Dev.1.2040.8970.504 Table 1. Overall evaluation (1=lowest5=highest) As shown in Table 1., the mean overall evaluation for traditional e-commerce was 2.167, the meanoverallevaluationforVRenhancede-commercewas3.75,andthemeanoverall evaluationforARenhancede-commercewas4.583.Asshowninthebetween-subjects effects and within-subjects effects analysis of Table 2., the p-value for the effect of the type of e-commercesystemisverysmall('m;=es!c'1!0e!3#%16!i1!;='Bi1)!c'/6!)'mes!#/!0#'/6!)'mes!:i5+!3/ie16s!#/!3'mi=B.!Aem0e/s!'/e!c#m;e5i1)!:i5+!e'c+!#5+e/!0%5! 5+e! %=5im'5e! )#'=! is! 3#/! e?e/B#1e! 5#! e1L#B! 5+e! )'me.! M5+e/! e>'m;=es! c'1! 0e! 3#%16! i1!?'/i#%s!5/'6i1)!3=##/imiEe! i5s! im;'c5! 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'1B! ;/i?'5e-! ;e/s#1'=! #/! s+'/e6! s;'ces.! 7i)%/e!5(0)!s+#:s!5+e!se5%;!%si1)!'!='/)e!si1)=e!6is;='B.!a'/5ici;'15s!c'1!see!'==!#3!5+e!c#15e15s!'16!c'1!c#15/#=!5+ei/!#:1!c%/s#/s!?i'!'1!i1;%5!6e?ice.!SB"[email protected]'!7i)%/e!5(c)!s+#:s!5+e!%se/s-!:+#se!+e'6!;#si5i#1s!'/e!5/'c$e6-!=##$i1)!5+/#%)+!'!+#=e!i1!5+e!5'0=e!5#!?ie:!5+ei/!6i)i5'=!c#15e15s.!T+is!+#=e!'==#:s!%se/s!5#!m'i15'i1!'!;/i?'5e!?ie:! #3! 5+ei/! c#15e15s! e?e1! :+e1! 5+eB! m#?e! '/#%16! 5+e! 5'0=e! 6esc/i0e6! i1! sec5i#1! 3.! T#!s+#:! #/! s+'/e! 5+ei/! #:1! c#15e15s-! %se/s! +'?e! 5#! c#me! c=#se! e1#%)+! 5#! e'c+! #5+e/! s#! 5+'5!Human-Computer nteraction #364 5+ei/! ?ie:s! 5+/#%)+! 5+e! +#=e! #?e/=';.! T+e! #?e/=';;i1)! /e)i#1! c/e'5es! '! s+'/e6! s;'ce! 3#/!%se/s!5#!s+#:!#/!s+'/e!c#15e15s.!N3!'!%se/!:'15s!5#!s+#:!#/!s+'/e!c#15e15s!:i5+!'!;'/5ic%='/!;'/51e/-!+e!;%5s!5+e!c#15e15s!i1!5+e!#?e/=';;i1)!'/e'!0B!';;/#'c+i1)!5+e!;'/51e/.!!N1! '==! sBs5ems-! ;'/5ici;'15s! :e/e! 6i?i6e6! 'cc#/6i1)! 5#! 3#%/! c#=#/s! (/e6-! )/ee1-! 0=%e! '16!Be==#:)! '16! c#%=6! /ec#)1iEe! 5+ei/! #:1! im')es! '16! c%/s#/! 0B! 5+e! c#=#/.! D! )'me! c#15/#==e/!:'s!%se6!'s!'1!i1;%5!6e?ice!3#/!e'c+!;'/5ici;'15!5#!c#15/#=!5+e!6i)i5'=!c#15e15s.!D==!sessi#1s!:e/e! ?i6e#5';e6! '16! '1'=BEe6! 5#! c#m;'/e! '16! c#15/'s5! 5+e! s+'/i1)! #3! 0#5+! 5+e! 5'0=e5#;!:#/$s;'ce!'16!5+e!#0Lec5s!#1!5+e!5'0=e.!!4.2.3 Results and Discussion b'se6!#1!5+e!'1'=Bsis!#3!5+e!?i6e#!'16!5+e!im')e!m#?eme15s-!:e!6esc/i0e!#%/!#0se/?'5i#1s!#1!s5/'5e)ic!1e)#5i'5i#1!i1!5+e!6i33e/e15!6i)i5'=!5'0=es.!?,#/*[email protected]'! T+is! se5%;! '==#:e6! '==! ;'/5ici;'15s! 5#! see! '16! +'16=e! '==! im')es!6%/i1)! 5+e! e15i/e! sessi#1.! D5! 5+e! 0e)i11i1)-! 5+ese! 40! im')es! :e/e! 6is5/i0%5e6! 5#! e'c+!;'/5ici;'15! '16! ;='ce6! i1! 3/#15! #3! +e/! '5! 5+e! e6)e! #3! 5+e! 5'0=e.! N1! #/6e/! 5#! c/e'5e! 5+ei/! #:1!s5#/B=i1es-! ;'/5ici;'15s! /e'//'1)e6! 5+ei/! im')es! :i5+i1! 5+e! '/e'! :+e/e! 5+e! im')es! :e/e!6e=i?e/e6.!D35e/!6e5e/mi1i1)!im')es!5#!0e!%se6!3#/!5+ei/!#:1!s5#/B=i1es!i1!5+ei/!mi16s-!5+eB!m#?e6! 5+e! %11ecess'/B! im')es! 5#! 5+e! c#/1e/! #3! 5+e! 5'0=e-! :+e/e's! 5+eB! =e35! 5+e! 1ecess'/B!im')es! s5'5i#1'/B! i1! 3/#15! #3! 5+em! 's! 5+e! se=ec5e6! im')es.! 8e! 1#5ice6! 5+'5! '==! ;'/5ici;'15s!+'16=e6!5+ei/!im')es!#1=B!i1!5+e!;%0=ic!s;'ce.!T+eB!6i6!1#5!:'i5!3#/!5+e!';;/#;/i'5e!5imi1)!5#! ;/ese15! '! ;'/5ic%='/! im')e! 5#! 5+e! #5+e/s! e33icie15=B! 0ec'%se! 5+eB! c#%=6! see! '==! 5+e! im')es!'==!5+e!5ime!6%/i1)!5+e!sessi#1.!Xe/e!'!;'/5ici;'15!+'6!5#!m#?e!5+e!im')es!0B!'!c%/s#/-!'16!5+is! seeme6! 5#! ;/ese15! c#)1i5i?e! %1ce/5'i15B! 5#! 5+e! #5+e/! ;'/5ici;'15s! '0#%5! 5+e! #;e/'5#/Os!i15e15i#1s!'16!s#!#1.!T+e!e;is5emic!'c5i#1s!#cc%//e6!i1!5+e!3#/m!#3!/e6%16'15!m#?eme15s!#3!im')es-! +#:e?e/! 5+eB! :e/e! 1#5! e33ec5i?e=B! %se6! 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's! :e==.!.##1!'35e/!5+e!im')es!:e/e!m#?e6!5#!5+e!s+'/e6!s;'ce-!#5+e/s!e?'=%'5e6!5+em!R%ic$=B.!T+is!:'s! 5+e! 3i/s5! s5e;! #3! e?'=%'5i#1! '16! :'s! /e;e'5e6! se?e/'=! 5imes! 0B! c+'1)i1)! ;'/51e/s.!T+/#%)+!'!seR%e1ce!#3!1e)#5i'5i#1s-!im')es!:e/e!)/'6%'==B!c#==ec5e6!i1!5+e!;%0=ic!s;'ce!5#!3#/m!'!s5#/B=i1e.!T+ese!im')es!:e/e!3i1'==B!/e;e/ime15-! i5! is! c=e'/!5+'5! 5+e/e! '/e! 6i33e/e1ces! i1! +#:! ;'/5ici;'15s!e1)')e!i1!s5/'5e)ic!1e)#5i'5i#1s!i1!/e'='mi1e!i13#/m'5i#1!5+'5!1ee6s!5#!0e!s+#:1!5#!5+e!#5+e/!;'/5ici;'15s!'5!5+e!m#s5!';;/#;/i'5e!5ime!5#!m'>imiEe!i5s!im;'c5.!N1!5+e!Z0iT'0=e;=ici5! m#?eme15sc!+#:e?e/-!5+e!;+Bsic'=!m#?eme15s!3#/ce6!;'/5ici;'15s!5#!miss!s#me!#;;#/5%1e!m#me15s!'16!'5!5+e!s'me!5ime!R%ic$=B!3'5i)%e6!5+em.!!./*#01+*2%320*4,#'%N1!5+e!/e'=;=ici5=B!3'c5#/!i1!e;is5emic!'c5i#1s!i1!5+ei/!6esi)1s-!5+e!%se/s!:e/e!'0=e!5#!;e/3#/m!s#me!#3!5+e!e;is5emic!'c5i#1s!#0se/?e6!i1!/e'=i0i=i5B! '16! 3=%i6i5B! #3! /e'=;=ici5=B! 5'$e!i15#!c#1si6e/'5i#1!5B;ic'=!e;is5emic!'c5i#1s!:+e1!6esi)1i1)!3%5%/e!5'0=e5#;!sBs5ems. Human-Computer nteraction #368 6. Conclusion !N1! 5+is! '/5ic=e-! :e! 6isc%sse6! 5+e! c#1ce;5! #3! 5+e! .+'/e68e==-! '# c#=='0#/'5i?e-! ;%0=ic! '16!;/i?'5e-! i15e/'c5i?e! 6is;='B-! '16! s5/'5e)ic! 1e)#5i'5i#1s! 5+'5! i1c=%6e! 0#5+! c#m;e5i5i?e! '16!c##;e/'5i?e! 's;ec5s.! 8e! i1?es5i)'5e6! s5/'5e)ic! 1e)#5i'5i#1s! i1! /e'=5e16e6! 5#! s%;;#/5! '! :i6e! /'1)e! #3! 'c5i?i5ies.! N1! 5+e! 3%5%/e! :e! ;='1! 5#! =##$! i15#!s5%6Bi1)!s5/'5e)ic!1e)#5i'5i#1s!:i5+!'!?'/ie5B!#3!;e/s#1'=i5ies!'16!=e'6e/s+i;!R%'=i5ies!5#!see!i3! 5+e/e! '/e! '1B! 6i33e/e1ces.! 8e! '/e! '=s#! e>;=#/i1)! 1#?e=! :'Bs! 5#! e>5e16! 5'0=e5#;! sBs5ems!=i$e!5+e!.+'/e68e==!5#!c';5%/e!5+e!1%'1ces!#3!1e)#5i'5i#1!5+'5!'/e!e?i6e15!i1!5+e!/e'=!:#/=6.!!7. Acknowledgments !T+is! s5%6B! :'s! s%;;#/5e6! i1! ;'/5! 0B! Ph=#0'=! CMV! (Ce15e/s! #3! V>ce==e1ce)! a/#)/'mQ! #3! 5+e!Ai1is5/B!#3!V6%c'5i#1-!C%=5%/e-!.;#/5s-!.cie1ce!'16!Tec+1#=#)B-!l';'1.!!8. References !Sie5meBe/-! b.! T! 4';='1-! ].! (2004).! Strategicnegotiation:abreakthroughfour-stepprocessfor effective business negotiation, 4';='1!b%si1ess-!N.bg\!`[f

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