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Ignatius Loyola

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  • 7/28/2019 Ignatius Loyola

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    T H E S P I R I T U A L D I A R YI G N A T I U S L O Y O L A

    B y J O S E P H M U N I T I Z

    O F

    T HE SPIRITUAL DIARY OF St Ign ati us Loyo la is u ni qu e a mo ng his volu -mlno ns works as bei ng one of the very few that survive in their originalhan d-wr itte n form, an d that were writte n solely by the saint himself withoutthe assistance of his secretary. 1 On e migh t have expected it to prov ideimmediate access to his mind and spirituality. Instead many readers, eventhose who have some acqua inta nce with the life an d work of the saint, findthat the Dia ry remains hidde n in a strange mist of cultural remoteness andunintelligibility.

    These pages are clearly the work of a m an devoted to God, living anintense interior life, divinely endowed with special gifts. It is not quite soeasy to believe that they were writte n by the m an who founded the Societyof Jesus, at a time when he was extraordinarily active, both in personalapostolic work in R ome an d even the more taxing occupations of the govern-men t of the youn g society (the first papa l a ppro bati on had b een g rante d onlyfive years previously). Further, although the impression conveyed by theDiary is that the writer is a m an subject to more t ha n the o rdina ry psycho-logical tensions; a person tossed between 'great tranquillity' and the sort ofexperience recorded for F ebr uar y 8,

    I felt with in me th at I approache d, or was bro ugh t before, the Father,an d with this my h air rose and I felt what seemed an intense war mthin every part of my body, followed by tears and the most intensedevotion,

    it comes as something of a surprise to find that this is also the man whosedisciples were instruc ted by him to excel in exterior an d inte rior equilibrium.2Finally, althou gh it ma y be clear from the Diary that the writer is resortingto ce rta in technique s in the spiritual life (such as ways of pra yin g and ofmaking a decision), it is not clear whose techniques these are, nor indeedhow far he is merely indul ging in whims.1 The ' D i a r y ' , written in ~544-I545, was first published nearly 400 years later byA. Codina in M onu men ta H istorica Societatis oTesu,vol 63, (Rome, I934) pp 86-I58. Thepresent writer has prepared a first draft in english. All the quotations from the Diaryare from this translation.'The modesty of their countenance, the maturi ty of their walk, and all their move-ments, without giving any sign of impatience or pride', as Ignatius exhorts in theConsti tut ions (1VII-ISI, 64, pp 342-343; trs. G. E. Ganss [St Louis, x97o], p I55). Evenmore explicit are the Rules of Modesty, composed by Ignatius but not included in theConsti tut ions.

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    I 0 2 P R A Y E R & T H E I G N A T I A N E X E R C I S E SI n a d d i t io n , t h e r e a d e r o f t h e D i a r y m a y w e l l a sk h i m s e l f w h a t t y p e o f

    m y s t i c a l e x p e r ie n c e i t r ep r e se n t s, w h a t e v i d e n c e i t a f fo r d s t h a t I g n a t i u se n j o y e d t h e h i g h e r f li g ht s o f i n fu s e d c o n t e m p l a t i o n , a n d h o w t y p i c a l o f t h es a i n t ' s n o r m a l s p i r i t u a l li fe a r e i ts p a g e s .The historical context

    A l t h o u g h t h e f i rs t g r o u p o f I g n a t i u s ' c o m p a n i o n s h a d t a k e n v o w s o fp o v e r t y , c h a s t i t y a n d p i l g r i m a g e t o J e r u s a l e m i n 1 53 4, t h e i r f ir st v o w s a sm e m b e r s o f t h e S o c i e ty o f J e su s c o u ld o n l y b e m a d e a f te r t h e p r o p o s e dp i l g r i m a g e h a d b e e n d e f in i te l y i m p e d e d a n d , a s a c o n s e qu e n c e , t h e g r o u ph a d f o u n d i t n e ce s s ar y t o f o r m a n a s s o c i a t io n th a t w o u l d m e e t t h e c a n o n i c a lr e q u i r e m e n t s a n d r e c e iv e p a p a l a p p r o b a t i o n . I n 1 53 7, t h e y o f f e re d t h e i rs e rv i c e s t o P a u l I I I . I n 1 53 9, t h e f i rs t d r a f t o f t h e C o n s t i tu t i o n s w a s c o m p o s e d( t h e F o r m u l a I n s t i tu t i ) ; a n d t h is w a s f o r m a l l y a p p r o v e d b y t h e B u l l R e g i m i n imil i tantis eccleslae o f I5 4O , w h i c h c a n o n i c a l l y i n s t i t u t e d t h e n e w o r d e r , s I n1 54 1, t h e a m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e F o r m u l a w a s e n t r u s t e d t o I g n a t i u s a n d C o d u r e ,a n d a t o n c e I g n a t i u s w a s e l e c te d G e n e r a l . T h e f ir st s o l e m n p r o f es s io n o fv o w s w a s t h e n c e l e b r a t e d , o n A p r i l 2 2 , 1 54 1.

    T h e t h r e e y e a r s t h a t i n t e r v e n e d b e f o re Ig n a t i u s b e g a n h is D i a r y w e r e o fc r u c i a l i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e y o u n g o r d e r . T h e y s a w t h e r a p i d d i s p e r sa l o fn e a r l y a ll I g n a t i u s ' c o m p a n i o n s : t o I r e l a n d ( B ro e t a n d S a l m e r o n ) , P o r t u g a l( S a n t a c r u z a n d o t h e rs ) , G e r m a n y , B e l g i u m , a n d p a r t s o f I t a l y ; t h e w r i t i n go f t h e f i rs t s e t o f Constitutiones Collegiorum, a n d t h e fo u n d i n g o f t h e c o l le g e o fP a d u a ; t h e e r e c t io n o f t h e r o m a n c o l le g e pro catechumenis; t h e s t a r t o f t h ec o n s t r u c t i o n o f R o m e ' s f ir st j e s u i t P r o fe s se d H o u s e ; a n d t h e f o u n d i n g o f th eh o u s e o f S t M a r t h a f or t h e r e f o r m o f p r o s ti tu t e s . A c t i v e t e a c h i n g , e s p e c i a ll yc a t e c h i z i n g t h e y o u n g , a p o s to l i c w o r k a m o n g t h e j e w s o f R o m e ( th e b r i e fGupientes, o n b e h a l f o f c o n v e r t e d j e w s , w a s g r a n t e d i n 1 54 2 t h r o u g h I g n a t i u s ' si n te r c es s io n ) , a n d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f n e w m e m b e r s o f t h e S o c i e t y ,~ o c c u p i e dt h e G e n e r a l ' s f re e t i m e - a v e r y p r e c i o u s c o m m o d i t y i f w e c o n s i d e r t h e v a s tn u m b e r o f l e tt e rs w h i c h w e r e r e q u i r e d t o i n f o rm t h e r a p i d l y d i s p e rs i n g j e s u it so f p r o g re s s a n d o r g a n i z a t io n . I n D e c e m b e r o f 15 42 , w e h a v e S t I g n a t i u s ' o w nt e s t i m o n y t h a t h e s e n t 2 5 o le t t e rs , s o m e a s f a r a f i e l d a s G o a i n I n d i a w h e r eF r a n c i s X a v i e r h a d a l r e a d y a rr i v e d . T h e P o p e r e q u i r e d h i s a s s i s t a n ce i nd e l i c a t e n e g o t i a t io n s w i t h J o h n I I I o f P o r t u g a l . A n d a t t h is t i m e s e ri o u s i l l -h e a l t h w a s c a u s i n g h i m g r e a t s u ff e ri n g a n d w e a k n e s s ( in M a y o f 15 42 a n dt h e e a r l y m o n t h s o f i 5 4 4 h e e n t r u s t e d t h e w r i t i n g o f h i s l e t te r s to s e c r e ta r i e s ).

    W i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e y e a r 1 54 4 ( t h e D i a r y b e g i n s i n F e b r u a r y o f t h is

    8 In the l l s t o f p ros and cons used by the sa in t in the course of the e lec t ion r ecorded inthe Dia ry , the r e i s me nt ion of th i s Bull , and of the yea r fo llowing, in po in t 14. Th e l l stwa s p u b l i sh e d b y A . C o d l n a a l o n g w i t h t h e D i a r y , M HS I , 6 3, p p 7 8 -8 1.4 C f I . I p a r r a g u i r r e , Prdctica de los Ejercido s de San Ignacio de Loyo la en vlda de su autor,(Bilbao, I946 ), lop 38 -39 ; he establishes th at Ign atiu s ' inf luence on th e scholasticsdu r ing the years I54O-- i542 was decisive for the sprea d o f the Exercises.

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    THE SPII~ITUAL DIARY OF IGNATIU S LOYOLA I0 3year), it seems that the first great w ave of activity that h ad been ca rryingIgnatius forward ever since his arrival in Rome suddenly diminished. Thehouse of St Marth a was founded in Janu ary, but then four months of ex-tremely bad health crippled Ignatius' movements. In any case it must havebeen clear that a perio d of consolidation, a nd above all of intensive organiza-tion and planning, was becoming increasingly necessary. The new order wasexpanding rapidly in numbers and in the diverse directions of its personneland their occupations. Attached though Ignatius was to the 'inner law ofdivine love 5 as the guiding princi ple for himself and his subjects, moun tingpressure from his companions and from the papacy, together with the evidentdangers of dissipated energy, impelled him to begin the un welc ome task ofcomposing the Constitutions. s Th e pro ble m beca me crucial with the needfor a decision concerning poverty: Ignatius realized that the principles in-volved were of radical i mportance. First, there was the c omplex question ofpover ty itself: he was sufficiently aware of life's reali ty to appr eci ate thatabsolute poverty might spell the end of the new order by the norma l calculusof hum an probability. Secondly, his own authori ty would be partic ularlytested: for the first time he wou ld h ave to exercise on a gr and scale the powerso gladly entrusted to hi m a nd so reluct antly a ccepte d; for this was only theexordiu m of the whole book of the Constitutions. And by a cr uel twist of fate,the first point appeared to be one in which he would have to revoke adecision already a pprov ed by the early companions. ~ Only if the Dia ry isseen against this background can one understand the apparently excessivehesitation over such a relati vely minor matter . Th e Diary's interest lies inthe fact tha t it shows the first movem ents o f a gre at soul struggling to ente rwith determination on a hazardous journey.The l i terary genre

    At this point, an explanation o f the r61e of the Di ary becomes imperative.Th e title give n to these sheets of paper s is not one chosen by the saint himself:and it is in ma ny ways singularly misleading. T he famous diarists of worldliterature, the Pepys, the Boswells, the Evelyns, fall into a certain category6 As he says in the Preamble to the Constitutions: 'what helps most on our own parttoward this end must be, more than any exterior constitution, the interior law of charityand love which the holy Spirit writes and engraves upon hearts'.e Cf the letter, dated early in 1544, from Fr Domenech to all the Society in which hementions that Ignatius among other occupations is busy with the writing of the Consti-tutions. MHSI, 02, p 29o.In the Spring of 154i , after a commission (consisting of Ignatius himself and Codure)had examined the point, the first companions agreed that the sacristies of churchesbelonging to professed houses should be allowed to possess income. This decision willnow be revoked by Ignatius as a result of his 4o-day 'election'; and in the Constitutionshe forbids the possession of such income. Cf Ganss, pp 253-4.s The first part of the Diary, covering the 4o-day election period from February 2 toMarch 12, 1544, is written on 14 folios; the second part, covering almost a year, March 13,I544 to February 27, I545, occupies I2 folios.

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    IO P R A Y E R & T H E I G N A T I A N E X E R C I S E So f m i n d a n d c h a r a c t e r : t h e y a r e r e m a r k a b l e fo r t h e i r a c u t e o b s e r v a t io n , t h e i rc o n s t a n c y , f i d e li t y , i n d u s t r y . O f t e n t h e y a r e w i t t y , s o m e t i m e s p e d e s t r i a n .O n e i s n o t s u r p r i s e d t o f in d t h a t a m e t h o d i c a l , r a t i o n a l t r a i t p r e d o m i n a t e s :o n e t h in k s , p e r h a p s u n j u s t l y , o f a b a n k - c l e r k ' s l e d g e r . I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n da m a n o f v i o l e n t p a s si o n s k e e p i n g a d i a r y . A n d y e t t h e d i s ti n c t iv e f e a tu r e so f t h e S p i r i t u a l D i a r y , t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t g i v e i t li fe a n d i n t e r e st , a r e p r e c i s e l yt h e d i ff u se o u t - p o u r in g s , t h e b r e a k i n g o f t h e b o n d s o f o r d i n a r y e x p e r i e n c e ,a n d i n d e e d o f o r d i n a r y d i c t i o n - t h e w o r d s f lo w r e g a rd l e s s o f s e n t en c e f o r m ,o f te n t w i s t e d i n t o p h r a se s o f a l m o s t u n i n t e l l i g i b l e a m b i g u i t y 2 W h e n e v e n -t u a l l y t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e D i a r y is re a c h e d , t h e e x a c t c o n t r a r y s ee m s t oh a p p e n : t h e e n tr ie s a re c l i p p e d i n t o te l e g r a m m a t i c r e it e r a t i o n s .I f I g n a t i u s i s a d i a r i s t , t h e n h e m u s t b e o n e o f t h e s t r an g e s t . T h e r e i sn o t h i n g i n h is c h a r a c t e r o r c i rc u m s t a n c e s w h i c h w o u l d e x p l a i n a t l ea s t t h et e m p o r a r y a d o p t i o n o f s u c h a l i t e r a r y f o r m . P e p y s is e m i n e n t l y a u t o b i o -g r a p h i c a l ; h is d i a r y m a y b e g i n w i t h a b l u s h a n d a n a t t e m p t a t s e cr e cy , b u tv e r y s o o n h e i s c o n f i d in g h i m s e l f a n d h is d o i n g s w i t h r e l a t i v e a b a n d o n t o h isr e a d e rs . I g n a t i u s w a s c o n t i n u a l l y p r e s s e d b y h is c o m p a n i o n s t o w r i t e a na u t o b i o g r a p h y . H e r e s is t ed s t ro n g l y , b u t e v e n t u a l l y s u b m i t t e d w h e n t h ea t t a c k t o o k a d v a n t a g e o f h is w e a k f l an k , h is g e n u i n e h u m i l i t y . I t w a s t h e nt h a t h e d i c t a t e d a s h o r t a n d i n c o m p l e t e a c c o u n t t o h is se c r e ta r y . I t is v e r ym a t t e r - o f -f a c t , d o u r a n d b l u n t , p i t i le s s a n d , o n e c a r m o t h e l p f e e l in g , r a t h e ru n j u s t t o h i m s e lf . F e w p e o p l e h a v e s u c c e e d e d i n a v o i d i n g m a k i n g f oo ls o ft h e m s e l v e s a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e i r c o n v e r s i o n s ; m o s t a r e o n l y t o o w i l l i n g t oc o n s i g n s u c h v a g a r i e s t o o b l i v i o n . T h e s to W o f h is e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e m o o ri s a c l as si c e x a m p l e ; a n d i t is r e w a r d i n g t o c o n s i d e r t h a t S t I g n a t i u s m i g h th a v e b e e n e x e c u t ed fo r m u r d e r b e f o re h e r e a c h e d M a n r e s a , h a d i t n o t b e e nf o r a m u l e ' s w h i m . 1 T h e D i a r y , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , d e s c r i b e s w i t h a fu l n e ssa n d a d e t a i l r a r e l y e q u a l l e d t h e r e c e p t i o n o f s p i r i tu a l g if ts w h i c h w o u l d b et h e e n v y o f m a n y a c a n o n i z e d s a in t . W h a t p o s s es se d I g n a t i u s t o i n d u l g es u d d e n l y i n a s p a t e o f a u t o b i o g r a p h y w h i c h i s b e l ie d b y h is o t h e r e x p re s ss t a t e m e n t s ? T h e a n s w e r i s n o t t o b e f o u n d i n a l o v e f o r l i t e r a r y c o m p o s i t io n .I g n a t i u s c a n r e j e c t a s w i l d l y i m p r o b a b l e i n h i m s e l f t h e s o r t o f m o t i v a t i o nt h a t A u g u s t i n e p e r h a p s w o u l d h a v e a c k n o w l e d g e d a s p a r t o r t h e s e c re t o f h isConfessions. T h e a u t h o r o f t h e D i a r y is n o t a l o v e r o f w o r d s : h e t r e a ts t h e mr o u g h ly , n o w s p a ri n g ly , n o w i n w a n t o n e x ce ss ; t h e y a r e s e i z e d a n d h a m -m e r e d i n t o p l a c e - r a t h e r l ik e t h e s a in t ' s o w n h a n d - w r i t i n g .

    9 I t w as once though t tha t the pecu l ia r it i e s o f the sa in t ' s s ty le were r el ic s o f h i s basqueinfancy ( e l P . M f ig iea , 'Remlniscene ias de l a l eng ua vasca en e l D ia r io de S an Igna c io 'in Rd vue Internationale des 12tudesBasques, I936 , pp 57 -6I ) . Ag a ins t th is v iew, S . Sa la ( 'E ntorno a l cas te ll ano de S . I gna c io ' , in R a z 6 n y F e, ~956, pp 243-274) has a rgu ed tha t a l lthe sa in t 's pecu l ia r i ti e s a r e typ ica l o f ' p r e - c las s ic a l 'span ish s ty le and a r e to be found , f o rexamp le , in the l e t t e r s o f Card ina l Cisneros. F or a r es ta tement o f the basque a rgum entc f G. de Germ aro : 'La expres i6n l i t e r a r ia mls t ica de l D ia r io esp i r i tua l ignac ian o ' inManresa ( i963) , p p 25-46.lo CfAutobiography, C h 2 , n o s I 4 - I 6 .

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    T H E S P I R I T U A L D I A R Y O F I G N A T I U S L O Y O L A IO 5T o f i n d t h e raison d'gtre o f t h e D i a r y , w e m u s t t u r n i n q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t

    d i re c t io n . I n d e e d , o n c e t h e n e w o r i e n t a t i o n h as b e e n a d o p t e d , i t w i l l b ef o u n d t o l e a d t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f m o s t o f t h e D i a r y ' s p r o b l e m s . I n I 52 2 , b a r e l yo n e y e a r a ft e r h is b e i n g w o u n d e d a t P a m p l o n a ( M a y 2 0, I 52 I ) , I g n a t i u s w a sl iv i n g t h e l if e o f a r e c l u se a t M a n r e s a . H e t h e n b e g a n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h es e ri es o f ' m e d i t a t i o n n o t e s ' w h i c h f o r m e d t h e n u c l e u s o f h is f ir s t a n d b e s tk n o w n b o o k , t h e Spiritual Exercises. ( T h is r e c e iv e d p a p a l a p p r o b a t i o n f r o mP a u l I I I i n I 5 48 , a t t h e r e q u e s t o f F r a n c i s B o r g i a ; i n t h e s a m e y e a r t h e f ir ste d i t io n , i n l a t in , a p p e a r e d . ) T h e b o o k c o ns is ts o f i n s t ru c t i o n s a s t o t h e r e f o r -m a t i o n o f o n e ' s l if e b y m e a n s o f p r a y e r a n d p e n a n c e . I ts s t y le is d i d a c t i c a n de m i n e n t l y p r a c t i c a l . I t s o r i g i n a l i t y c o n si st s i n t h e e x a c t n e s s w i t h w h i c h t h ea f f e c ti v e a n d r a t i o n a l p ro c e s s es i n v o l v e d a n d r e q u i r e d d u r i n g t h e s e l e c ti o no f, a n d t h e t o t a l d e d i c a t i o n to , a l if e 's r e f o r m , a r e a n t i c i p a t e d a n d p r o v i d e df o r. S u c h p r e c i s i o n i s t h e r e s u l t o f a m a n ' s a c u t e a n d r e p e a t e d r e f l e c t i o n u p o nh is o w n m e n t a l p r oc e s se s . A n d , f o r I g n a t i u s , s u c h r e f o r m is th e m a i n s t a y o fa v i g o r o u s li fe o f t h e s p i r it . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e l es s on s l e a r n e d a t M a n r e s a a n di m p a r t e d t h r o u g h t h e E x e rc is e s a r e o f d a i l y a n d p e r e n n i a l i m p o r t a n c e . T h i sm a y s e e m e x a g g e r a t e d a n d is c e r t a i n l y o p e n t o m i s i n t e r p r e ta t i o n . T h e r e a r ea s p e c t s o f t h e E x e r c i s e s w h i c h a r e n e c e s s a r i l y t r a n s i e n t , a p p l i c a b l e a t t h em o s t t o t h e t h i r t y - d a y p e r i o d d e d i c a t e d t o th e i r o b s e r v a n c e : t h e i n te n s i t y o ff e e li n g n o r m a l l y p r o d u c e d , t h e e m o t i o n a l s t ra i n , w o u l d b e u n b e a r a b l e a n dh a r m f u l i f u n d u l y p r o t r a c t e d . B u t i f e v i d e n c e w e r e l a c k in g t h a t m a n y o f t h eb a s i c p r i n c i p l e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s t o b e f o u n d i n t h e E x e r c i se s w e r e i n t e n d e d b yI g n a t i u s t o b e t h e i n n e r f r a m e w o r k o f a m a n ' s w h o l e s p i r i t u a l l if e, t h e n t h eSpiritual Diary i s o f e x c e p t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e a s d e c i s i v e p r o o f .

    Th e technique o f decisionT h e S p i r i t u a l E x e r ci s es re v o l v e a r o u n d t h e c e n t r a l a x i s o f r e f o r m . A t t h e

    h e a r t o f th e s e c o n d w e e k is to b e f o u n d a n u m b e r o f c o n s i d e ra t io n s t h a t h e l pt h e e x e r c i t a n t to r e a c h t h e d e c i si v e p o i n t a t w h i c h h e b o t h s e es w h a t c h a n g eis r e q u i r e d , a n d h a s t h e s t r e n g t h t o a c c e p t it . F r o m d i f f e re n t a n gl e s , a p p e a l i n gt o d i v e r s e m e n t a l f a c to r s , I g n a t i u s l e a d s t h e e x e r c i t a n t t o c o n s i d e r th e m e a n sr e q u i r e d ( in th e m e d i t a t i o n o n ' T w o S t a n d a r d s ' ) , t h e re a d i ne s s n e e d e d ( in t h ec o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e ' T h r e e C o u p l e s ' ) , a n d t h e m o t i v e u n d e r l y i n g t h e h e r o i s mo f t h e fo l l ow e r s o f C h r i s t ( th e ' T h r e e M o d e s o f H u m i l i t y ' ) . T h e e x e r c i t a n tm u s t t h e n , i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e s e c o n s i d e ra t i o n s , t r y t o c o m e t o a c o n c l u s io n .M a n y m i g h t h a v e t h o u g h t t h a t s u ff ic ie n t h a d b e e n d o n e : t h a t t h e e x e r c i ta n tc o u l d n o w b e l e f t t o fi n d hi s o w n w a y . H o w e v e r , I g n a t i u s s t i ll h a s s o m ei m p o r t a n t i n . fo rm a t io n t h a t c a n b e o f i m m e n s e h e l p . T h r o u g h t h e a p p a r e n tj u n g l e o f p o s s i b le r e a c t i o n s h e o u t l in e s t h r e e p a t h s w h i c h h e h a d d i s c o v e r e db y p e r s o n a l t r i a l a n d e r r o r. T h e f ir st is th e s o r t o f i l l u m i n a t i o n w h i c h a d m i t so f n o d o u b t ; a p a u l i n e c o n v e rs io n , a n a p o s to l ic v o c a t io n . T h e s e c o n d a n dt h i r d a r e m u c h m o r e p r o t r a c t e d a n d c o m p l i c a te d . T h e t h i r d , w h i c h is e x -p l a i n e d m o s t f u ll y , i s d o m i n a t e d b y t h e n o t i o n o f t h e ' r e a s o n a b l e ' . H e r e t h e r e

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    I O 6 P R A Y E R & T H E I G N A T I A N E X E R C I S E S

    a r e a t l e a st t w o p o s s ib i li ti es . F i r s t , o n e c a n d r a w u p a l is t o f t h e p r o s a n d c o n st h a t c o n c e r n t h e m a t t e r a t is su e ; a n d , a f t e r p r a y e r a n d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o nt o t h e p u r i t y o f o n e 's m o t i v a ti o n , o n e c a n w e i g h u p t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h er e s p e c ti v e s id e s. S e c o n d l y , a n u m b e r o f c o n s i d e r a t io n s m a y h e l p o n e w i t h -d r a w t o a c e r ta i n d i st a n c e f r o m t h e p r o b l e m , a n d t h u s s t u d y i t m o r e o b j e c -t iv e l y ( f o r e x a m p l e , t o p r o c e e d a s if m a k i n g t h e d e l i b e r a t io n o n b e h a l f o fs o m e o n e e l se ). I t is q u i t e c l e a r f r o m t h e D i a r y t h a t I g n a t i u s , f o r l a c k o f ap a u l i n e i l lu m i n a t i o n , h a d h a d r e c o u r s e t o t h is t h i r d w a y , i n i ts v a r i e d f o r m s ;b u t h e h a d n o t f o u n d i n i t a s a t is f ac t o ry s o l u ti o n t o h is p r o b l e m . C o n s e q u e n t l yh e h a d t r ie d t h e s e c o n d w a y , w h i c h i s d e s c r ib e d b y t h e s a i n t h i m s e l f i n t h eE x er cis es in w o r d s t h a t m i g h t h a v e b e e n t a k en f r o m t h e D i a r y :

    T h e s e c o n d , w h e n o n e r e ce iv e s a b u n d a n t c le a rn e ss (as az c laridad 11)a n d k n o w l e d g e , t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c in g c o n s o l at io n s a n d d e so l at io n s ,a n d t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (discrecidn) o f v a r io u sspir i t s . 12

    I t b e c o m e s c l e a r a t o n c e t h a t t h e Sp i r it ua l D i ar y c o n si st s o f s h e et s o n w h i c hI g n a t i u s h a s n o t e d p r e c i se l y th e s e 'c o n s o l a t io n s a n d d e s o l a t i o n s ', t h e d a y - b y -d a y p r o c es s o f d i v e r se ' sp i r it s '. I t i s e s se n t ia l ly a r e c o r d i n t e n d e d t o b e m a i n -r a in e d d u r i n g a r e la t iv e l y s h o r t p e r io d ( u n li k e th e n o r m a l d i a r y ) , a n d i tc o n t a i n s r e f e r e n c e s o n l y t o o c c u r r e n c e s t h a t f a l l u n d e r t h e s e h e a d i n g s .

    S o m e re a d er s m a y h a v e b e e n p u z z l e d a t t h e te rm s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h ed e s c r ip t i o n o f th is ' s e c o n d w a y ' . T h e y h a v e a t e c h n i c a l r i n g a b o u t t h e m . T h et r e a t m e n t g i v e n b y t h e s a in t t o t h e se p h e n o m e n a , i n n o t e s i n se r te d b e t w e e nt h e m e d i t a t i o n s o f h is E x e r c i s es , i s r e c o g n i z e d a s m a s t e r l y , 1~ a n d is s tr i k i n g l yo r i g in a l i n t h e c l ar i ty a n d p r e c is io n w h i c h h e b r i n g s t o b e a r u p o n a p r o b l e ma s a n c i e n t a s c h r is t ia n s p r i t u a l i t y i ts el f. T h e o c c u r r e n c e s i n v o l v e d h a v e b e e nf e l t b y a l l po s se s se d o f s p i r it u a l a w a r e n e s s. T h e p r o b l e m l ie s i n t h e e x t r e m ed e l i c a c y a n d c o m p l e x i t y o f t h es e h a p p e n i n g s , a n d t h e d i ff ic u lt y o f c o m m u n i -c a t i n g w i t h o t h e r s o n t o p i c s s o r e m o t e f r o m e v e r y - d a y r e a li ty . T h e d i s ti n c t iv ef e a t u r e o f e a c h is t h e s a t i s fa c t io n o r d i s s a ti s fa c t io n w h i c h is fe l t a n d r e c o g n i z e di n p r o t r a c t e d r e f le c t io n . T h i s p r o c e s s o f r e f l e c ti o n r e q u i r e s s e n s i t iv i ty ; b u t i tm u s t b e b a c k e d b y f ir m n e s s a n d d e c i si o n . T h e g o o d a n d e v il s p ir it s u ti li z eb o t h p e r i o d s ( s a ti s fa c t io n a n d d i ss a ti sf a c ti o n ) ; t h o u g h t h e g o o d t e n d t o l e a du s t o t h e f o r m e r s ta t e . W i t h i n e a c h s t a te , t h e d i f f e r e n t sp i ri ts c a n s ti ll p r o d u c ev a r i e d m o v e m e n t s a n d a g i ta t io n s . O n e o f t h e f in e st p o rt r a it s i n t h e w o r M ' ss p i r i t u a l w r i t in g s o f b o t h t h e s e s t a te s a n d t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s p ir it si s t h e S p M t u a l D i a ry .S a t is f ac t io n h a s b e e n m e n t i o n e d a s th e k e y - n o t e o f p e r io d s o f c o n s o l a ti o n :b u t a s t h e s a i n t m a k e s c l e a r i n t h e E x e r c is e s , a4 t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t le v e ls o f

    11 C fth e e ntry in the Diary for Feb ruary 6: 'La ter I rea lized wi th abu nd ant c learness(en a saz claridad)'. 12 E xx 176.1~ C f the article on 'Co nsolation', in Dictionnaire de Spiritualitd, II , cols x62o-I62e.as E.g., Exx 3z6 .

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    T H E S P I R I T U A L D I A R Y O F I G N A T I U S L O Y O L A 10 7s a ti sf a c t io n . T h e y r a n g e f r o m t h e q u i e t p e a c e o f i n c r e a s e d f a it h , h o p e a n dc h a r i ty , t h r o u g h i n t e r n a l j o y a n d g l ad n e ss , w h i c h c a n u n e x p e c t e d l y f lo o d th es o u l, t h r o u g h t h e t e a r s o f l o v e a n d s y m p a t h y fo r C h r is t , u p t o th e ' i n t e r i o rm o v e m e n t ' w h i c h s ets t h e so u l a b l a z e w i t h s u c h l o v e f or G o d t h e c r e a t o r t h a tn o o t h e r l o v e c a n e x is t e x c e p t a s p a r t o f t h a t c o n f l a g r a t io n . I t i s i n t e r e s t in g t of i n d t h e w o r d s mocidn in ter ior i n t h e E x e r c i s e s . T h e D i a r y , t o o , i s f u l l o fr e f e r e n c e s , so m e v e r y m y s t e r io u s , t o t h e ' i n n e r l i f e ' ( ' i n t e r n a l j o y ' , ' i n t e r n a lt e a r s ' , e tc . ). W h e n h e c o m e s t o g i v e r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e m e d i e s to b e t a k e na g a i n s t d e s o l a t i o n , h e p r o v i d e s p r e c i s e l y t h o s e w h i c h a r e t o b e f o u n d u s e d i nt h e D i a r y : f ir m n e ss , in c r e a s e d e x e rc i se o f p r a y e r a n d s e l f- e x a m i n a t io n , ar e c o g n i t i o n th a t o n e m a y b e a t fa u l t a n d t h a t G o d m a y b e p r o v i d in g a p e r io do f t ri a l , b o t h f o r in c r e a s e d s e l f - k n o w l ed g e a n d g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n ' t h a t i td o e s n o t l ie i n o u r p o w e r t o c a u s e o r r e t a i n g r e a t d e v o t i o n , in t e n s e l o v e, t e a rsn o r a n y o t h e r s p i r i t u a l c o n s o l a t i o n , b u t t h a t e v e r y t h i n g is g i ft a n d g r a c e o fG o d o u r L o r d ' . is H o w e v e r , e v e n c o n s o l a t i o n s r e q u i r e k e e n s e lf -a n a ly s is , o rr a t h e r a c o n s t a n t s e n s i t i v i t y t o th e s l i g h te s t c h a n g e . W e f i n d t h is a p r e o c c u p a -t i o n in t h e D i a r y , a s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e E x e r c i s e s :

    I t is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e e v i l a n g e l , w h o p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f u n d e r t h eg u i s e o f a n ' a n g e l o f l i g h t ' (sub angelo lucis) , t o m a k e h is e n t r y o n t h es i d e o f t h e s o u l 's d e v o t i o n b u t h is e x i t f o r hi s o w n p r o f i t ; t h a t is to s a y ,h e b r in g s g o o d a n d h o l y th o u g h t s t h a t a r e i n fu l l a c c o r d w i t h s u c h av i r t u o u s s o u l ; b u t l a t e r , l i t t l e b y l i t tl e , h e t r ie s to m a k e o f f w i t h w h a tis hi s o w n , d r a g g i n g t h e s o u l t o w a r d s h i s c o n c e a l e d t r e a c h e r y a n dp e r v e r s e i n t e n t i o n s . 16

    T w o i n t e r - r e l a t e d p a s sa g e s f r o m t h e D i a r y m a y b e q u o t e d : t h e y i l lu s t r a tea d m i r a b l y t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f a f a ls e c o n s o l a t io n :

    F e b r u a r y I 8 : A f t e r m a s s I q u i e t e n e d d o w n , c o m p a r i n g m y o w nw o r t h w i t h t h e w i s d o m a n d g r e a tn e s s o f G o d . I c o n t i n u e d f o r s o m eh o u r s u n t i l th e t h o u g h t c a m e t o m e t h a t I s h o u l d n o t t r o u b l e t o s a ym o r e m a s se s - I f e l t a n g r y w i t h t h e b l e s s e d T r i n i t y ; I h a d n o d e s i r et o p r o l o n g t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n in t o t h e f u t u r e . . .F e b r u a r y 2 0 : L a t e r I f e l t s t r e n g t h e n e d i n w h a t I h a d d o n e b y t h ek n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e e a r l i e r s p i r i t h a d b e e n e v il , t h e o n e t h a t h a dw a n t e d t o m a k e m e h a v e d o u b t s a n d f e e l a n g e r w i t h t h e b le s se dT r i n i t y . . .

    I t i s i r o n i c a l th a t I g n a t i u s , o f a ll p e o p l e , s h o u l d h a v e b e e n a c c u s e d o fr i g i d i t y i n h i s s p i r i t u a l i ty . T h e w o r d s o f t h e E x e r c i s e s o n t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o no f sp i r it s ( a l so t h o s e o n t h e c o n t r o l o f s c r u p le s ) o n l y b e g i n t o m a k e s e ns e i f15 Exx 322 . Cf th e en t ry for Fe brua ry 26 : 'On beg inn ing m a s s . . , a ve ry s l igh t weep ing- I thoug ht tha t wi th less I was m ore sa ti sf ied and c onten t ; in tha t wa y I fe l t I was be ingruled b y His Divine Majesty , to whom i t belongs to g ive and w i thdraw his graces as andwh en i t i s most conv enient ' .26 E xx 332-

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    8/16

    I O 8 P R A Y E R & T H E I G N A T I A N E X E R C I S E Ss e e n i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t y p e o f i n n e r l if e p o r t r a y e d i n t h e D i a r y . T h i s is al if e t e n d e r l y r e s p o n s iv e t o t h e s l ig h t es t m o v e m e n t s o f g r a c e , a n d c o m p l e t e l yd e p e n d e n t o n t h e m . T i m e , w h i c h m o s t m e n i n I g n a t i u s ' p o s i ti on w o u l d h a v ec o n s i d e re d o f v i ta l i m p o r t a n c e , b e c o m e s i r r e l e v a n t a s th e d a y s o f q u i e tw a i t i n g i m p o s e t h e m s e lv e s. T h e g r e a t v i r tu e b e c o m e s t h a t o f p a t ie n c e .T h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e E x e rc i se s

    O n c e t h e E x e r c is e s h a v e b e e n d i sc o v e r e d a s a k e y t o th e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o ft h e D i a r y , t h e y c o n t i n u e t o f u r n i s h i n n u m e r a b l e c l ar if ic a ti o n s. I t is r e m a r k -a b l e h o w o f t e n in t he s e p a g e s I g n a t i u s s e em s t o b e t h i n k i n g i n t er m s o f h i m -s e lf p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e w h o l e c e l e st ia l c o u r t . T h i s i s t h e g r a n d i o s e ' c o m p o s i t i o no f p l a c e ' ( th e p r e l u d e b e f o re m e d i t a t io n w h e n t h e e x e r c i ta n t c o m p o s e s h i m -s e lf b y t h i n k i n g o f s o m e sc e n e r e l a t e d t o t h e t o p i c h e is a b o u t t o c o n s id e r )p r o v i d e d b y t h e s a i n t f o r tw o o f t h e k e y m e d i t a t i o n s i n t h e E x e r ci se s , t h e' C o u p l e s ' a n d t h e ' C o n t e m p l a t i o n t o o b t a i n l o v e ' . I t s ee m s to h a v e b e e n t h ew a y I g n a t i u s i m a g i n e d a n o f f er in g o r o b l a t i o n t o b e m o s t fi tt in g l y m a d e . I t isp e r h a p s a r e li c o f h is k n i g h t l y t r a in i n g i n a s p a n i s h n o b l e m a n ' s h o u s e h o l d YA l s o p r o v i d e d f o r s o l e m n o c c a s i o n s i n t h e E x e r c is e s is t h e t e c h n i q u e o f t h e' tr i p le c o l l o q u y ' , w h i c h a ls o a p p e a r s i n t h e D i a r y . I n s t e a d o f a d d r e s si n g h i m -s e lf i m m e d i a t e l y t o G o d t h e F a t h e r , I g n a t i u s i n t e r c ed e s f ir st w i t h o u r L a d y ,a n d s o m e t im e s w i t h o t h e r s a in ts e v e n b e f o re h e a p p r o a c h e s h e r ; t h e n , w i t hh e r a s s is ta n c e, h e s p e a k s t o G o d t h e S o n , i n w h o s e c o m p a n y h e f i n a ll y a p -p r o a c h e s t h e C r e a t o r h i m s el f. A t y p i c a l e x a m p l e is t h e e n t r y f o r F e b r u a r y 1 8 :

    A l i t t l e l a t e r I w o n d e r e d w h e r e I s h o u l d b e g i n , a n d i t o c c u r r e d t om e t h a t i t m i g h t b e w i t h a l l t h e s a i n t s , p u t t i n g m y c a u s e i n t h e i rh a n d s , s o t h a t t h e y m i g h t p r a y t o o u r L a d y a n d h e r S o n t o b e i n te r -c es so rs o n m y b e h a l f b e f o r e th e b l es s ed T r i n i t y . . . I s et a b o u t r e p e a t i n gt h e p a s t o f f e r i n g s , . . , b e s e e c h in g a n d n o m i n a t i n g a s i nt er ce ss o rs o nm y b e h a l f t h e a n g e l s, t h e s a in t s o f t h e O l d L a w , t h e a p o s tl e s a n dd is cip le s, a n d a l l t h e s a i n t s . . , t h a t t h e y m i g h t p l e a d t o o u r L a d ya n d h e r S o n .

    I t is o f t e n a p r o b l e m f o r h i m t o d e c id e h o w h e s h o u l d b e g i n : a g a i n , e v i d e n c et h a t t he se t e c h n i q u e s o f p r a y e r w e r e n o t m e c h a n i c a l r u l es o f t h u m b , b u tg e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n s s u g g e s t i n g p o s si b le p a t h s f o r t h e s o u l i n i ts l if e o f p r a y e ra n d c o n t a c t w i t h G o d .

    T h e ' p e t i t i o n ' p r el u d e , w h i c h a l so a p p e a r s a t t h e h e a d o f e a c h m e d i t a ti o ni n t h e E x e r c i s e s , g a i n s f u l l l i f e a n d v i g o u r w h e n i t i s s e e n i n a c t i o n i n t h eD i a r y : a d o m i n a n t n o t e o f s u p p l i c a t io n , s o m e t i m e s s t ri d e n t i n it s i n t en s i ty ,b e g g i n g l i g h t o n a s p ec if ic p r o b l e m , y e t fu l l o f a s t r e n g t h w h i c h e x p a n d sn a t u r a l l y w i t h o u t a r ti fi ci al p r es su r e. I n t h e s a m e w a y , m a n y o f t h e b r i e fn o t e s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h t h e E x e r c i s es f i n d f u l l e x p re s si o n in t h e p a g e s o f t h e1~ C f P. L etu ria , E l genti lhombre I~igo L6pez de Loyola , and F. Gonz~lez Olmedo, Intro-duccidn a la V ida de San Ignacio de Loyo la, for the court ly ideals in Ig nat ius ' development .

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    T H E S P I R I T U A L D I A R Y O F I G N A T I U S L O Y O L A IO 9D i a r y . T h e c u r io u s t h i r d a n n o t a t io n , w h i c h r e c o m m e n d s a d i f f e re n t m e n t a la t t i t u d e w h e n t h e ' w i l l ' is b r o u g h t i n t o p l a y f r o m t h a t r e q u i r e d w h e n o n l yt h e ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g ' is a c t i v e , is ty p i c a l . H e r e , s p e c i a l r e v e r e n c e is r e q u i r e d :t h e r e a s o n l i es i n t h e o b j e c t , t h e h o l y , t o w a r d s w h i c h t h e w i l l is t u r n e d i n a l ls p i r i t u a l e x e rc is e s. A n d i n t h e D i a r y , w h e r e a s I g n a t i u s is p r e p a r e d t o a d o p ta p r a c t i c a l , b u s i n e s s -l ik e a t t i t u d e i n h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f p r o s a n d c o n s,a n y t u r n i n g o f a t t e n t i o n t o G o d is a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h a t i n s is te n t r e p e t i t i o no f th e w o r d devoc idn . I n t h e E x e r c i s e s , g r e a t c a r e i s t a k e n i n t h e e x p l a n a t i o no f t h e v a r i o u s ' e x a m i n a t i o n s o f c o n s c i e n c e ' . T h e r e i s a ls o a p e r p l e x i n gr e a d i n e s s f o r th e ' r e p e t i t i o n ' o f e x e r ci s es ; n o s o o n e r h a s a m e d i t a t i o n b e e nf i n is h e d b e f o r e o n e is e x a m i n i n g o n e ' s c o n d u c t a n d p r o g re s s i n t h e c o u r s eo f t h a t m e d i t a t i o n , a n d t h e n r e p e a t i n g i t ! U n l e s s t h e d i r e c t o r is a l i v e t o t h et y p e o f s e lf - a w a re n e s s r e q u i r e d , a n d u n le s s h e h a s s o m e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h et e m p o a t w h i c h I g n a t i u s w a s a c c u s t o m e d t o c o n d u c t h is m e d i t a t i o n s , he c a ne a s i ly d r i v e a n e x e r c i t a n t t o t h e v e r g e o f b r e a k - d o w n . I n t h e D i a r y , i t is c l e a rt h a t t h e a m o u n t o f i n t e l l e c t u a l c o g it a t i o n i n v o lv e d i n t h e s a i n t ' s m e d i t a t i o nis m i n i m a l : i t is r a r e , a n d w o r t h y o f n o t e , t o b e s tr u c k b y a n e w i d e a . W h e na n i d e a d o e s c o m e , a s fo r e x a m p l e o n F e b r u a r y I i ,

    I r e c e i v e d a n e w i n s i g h t , v iz t h a t t h e S o i l f ir s t s e n t h i s a p o s t l e s t op r e a c h i n p o v e r t y , a n d l a t e r t h e h o l y S p i r i t . . . c o n f i rm e d t h e m , a n dt h us , s in c e b o t h F a t h e r a n d S o n s e n t th e h o l y S p i r i t , a l l t h r e e p e r s o n sa p p r o v e d t h a t m a n n e r o f s e n d in g ,

    t h e r e a c t i o n is o n e o f i n t e n s e j o y , a n d t h e d i g e s t i o n o f t h e n e w t h o u g h t , t h a ts e n t i r e a c g u s t a r e r e s i n t e r n e o f t h e s e c o n d a n n o t a t i o n , is fi l ls m a n y h o u r s . A s h er e m a r k s e l s e w h e re :

    I s h a l l s e t tl e d o w n a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e I h a v e f o u n d w h a t I w a n t ,w i t h o u t a n y a n x i e t y a b o u t m o v i n g o n , u rt ti l I a m s a t is f ie d ?9

    W i t h i n t h e E x e r c is e s i t is n e c e s s a r y to d i s t in g u i s h t h e p r a c t i c a l - o n e m i g h ts a y ' t e c h n i c a l ' - i n s tr u c t io n s , f r o m t h e i n d i c a t i o n s o n e f in d s o f b a s i c i d e a l sa n d p r in c i p le s . T h e f o r m e r , b e c a u s e o f th e i r c o m p l e x i t y a n d o r i g in a l i t y , t e n dt o a t tr a c t m o r e a t t e n t i o n a n d r e q u i r e m o r e p r o t r a c t e d e x p l a n a t i o n . B u t th es e c o n d g r o u p i s t h e a n i m a t i n g e l e m e n t w i t h i n t h e b o d y o f t h e E x e rc i se s ; a n di t is i n s t r u c t iv e t o s e e h o w i n t h e D i a r y t h e y b u r s t f o r t h i n f u l l v i g o u r . T h ei d e a s t h e m s e l v e s a r e o f m a r v e l l o u s s i m p l i c i ty a n d c l o se l y i n t e r - c o n n e c t e d :t h e p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e g l o r y o f G o d , to t h e f u l f il m e n t o f w h o s e w i l la l l p e r s o n a l i n c l in a t i o n s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s m u s t b e l o g i c a ll y , b u t s t il l m o r ea f f e c ti v e ly , s u b o r d i n a t e d :

    I r e a l i z e d t h a t i t w a s n o t I w h o s h o u l d s t i p u l a t e t h e t i m e f o r f in i s h in ga n d e x p e c t t o r e c e i v e a v i s i ta t i o n t h e n , b u t t h a t I s h o u l d c o n t i n u eu n t i l H i s D i v i n e M a j e s t y t h o u g h t f it , a n d c h o se to g r a n t s u c h av i s it a ti o n . M a r c h 2 .

    i s Exx 2 . 19 Fi rs t week, four th add i t ion: Ex x 76.

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    I I O P R A Y E R & T H E I G N A T I A N E X E R C I S E ST h i s i s th e k e y i d e a i n t h e ' P r in c i p l e a n d F o u n d a t i o n ' , w h i c h o p e ns t h eE x e r c i s e s : i t is a l so p r e s e n t , t h o u g h w i t h r e n e w e d m e a n i n g , i n a l l th e p e t i t i o n so f t h e l a s t t h r e e w e e k s :

    t o a sk g r a c e f r o m o u r L o r d t h a t I m a y n o t b e d e a f t o h is c a ll , b u tr e a d y a n d d i l i g e n t t o f u lf il h is m o s t h o l y w i l l . 2

    T h e s p i r i tu a l i t y o f S t I g n a t i u s h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s c h r i s t o c e n tr i c : i t isn o t d i f f i c u lt t o se e w h a t i s m e a n t . O n F e b r u a r y 2 3, f o r e x a m p l e , h e w r i t e s:

    W h i l e I p r e p a r e d t h e a l t a r fo r m a ss , J e su s c a m e i n t o m y t h o u g h tsa n d I f e l t i m p e l l e d t o f o ll o w h i m , f o r t o m y m i n d i t se e m e d t h a t s in c eh e w a s t h e h e a d o f t h e s o ci e t y , h e w a s a g r e a t e r a r g u m e n t f o r c o m p l e t ep o v e r t y t h a n a l l o t h e r h u m a n r ea so n s .

    A n d h e c o n t i n u e s a l i t t l e l a t e r :I t s e e m e d t o b e i n s o m e w a y t h e w o r k o f t h e b l e ss e d T r i n i t y t h a t Ic o u l d s ee o r f ee l J e s u s , a n d I r e m e m b e r e d t h e t i m e w h e n t h e F a t h e rp l a c e d m e w i t h t h e S o n .

    H e is r e fe r r in g t o t h e g r e a t v i s it a t io n o f g r a c e t h a t o c c u r r e d a t L a S t o r t a ( inl a te O c t o b e r o r i n N o v e m b e r o f I5 3 7) a s h e w a s m a k i n g h i s w a y t o R o m e .I g n a t i u s l a t e r in h i s l i fe s e em s t o h a v e d e s c r i b e d , a n d t h o u g h t o f, th i s e x -p e r i e n c e in t h e w o r d s o f t h e D i a r y , ' a p l a c i n g w i t h t h e S o n b y t h e F a t h e r ' : i ti s d e s c r i b e d th u s i n t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l f r a g m e n t d i c t a t e d t o F r L . G o n -9 a lv e s d a C ~ i m a ra . ~1 H o w e v e r , a t t h e t i m e o f t h e r e v e l a t i o n , w h e n h e d e s c r i b e dt h e e v e n t t o h is tw o c o m p a n i o n s , F r s F a b e r a n d L a i n e z , h e se e m s to h a v eb e e n m o r e e x p l i c i t a s t o t h e d e t a i l s . T h e v i s io n w a s o f C h r is t c a r r y i n g h i sc ro ss , a n d t h e F a t h e r h a d j o i n e d I g n a t i u s w i t h h i s S o n i n t h e l a b o u r o fc a r r y i n g t h e C ro ss. 22 T h e d e e p i m p r e s s i o n m a d e b y t h is v i s i o n is c o m p a r a b l ei n i n t e n s i t y w i t h v e r y f e w e x p e r ie n c e s o f t h e s a i n t . P e r h a p s t h e t r i n i t a r ia nr e v e l a ti o n s o f M a n r e s a ( i 5 2 2 ) a n d t h e D i a r y ( I5 4 4 ) a r e t h e o n l y ev e n ts o fe q u a l i m p o r t a n c e .B e y o n d t h e E x e r c i s e s

    T h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t t h a t t h e E x e rc i se s p r o v i d e t h e k e y t o t h e i n i t i a lu n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e D i a r y . H o w e v e r , i t w o u l d b e a p i t y i f p r e co n c e p t io n sg a i n e d f r o m t h e E x e r c is e s w e r e a l l o w e d t o o b s c u r e a d e e p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n .A n d i n d e e d t h e E x e rc is es th e m s e l ve s m u s t n o t b e j u d g e d p r e m a t u r e l y : t h e yg a i n i n s t a t u r e w h e n s e e n a s t h e p a t h t o w a r d s t h e D i a r y . T h e c h r is t o c en t r i en a t u r e o f i g n a t i a n s p i r i t u a l i t y is a c a s e i n p o i n t . V i t a l a n d e s se n t i a l a s is t h er6 1e g i v e n t o t h e h u m a n i t y o f C h r i s t t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i n a l t h r e e w e ek s , t h e r eso E x x 9 r. 21 Autobiography, ch Io , no g6 .32 La lnez ' s own account has been prese rved on ly a t second han d . How ever , the ve r s ioni s c o r r o b o r at e d b o t h b y R i b a d e n e i r a a n d b y N a d a h c f M H S I , 6 6 , p 3 1 3, e sp e c ia l lyn . 3 7 , and p 499 , n. 23 . Fo r a fu ll s tudy , c fR . Ro uque t te , in Rgvue d'Ascdtique et de M ystiqu e(1957) , PP 34-6I , 15o-17o.

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    THE SPIRI TUAL DIAR Y OF IGNATI US LOYOLA I I Irare indications that in one sense the soul is to advance even further. Thereare only hints in the Exercises of the devotional importance of the blessedTrinity. The first preamble to the contemplation of the Incarna tion, forexample, brings to mi nd a pr int ed title-page :23 the three persons are h an d-ling the orb of the earth at the top of the page, the scene of the Annu nc iat ionoccupies the centre; in the course of the con templa tion the exercitant thinksof their words an d actions; an d h e makes a colloquy to them. ~4 But whowould guess from this brief mention that Ignatius' Diary would be full ofdevotion to the T rini ty? I n the Exercises the holy Spirit is hardly me nti one d35In the Dia ry some of the most striking visions are of the Th ir d Person:

    I mad e a colloquy with the holy Spirit in pre para tion for saying hismass; I experi enced the same devotion an d tears, and seemed to seeor perceive him i n a dense clarity or in the colour of bur nin g flame -a wa y quite strange to me. (Feb ruary I o).

    Th e port ion of the Exercises which opens out onto the great fut ure horizonsof Ignat ius' own s pirituality is the ' Cont emp lat ion to obta in love'. It formsone of the appendices, so to speak, which he added, along with notes ontechnica l methods of praye r, to the fourth week. Here, in a few brief para -graphs, Igna tius initiates the exe rcitant into the new life for which the Exer-cises have prepa red him: the great quest into the nat ure of God, a n investi-gation whose object is not knowledge but deeper love. In the Diary, anende aring phrase to refer to God is that of 'giver of graces': in the 'Co ntem -pla tio n', a roug h int im at io n of the treasures these words enclose is impar ted.Th e gift is the Giv er himself, a Giver who is both present an d dyna mic inthe gift, a Giver who is infinite in the nu mb er a nd varie ty of his gifts, tosuch an extent that no gift is not the Giver himself. Here, in this notion of'giving', of'c omm uni ca tio n', which for Ignati us is the quintessence of love, isto be fo und the seed, hidde n an d expectant, of the trini tari an revelations.Ignati us seems to have b een un usua lly aware of the inter-connectionsbetwe en dogmas. This appears in his ma ria n devotion. Ou r Lady is 'par t orportal ' ( p a r t e o p u e r l a ) of grace:

    Duri ng the prayers to the Father an d the Son and at his consecration,I could not bu t perceive or see h e r . . . (At the consecration sheshowed th at he r own flesh was in t hat of her Son). Feb rua ry 15.

    Nothing could be more foreign to ignatian spirituality than the strangedepa rtm en tal ism that so often seems to beset christian devotions. For h im thesaints are united with Mar y a mong the 'mediators' (among whom appears2s Dr A Suqufa, L a Sa nta M is a en la Esp ir itua lidad de San Ignaclo de Loyola , (Madrid, 195o)has some interesting remarks on tile illustrations concerning the Trinity to be found inmissals of the period. Cfpp i93-i94.24 Exx Io2, lO6-8, 1o9~5 There are five references in the short 'Myster ia v i tae Chris t i ' , (Exx 263, 073 304, 307,3x2), and one in the 'Rules for thinking with the Church' (Exx 365).

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    I I 2 P R A Y E R & T H E I G N A T I A N E X E R C I S E Si n t u r n t h e s a c r e d H u m a n i t y o f C h r i s t) . T h e m y s t e r y o f t h e T r i n i t y , w i t h i tsc i r c u m i n s e s s i o n o f P e r so n s , f in d s i ts t r u e c o n t e x t h e r e , a l t h o u g h i t d e fi e se x p r e s s i o n :

    I h a d v e r y m a n y i n t u i t io n s a b o u t t h e b l e ss e d T r i n i ty , m y m i n d b e i n ge n l i g h t e n e d w i t h t h e m t o s u c h a n e x t e n t t h a t i t s e e m e d t o m e t h a tw i t h h a r d s t u d y I w o u l d n o t h a v e k n o w n s o m u c h . F e b r u a r y 1 9.

    A n d l a t e r :D u r i n g t h e p r a y e r s t o t h e F a t h e r , i t s e e m e d t h a t J e s u s w a s p r e s e n t i n gt h e m , o r a c c o m p a n y i n g t h o s e th a t I w a s s a y in g , b e f o re t h e F a t h e r :a n d I fe l t o r sa w i n a w a y t h a t c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d . F e b r u a r y 2 5 .L a t e r s t i l l :I s a w t h e h o m e - l a n d o f h e a v e n , o r t h e L o r d o f i t, f o r I u n d e r s t o o d i ns o m e w a y t h e t h r e e P e rs o ns , a n d h o w w i t h i n t h e F a t h e r w e r e t h es e c on d a n d t h i rd . F e b r u a r y 2 9.

    I t w o u l d b e i n c o r r e c t t o su p p o s e t h a t , a t t h e t i m e o f c o m p o s i n g t h e E x e rc i se s ,I g n a t i u s w a s s t il l u n a w a r e o f t h e r 61 e o f t h e T r i n i t y . A l r e a d y i n 1 52 2 h e h a dr e c e i v e d a t M a u r e s a a n i l l u m i n a t i o n o f t h e T r i n i t y ' s i n t im a t e n a t u r e :

    O n e d a y w h e n h e ( I g n a t i u s ) w a s re c i t in g t h e L i t t l e O f fi ce o f o u r L a d yo n t h e s t ep s o f t h a t s a m e m o n a s t e r y ( o f t h e D o m i n i c a n s ) , h is u n d e r -s t a n d i n g b e g a n t o ri se , a s i f h e s a w t h e b l e s s e d T r i n i t y r e p r e s e n t e db y t h r e e o r g a n k e y s, a n d t h is w i t h s o m a n y t e a rs a n d s o b s t h a t h ec o u l d n o t c o n t r o l h i m s e l f . 2G

    O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t w o u l d b e e q u a l l y m i s l e a d i n g to su p p o s e t h a t I g n a t i u sh a d p a s s e d b e y o n d t h e l e a r n i n g s t a g e. H e s a ys h i m s el f, w i t h r e fe r e n ce t o t h en e w i n s ig h t h e h a d r e c e i v e d c o n c e r n in g t h e e s se n ce o f t h e T r i n i t y :

    S o g re a t a n a c h i e v e m e n t d i d i t se e m t o h a v e u n t i e d th is k n o t . . .t h a t I c o u l d n o t s t o p r e p e a t i n g t o m y s e l f , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o m y s e l f,' W h o a r e y o u ? F r o m w h e r e ? . . . W h a t d i d y o u d e se rv e ? W h y t h i s? 'F e b r u a r y 2 I .

    A g a i n , in t h e s ec o n d p a r t o f t h e ' D i a r y ' t h e r e a p p e a r a n u m b e r o f n e wp h e n o m e n a , p r i n c i p a l a m o n g t h e m b e i n g t h e ' re v e r e n c e a n d r e sp e c t ', 2~w h i c h , t h e s a i n t h a s c o m e t o fe el , ' s h o u l d b e s h o w n o n g o i n g t o m a s s w h e n Ih a d t o p r o n o u n c e t h e n a m e o f G o d o u r L o r d e t c . ' ( M a r c h I 4) . T h e m y s t e r yo f t h e T r i n i t y s e e m s t o h a v e p r e s e n t e d e v e r - n e w f a c e ts a s t h e s p i r i t u a l l if eo f I g n a t i u s p r o g r es s e d .

    A l l i e d to t h is g ro w t h , a n d f o r m i n g a n o r g a n i c p a r t w i t h i t , i s t h e m y s t e r yo f t h e m a s s . H e r e , t o o, t h e D i a r y p r e s e n t s u s n o t w i t h a n i s o l a te d s t r a n d o f

    2s Au tobiograp hy ch 3 , no 28 .~ C f M . R u i z J u r a d o , ' E n t o r n o a l a g r a c l a d e a c a t a m i e n t o a m o r o s o ' , i n Manresa( I963) , PP I45- I54 .

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    THE SPIRITUAL DIARY OF IGNATIUS LOYOLA II 3devotion but with a reite ration of that inter -pene trati on of truths which washinted at in the final point of the 'Con templa tion to obtain love'. In theeucharistic liturgy, the saint finds the great prayer, the perio d wh en earthan d he aven are most obviously at one, the po int at wh ich the soul's accessto the divine acquires its greatest facility. Th er e is in the Di ary a ver y personalapproach to the mass: the saint cannot tolerate distraction at that time.There is no trace of the social theology which is required if the full wealthof the mass is to be estimated. But it is essential to remem ber the p urpose ofthe Diary. It is not a mer e collection of thoughts; it is kept with a definiteend in view : 2s the reco rding of the consolations an d desolations experiencedin the course of reaching a decision about poverty. For a full exposition ofIgn ati us' theological convictions, it is necessary to stud y his other writings. 29Wher e the Diary is of particula r impor tance is in the revelation it offers ofthe force that certain of the saint's ideals and modes of thought had acquired.Oth er aspects of his inne r motiva tion are revea led elsewhere.T h e m y s t i c a l g i f t s

    Outs tan ding amon g the personal traits that the Diar y presents is a featurewhich is ad um br at ed i n the Exercises but whic h also escapes notice if no tplaced against the background of the Diary. In the second and third pointsof the 'Contem plation to obtain love', attention is drawn to God's indwellingin created things, and to the fact 'th at he works and toils on my behalf inall created things',s This att ent ion to the presence of God is actively practisedat the start of each meditation. An attitude of mi nd is built up which comesto mat urit y through the 'Cont empl atio n', and finds in this exercise itsnatur al, a nd eventually its supernatural , complement. It is rema rkabl e howoften in the Diary it is the ordinary events of the day which are suddenlyillumi nated an d transfigured by the rush of grace. It is as the saint is havinghis midd ay mea l t hat he receives the final decisive consolations, an d it is inthe mid dle of grace (surely the most routi ne of all spiritual duties [) that hehas a vision of God the F athe r:

    Wh en I sat at t a b l e . . , the tempter tried, without success, to makeme have do ub ts .. . Suddenly, yet calmly - l ike a ma n who haswon - I said to him, 'G et to your place!' Tears came to strengthenme and I felt quite sure about all I had decided.. . When I said

    ~s The study by Dr Suqula, supra, n 93, labours sllghfly from the initial suppositionthat the Diary is only a 'diary', ' in which the saint during thirteen months gathered thedeepest impressions that he had experienced while celebrating the holy mysteries' (loc.t i t . ) . The Diary is much mcre: it is essentially an instrument forged to facilitate aparticularly difficult election i~ accord with Ignatius' instructions in the Exercises. Inconsequence, Dr Suqnla has difficulty in explaining the lacuna concerning the socialfunction of the mass.~9 The gap is only partly filled by the pioneer work of H. Rahner, Ignatius the Theologian(London, I968). For a study of Ignatius' letters, Cf I. Iparraguirre, Espiri tu de SanIgnacio (Bilbao, ~958)- ~o Exx 236.

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    1 14 P R A Y E R & T H E I G N A T I A N E X E R C I S E Sg r a c e a f t er t h e m e a l , t h e B e i n g o f t h e F a t h e r p a r t l y d i sc lo s e d i ts elf ,a l s o t h e B e i n g o f t h e b l e s s e d T r i n i t y : I f e lt a s p i r i tu a l i m p u l s e t od e v o t i o n a n d t e ar s s u c h a s I h a d n o t f e lt o r s e e n a ll d a y . M a r c h 1 2.

    W h e n h e is o u t w a l k i n g i l l t h e s tr ee ts o f R o m e , t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d b r ea k si n u p o n h i m w i t h t h e s a m e i n t e n s it y as w h e n h e is s a y i n g m a s s :

    T o d a y , e v e n w h e n w a l k i n g i n t h e c i ty , I f el t g r e a t j o y o f h e a r t , a n do n s e e i n g t h r e e r a t i o n a l c r e a t u r e s t o g e t h e r , o r t h r e e a n i m a l s , o r t h r e eo t h e r t h in g s , th e b l e ss ed T r i n i t y w a s b r o u g h t b e f o r e m e . F e b r u a r y 19 .

    E v e n i n t h e c e l e b r a t io n o f m a s s, i t is n o t o n l y a t t h e c u l m i n a t i n g p o i n t s,t h e c a n o n o r t h e c o m m u n i o n , t h a t h is p r a y e r r ec e iv e s its sp e c ia l g r ac e s, b u ta t s u c h t i m e s a s t h e C o n f i t e o r ( F e b r u a r y 2 5 ) , o r t h e E p i st le ( F e b r u a r y I 7 ) .T h e c o n s o l a t i o n o f G o d , h e n o t e s i n t h e E x erc is es,8 1 h a s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i ct h a t i t e n t e r s t h e so u l w i t h o u t p r e v i o u s w a r n i n g , f o r t h e C r e a t o r h a s t h e r ig h tt o e n t e r a n d l e a v e h is h o u s e w i t h o u t a n y p r e l i m i n a r y k n o c k i n g . H o w e v e r ,h i s e n t r ie s i n t h e D i a r y t e st if y t o t h e e m o t i o n t h is s u d d e n o n s l a u g h t o fd e v o t i o n c a n c a u se , l e a v in g I g n a t i u s g a s p i n g f o r b r e a t h , a n d h u g g i n g h i sc h e s t t o re l ie v e t h e a n g u i s h :

    A f t e r I h a d g o n e to b e d , I h a d s p e c ia l c o n s o l a t i o n i n t h i n k i n g o f t h et h r e e P e r so n s , h u g g i n g m y se lC 'f or t h e e x u l t a ti o n i n m y s o u l . . . [ T h ef o ll o w i n g m o r n i n g ] W h i l e sa y i n g m a s s I w a s n o t w e e p in g , y e t n o te n t i r e l y w i t h o u t t e ar s , f e e l in g a c e r t a i n w a r m d e v o t i o n , g l o w i n g a s i tw e r e ; a ls o m a n y l i tt le g a s p s f u ll o f g r e a t d e v o t i o n . F e b r u a r y I 8 . . . d u r i n g p r a y e r I w e p t m u c h , t h e t ea rs s t r e a m i n g d o w n m y fa ce .A v e r y in t en s e d e v o t i o n la s te d f o r a w h i le , m y m i n d e n l i g h te n e d o rm y m e m o r y q u i c k e n e d b y t h e bl es se d T r i n i t y . I w a s a t p e a c e a n df e lt s u c h j o y t h a t t h e r e w a s a p r e s s u re i n m y c h e s t 82 f o r t h e i n t e n sel o v e I w a s e x p e r i e n c i n g i n t h e b l e s s e d T r i n i t y . F e b r u a r y 1 9 .

    C o n s t a n t p r a y e r is o f c o u r se a s p e c ia l g if t o f G o d . T h e D i a r y p r o v i d e sf i r s t- h a n d e v i d e n c e t h a t I g n a t i u s h a d b e e n g i v e n t h is g i ft , a t l e a st a t c e r t a i np e r i o d s o f h i s l if e . I n t h e A u t o b i o g r a p h y , h e s a y s q u i t e p l a i n l y t h a t t h e s p e c ia lg ifts o f c o n t e m p l a t i v e p r a y e r w e r e n o t a l w a y s g r a n t e d h i m ; b u t i n h is e a r l yy e a r s a t M a n r e s a , a f t e r h i s s t u d i e s w h e n h e m o v e d t o V e n i c e , a n d d u r i n gt h es e m o n t h s w h e n h e w a s p r e p a r i n g h i m s e l f f o r t h e c o m p o s i t io n o f t h eC o n s t i t u t i o n s , h e s e e m s t o h a v e r e c e i v e d u n u s u a l l y v a r i e d s p i r i t u a l c o n s o l a -t io n s. T h u s , a l t h o u g h i t is l ik e l y t h a t a m o n g t h e p e r s o n a l p a p e r s d e s t ro y e db e f o r e h is d e a t h t h e r e w a s m e n t i o n o f g r e a t g r a c e s , th e r e a r e t w o p i e c es o fe v i d e n c e t o p r o v e t h a t t h e g r a ce s r e c o r d e d i n t h e D i a r y w e r e q u i t e e x c e p ti o n al .T h e f ir st is t h e d o c u m e n t w r i t t e n b y I g n a t i u s h im s e lf , w h i c h a p p e a r e d s o

    21 Second week : Rules for the discernme nt of spirits (Exx 330).82 ba sra apre tarme en lospechos: the interpretations vary . Iparr agu irre, following K nau er,favours, ' tha t I was hugging m y breast '.

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    THE SPIRI TUAL DIA RY OF IGNATI US LOYOLA 11 5mysteriously in the BibI io teca dVac iona l in M adrid . 33 Here are wri tten out thepassages under line d in the D iary ; those that refer to the most extraordinary ofthe visions an d graces. Th e saint would n ot have gone to such trouble if hewere constantly receiving graces of this kind. Secondly, there is a passagein the Autob iography , dictated eleven years later, which gives the Di ary aspecial importa nce:

    He (Ignatius) then showed me (Fr GonQalves da C~mara ) qu ite a largebun dle of writte n notes and read me a good par t of them. For themost par t they were visions he h ad seen in confi rmat ion of some partsof the Constitutions: he ha d sometimes seen God the Father, at othertimes the three Persons of the Tri nity, at others o ur La dy interce dingor approving.

    He spoke to me i n particula r of the delibe ration in which he h adbee n stuck for 4 days, saying mass each day, an d with ma ny tearseach day: the point at issue was if the Chu rch should have an income,an d if the Society could avail itself of such.

    Th e meth od he used while composing the Constitutions was tocelebra te mass each day, to present to God the po int he was treating,an d to make his praye r ab out it; duri ng both his prayers and his masshe would shed tears. I wanted to see all those notes referring to theConstitutions, an d I asked hi m to let me ha ve th em for a shortwhile; bu t he did n ot w ant to. s4

    Ignatius pr obabl y conti nued to preserve the Diary precisely because of theexceptional nature of its entries; they recorded an apex of his spiritual life.

    However, if in the first part of the Di ary the n um be r of visions, particularlyof the Trinity, the references to physical heat and other strange sensationsare rema rkable, it is in the second par t that the more unus ual of the specialmystical pheno mena make their appearance: the loqaela and its mfis ica:

    The internal loqaela of the mass seemed ev en more a special gift fromGod; I ha d pr ayed for it this very day because durin g the week I ha dsometimes experienced the external loqaela and sometimes not, butthe interna l more rarely, although last Saturda y I heard it a littlemore cl ea rl y. . . During the internal and external loqaela I felt who llymoved to the divin e love and tot his gift of loqaela granted by God;within me a great harm ony accompa nying the internal loqaela, butI cannot express it. May i i.

    I took great pleasure in the internal loq~e la; at the same time Ifound myself enjoying or r eme mber ing the loqaela or music of heaven(m~s ica ce les te ) . May 12.

    A little later I thoug ht I was ta king excessive pleasure in the tone83 CfMHSI, 63, pp ecxli-ccxlii.84 Autobiography,ch 1i, nos lO% ioi . The original is in italian, as this part of the Auto-biographywas not written down by Fr Gon~alves da C~mara himself, but dictated laterfrom memory to an italian secretary.

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    I I 6 P R A Y E R & T H E I G N A T I A N E X E R C I S E So f t h e loqgtela , t h a t i s i n t h e m e r e s o u n d , w i t h o u t p a y i n g s u f f ic ie n ta t t e n t i o n t o th e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r ds a n d o f t h e l o q a e l a . M a y 2 2 .

    A l s o i t is i n t h e s e c o n d p a r t t h a t t h e r e fe r en c e s to w e e p i n g b e c o m e s oc o n s t a n t t h a t t h e y s u b m e r g e a l l o t h e r e n t r i es . C o m m e n t i n g o n t h e r6 1e o ft e ar s i n t h e D i a r y o f I g n a t i u s , F r d e G u i b e r t w r o t e :

    A l t h o u g h t h e c a t h o l i c t ra d i t i o n h a s a l w a y s h a d a h i g h e s t e e m f o rt e a r s o f c o m p u n c t i o n , a n d e v e n m o r e s o f o r t e a r s a s a m y s t i c a l g i f t ,t h e r e is n o s a i n t , a s f a r as I a m a w a r e , f o r w h o m i n p r a c t i c e t h e y h a v eh a d s u c h i m p o r t a n c e . 85

    C l e a r l y , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d c o v e r e d b y t h e D i a r y I g n a t i u s w a s r e c e i v in ge x c e p t i o n a l g if ts o f g r a c e a n d o f p r a y e r ; a n d t h es e n o t es p r o v i d e f i r s t - h a n de v i d e n c e t h a t h e i s t o b e i n c l u d e d a m o n g t h e m y s t ic s o f t h e C h u r c h .C o n c l u s i o n

    W i t h r e g a r d t o th e e x t e rn a l p h e n o m e n a w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e in t e ns es p i r i t u a l a c t i v i t y o f t h is p e r i o d o f h i s li fe , i t is i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t W a l t e rH i l t o n , p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t c o m p e t e n t t h e o l o g i c al l y o f t h e " E n gl is h M y s t i c s 'o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i n d i r e c t l y a l l u d i n g t o t h e du lcor , canor a n d c a l o r o fR i c h a r d R o l l e ( p h e n o m e n a w h i c h s e em t o h a v e so m u c h in c o m m o n w i t hI g n a t i u s ' t e a r s, l o q ~ e l a a n d m ~ s i c a ) , p o i n t s o u t t h a t s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s b e a r l i t t ler e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e d e p t h s o f G o d ' s l o v e i n a s o u l :

    W e l l I w o t t h a t t h e s e m a n n e r f e e li n gs a n d f er v o ur s o f d e v o t i o n . . .a r e g r a c i o u s g i ft s o f G o d s e n t in t o c h o s e n s o ul s, f o r to d r a w t h e mo u t o f w o r l d l y l o v e . . , n e v e rt h e le s s , t h a t t h e f e rv o u r is s o m u c h i no u t w a r d s h o w i n g i s n o t o n l y fo r g r ea t n es s o f l o v e t h a t t h e y h a v e ,b u t i t is f o r l i tt l e n e ss a n d w e a k n e s s o f th e i r s o u ls , t h a t m a y n o t b e a ra l i t t l e t o u c h i n g o f G o d . 8~

    I g n a t i u s w o u l d h a v e a g r e e d . I n h is d e fe n c e w e m a y t h i n k i t m o r e j u s t , r a t h e rt h a n s p e a k o f ' l i t t l e n e s s a n d w e a k n e s s o f s o u l ' , t o b e a r i n m i n d t h e " o c c u p a -t i o n a l h a z a r d s ' o f a b u s y a c t i v e l if e. I g n a t i u s f e l t t h e l a t t e r t o b e h i s v o c a t i o na n d w a s p r e p a r e d t o s a c ri f i c e m y s t i c gi ft s a n d g r a c es t h a t a r e p h y s i c a l l yp o s s ib l e o n l y f o r a c o n t e m p l a t i v e . H i s p o s i t i o n is t h a t o f s o m a n y o f h isd i s c i p l e s : t h e c o n fe s so r , t h e s p i r i t u a l g u i d e , t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e S p i r i t u a lE x e rc i se s . P e r h a p s a m o n g t h e h u n d r e d s o f e n t ri e s i n w h i c h t ea r s a r e re c o r d e d ,t h e m o s t r e v e a l i n g fo r o u r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i n n e r f a b r ic o f I g n a t i u s ' s p i r i ti s t h e s h o r t e n t r y f o r A p r i l 3 :

    I h a d n o t e a r s b e fo r e , d u r i n g o r a f t e r m a s s ; a t t h e e n d I fe l t m o r ec o n t e n t w i t h o u t t h e m a n d f e lt g r e a t a ff e ct io n , j u d g i n g t h a t G o d o u rL o r d d i d t hi s f o r m y g r e a t e r g o o d .

    ~ J . De Gu l b e r t , S t . lgnace Mys t ique (Toulouse, I95O), p 56: this l i t t le book, the f irstprofou nd s tu dy o f the 'D iary ' , consists of ar t ic les f i rs t pub l ished in 1938 in Rdvue d 'As cd tiquee t de M ys t ique . Th ey a r e s t i l l we l l wo r th co nsu l t ing .3G C f Kn ow les , D av id: T h e E n g l i sh M y s t i c a l T r a d it io n (London, x96I) , p IO9.

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