+ All Categories
Home > Documents > Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

Date post: 12-Nov-2014
Author: jugal-maharjan
View: 35 times
Download: 4 times
Share this document with a friend
Embed Size (px)
of 22 /22
2. Define and describe Mission, Objectives, Goals, and Strategy in organizational context. Briefly explain the strategy formulation process in an organization you have worked for or familiar with. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to. Answer Mission (Statement of business) A mission statement sets out the business vision and values that enables employees, managers, customers and even suppliers to understand the underlying basis for the actions of the business. States the business reason for the organization's existence. It does not state an outcome, contains no time limit or measurement. It provides basis for decisions on resource allocation and appropriate objectives. It defines current and future business in terms of product, score, customer, reason, and market price. An effective mission statement should be able to tell your organization story and ideals. Here are some basic guidelines in writing a mission statement: 1 A mission statement should say what your organization is, what you do, what you stand for and why you do it. . 2 The best mission statements tend to be 3-4 sentences long. 3 Avoid saying how great you are, what great quality and what great service you provide. 4 Make sure you actually believe in your mission statement, if you don't, it's a lie, and your customers will soon realize it. Objectives(How to plan to achieve the desired results.) Objectives give the business a clearly defined target. Plans can then be made to achieve these targets. It also enables to describe activities to accomplish to achieve goal and measure the progress towards to its stated aims. It focuses on critical organization issues and milestones. Measurable in terms of whether or not they are achieved. They may be changed when necessary for progress towards goals. The most effective business objectives meet the following criteria: (SMART) Specific– objectives are aimed at what the business does, e.g. a hotel might have an objective of filling 60% of its beds a night during October, an objective specific to that business. Measurable – the business can put a value to the objective, e.g. €10,000 in sales in the next half year of trading. Agreed by all, those concerned in trying to achieve the objective. Realistic – the objective should be challenging, but it should also be able to be achieved by the resources available.
Page 1: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

2. Define and describe Mission, Objectives, Goals, and Strategy in organizational context.Briefly explain the strategy formulation process in an organization you have worked for orfamiliar with. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.Answer

Mission (Statement of business)A mission statement sets out the business vision and values that enables employees,managers, customers and even suppliers to understand the underlying basis for the actionsof the business. States the business reason for the organization's existence. It does not statean outcome, contains no time limit or measurement. It provides basis for decisions onresource allocation and appropriate objectives. It defines current and future business interms of product, score, customer, reason, and market price.An effective mission statement should be able to tell your organization story and ideals.Here are some basic guidelines in writing a mission statement:1 A mission statement should say what your organization is, what you do, what you standfor and why you do it. .2 The best mission statements tend to be 3-4 sentences long.3 Avoid saying how great you are, what great quality and what great service you provide.4 Make sure you actually believe in your mission statement, if you don't, it's a lie, and yourcustomers will soon realize it.Objectives(How to plan to achieve the desired results.)Objectives give the business a clearly defined target. Plans can then be made to achievethese targets. It also enables to describe activities to accomplish to achieve goal andmeasure the progress towards to its stated aims. It focuses on critical organization issuesand milestones. Measurable in terms of whether or not they are achieved. They may bechanged when necessary for progress towards goals.The most effective business objectives meet the following criteria: (SMART)Specific– objectives are aimed at what the business does, e.g. a hotel might have anobjective of filling 60% of its beds a night during October, an objective specific to thatbusiness.Measurable – the business can put a value to the objective, e.g. €10,000 in sales in the nexthalf year of trading.Agreed by all, those concerned in trying to achieve the objective.Realistic – the objective should be challenging, but it should also be able to be achieved bythe resources available.

Page 2: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

Time specific – they have a time limit of when the objective should be achieved, e.g. by theend of the year.Goals (Results to be achieved)It describes ideal states (target) to be achieved at some intermediate time bound. Definedconsistent with and related directly to vision and mission. Goals are expressed in veryspecific quantitative and qualitative terms.It provides a path for converting plans intoindividual task and action, and for motivating people.One useful scheme for describing organizational goals was provided by Charles Perrow.He has identified the following types of organizational goals:

Official’s goals. These goals are the formally stated goals of an organizationdescribed in its charter and annual reports and they are emphasized in publicstatements by key executives. Operative goals are the outcomes that the organization actually seeks to attainthrough its operating policies and activities. Operational goals Organizational goals define the performance objectives anddesired behaviors within an organization.However, a typical social organization today has multiple stakeholders-groups of people,and consequently has multiple goals, which, at times, may be mutually conflicting.

According to Perrow, multiple organizational goals can be classified into four majorcategories: Output goals. These goals are the "end product," such as consumer products,services, health care, or education. System goals. System goals relate to the organization itself, and they consist of suchthings as growth, stability, profit, efficiency, market share. Product goals. Product goals consist of the characteristics of the goods or services,such as quality, styling, uniqueness, variety, and price. Derived goals refer to the way an organization uses its power and influence toachieve other social or political goals (such as employee welfare, communityservices, or political aims).All goals have four components:1. Derived from the objective which seeks to fulfill,2. An index or standard for measuring progress and performance3. A target or hurdle to be achieved, and4. A time limitwithin which has to be achieved.

Page 3: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

StrategyStrategy formulation refers to the process of choosing the most appropriate course ofaction for the realization of organizational goals and objectives and thereby achieving theorganizational vision. The process of strategy formulation basically involves six main steps.Though these steps do not follow a rigid chronological order, however they are veryrational and can be easily followed in this order.1. Setting Organizations’ objectives - The key component of any strategy statement is toset the long-term objectives of the organization. It is known that strategy is generally amedium for realization of organizational objectives. Objectives stress the state of beingthere whereas Strategy stresses upon the process of reaching there. Strategy includes boththe fixation of objectives as well the medium to be used to realize those objectives. Thus,strategy is a wider term which believes in the manner of deployment of resources so as toachieve the objectives. . Once the objectives and the factors influencing strategic decisionshave been determined, it is easy to take strategic decisions.2. Evaluating the Organizational Environment - The next step is to evaluate the generaleconomic and industrial environment in which the organization operates. This includes areview of the organizations competitive position. It is essential to conduct a qualitative andquantitative review of an organizations existing product line. The purpose of such a reviewis to make sure that the factors important for competitive success in the market can bediscovered so that the management can identify their own strengths and weaknesses aswell as their competitors’ strengths and weaknesses.After identifying its strengths and weaknesses, an organization must keep a track ofcompetitors’ moves and actions so as to discover probable opportunities of threats to itsmarket or supply sources.3. Setting Quantitative Targets - In this step, an organization must practically fix thequantitative target values for some of the organizational objectives. The idea behind this isto compare with long term customers, so as to evaluate the contribution that might bemade by various product zones or operating departments.4.Aiming in context with the divisional plans - In this step, the contributions made byeach department or division or product category within the organization is identified andaccordingly strategic planning is done for each sub-unit. This requires a careful analysis ofmacroeconomic trends.5. Performance Analysis - Performance analysis includes discovering and analyzing thegap between the planned or desired performance. A critical evaluation of the organizationspast performance, present condition and the desired future conditions must be done by theorganization. This critical evaluation identifies the degree of gap that persists between theactual reality and the long-term aspirations of the organization. An attempt is made by theorganization to estimate its probable future condition if the current trends persist.

Page 4: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

6. Choice of Strategy - This is the ultimate step in Strategy Formulation. The best courseof action is actually chosen after considering organizational goals, organizational strengths,potential and limitations as well as the external opportunitiesThe organization, I am referring isMott MacDonald is a large global management, engineering and development consultancy.A consultancy contains experts who provide advisory services in a variety of fields. TheMott MacDonald Group was formed in 1989 when two consultancy businesses merged.Today Mott MacDonald”s business spans 120 countries and employs more than 13,000staff. Its experts work on thousands of projects across the world in many areas. Theseinclude transport, energy, buildings, water, the environment, health, education andcommunications.Creating strategic direction

MissionMott MacDonald's mission is: Providing customer satisfaction Through professionalexcellence Giving commercial success And employee fulfillmentVision'To be the consultant of choice in our global marketplace'.Key pointHighly skilled consultants work in engineering, environmental science, economics, projectmanagement, health and safety, risk management, IT and education.Marketing strategyDifferentiation strategy: Differentiation helps an organization to develop a unique businessstrategy.Strategy and objectivesMott MacDonald operates a rolling strategic plan that looks ahead over a five-year periodand is updated every year. The five-year plan is an example of 'top down' planning it setstargets and the direction for the company”s business units. At the same time, the businessunits contribute to the planning process from the bottom-up through their annual businessplans.

Page 5: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

As Mott MacDonald is an employee-owned company, employees help to decide what areasthey would like the business to focus on. This might mean the business takes on projectsthat do not provide a return on investment in the short term, but which help to position thebusiness in the market in the longer term.The five-year plan covers all areas of importance to the business. These include financialgrowth, markets, services, customers, partners, sustainability and staff development. Foreach of these areas Mott MacDonald has specific business objectives.By taking into account the mission, vision and values, business managers set SMARTobjectives. These help ensure that the business can measure its performance accurately.For exampleMott MacDonald”s engineering consultants supported a project in Malaysia where floodsand traffic congestion have caused problems in the central business district of KualaLumpur, the capital.1. Setting objectiveTo solve problems in the central business district of Kuala Lumpur caused by floods andtraffic congestionAiming in context with the divisional plans - In this step, the contributions made by eachdepartment or division or product category within the organization is identified andaccordingly strategic planning is done for each sub-unit. This requires a careful analysis ofmacroeconomic trends.2. Choice of Strategy -The solution is the Storm water Management And Road Tunnel by coincidence, also calledSMART. This project is a world-first. The tunnel is 9.7 kilometers long and diverts thefloodwaters away from the city center. The 3 kilometer middle section of the tunnel alsoacts as a two-deck motorway to help relieve traffic congestion. When the tunnel is full withwater, the road section closes.Mott MacDonald designed the dual-purpose section of the tunnel and helped solve thetechnical solutions to challenges linked with excavating out the entire tunnel. By providingexpertise from across the Mott MacDonald Group, the consultants worked with the localteams to share knowledge and solve a local problem with a sustainable and innovativesolution.3. Performance Analysis:The results of the project showed whether they had achieved them:

S - what do we want to achieve? Kuala Lumpur needed continuous access to itsbusiness district.

Page 6: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

M - how will we know if it has achieved the right result? The traffic congestion andflooding will not happen again. A - do we have the right resources to carry this out? Mott MacDonald helped toprocure the specialized equipment for the excavation. R - does it address the problem? The proposed solution solved both the flooding andcongestion problems. T - what is the deadline? The first phase was to be completed in 2005 and thesecond in 2007.

Page 7: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

4. What are the factors which influence the structure of an organization and how? Explainwith specific example known to you or familiar with. Briefly describe the situation and thefactors which specifically influenced the choice of organization structure. Briefly describethe organization/s, you are referring to.Answer

Organizational structure is the framework companies use to outline their authority andcommunication processes. The framework usually includes policies, rules andresponsibilities for each individual in the organization. Several factors affect theorganizational structure of a company. These factors can be internal or external. Smallbusiness owners must be responsible for creating their companies organizational structureframework. Business owners may use a management consultant or review informationfrom the Small Business Administration before setting up their organizational structure.Important factor to be considered for designing organization structure of modernorganizationSizeSize is many times the driving factor for a company’s organizational structure. Smaller orhome-based businesses do not usually have a vast structure because the business owner isusually responsible for all tasks. Larger business organizations usually require a moreintense framework for their organizational structure. Companies with more employeesusually require more managers for supervising these individuals. Highly specializedbusiness operations can also require a more formal organizational structure.Life CycleThe Company’s life cycle also plays an important part in the development of anorganizational structure. Business owners attempting to grow and expand their company’soperations usually develop an organizational structure to outline their company’s businessmission and goals. Businesses reaching peak performance usually become moremechanical in their organizational structure. This occurs as the chain of commandincreases from the business owner down to frontline employees. Mature companies usuallyfocus on developing an organizational structure to improve efficiency and profitability.These improvements may be the result of more competitors entering the economicmarketplace.StrategyAn organization’s strategy is its plan for the whole business that sets out how theorganization will use its major resources. An organization's structure is the way the piecesof the organization fit together internally. It also covers the links with external

Page 8: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

organizations such as partners. For the organization to deliver its plans, the strategy andthe structure must be woven together seamlessly.Business strategies can also be a factor in a company’s organizational structuredevelopment. High-growth companies usually have smaller organizational structures sothey can react to changes in the business environment quicker than other companies.Business owners may also be reluctant to give up managerial control in businessoperations. Small businesses still looking to define their business strategy often delaycreating an organizational structure. Business owners are usually more interested insetting business strategies rather than developing and implementing an internal businessstructure.Business EnvironmentThe environment is the world in which the organization operates, and includes conditionsthat influence the organization such as economic, social-cultural, legal-political,technological, and natural environment conditions. Environments are often described aseither stable or dynamic.• In a stable environment, the customers' desires are well understood and probably willremain consistent for a relatively long time. Examples of organizations that face relativelystable environments include manufacturers of staple items such as detergent, cleaningsupplies, and paper products.• In a dynamic environment, the customers' desires are continuously changing—theopposite of a stable environment. This condition is often thought of as turbulent. Inaddition, the technology that a company uses while in this environment may need to becontinuously improved and updated. An example of an industry functioning in a dynamicenvironment is electronics. Technology changes create competitive pressures for allelectronics industries, because as technology changes, so do the desires of consumers.In general, organizations that operate in stable external environments find mechanisticstructures to be advantageous. This system provides a level of efficiency that enhances thelong-term performances of organizations that enjoy relatively stable operatingenvironments. In contrast, organizations that operate in volatile and frequently changingenvironments are more likely to find that an organic structure provides the greatestbenefits. This structure allows the organization to respond to environment change moreproactively.TechnologyAdvances in technology are the most frequent cause of change in organizations since theygenerally result in greater efficiency and lower costs for the firm. Technology is the waytasks are accomplished using tools, equipment, techniques, and human know-how.

Page 9: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

In the early 1960s, Joan Woodward found that the right combination of structure andtechnology were critical to organizational success. She conducted a study of technology andstructure in more than 100 English manufacturing firms, which she classified into threecategories of core-manufacturing technology:• Small-batch production is used to manufacture a variety of custom, made-to-ordergoods. Each item is made somewhat differently to meet a customer's specifications. A printshop is an example of a business that uses small-batch production.• Mass production is used to create a large number of uniform goods in an assembly-linesystem. Workers are highly dependent on one another, as the product passes from stage tostage until completion. Equipment may be sophisticated, and workers often follow detailedinstructions while performing simplified jobs. A company that bottles soda pop is anexample of an organization that utilizes mass production.• Organizations using continuous-process production create goods by continuouslyfeeding raw materials, such as liquid, solids, and gases, through a highly automated system.Such systems are equipment intensive, but can often be operated by a relatively small laborforce. Classic examples are automated chemical plants and oil refineries.Small-batch and continuous processes had more flexible structures, and the best mass-production operations were more rigid structures.The company, I am referring toThe Coca-Cola Company is truly global, and its main product is recognized and consumedworldwide. The Coca-Cola Company is the world's largest beverage company and is theleading producer and marketer of soft drinks. The Company markets four of the world's topfive soft drinks brands: Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite.The relationship between strategy and structureThe goal of The Coca-Cola Company is 'to be the world's leading provider of brandedbeverage solutions, to deliver consistent and profitable growth, and to have the highestquality products and processes.'To achieve this goal, the Company has established six strategic priorities and has builtthese into every aspect of its business:1. Accelerate carbonated soft drinks growth, led by Coca-Cola2. Broaden the family of products, wherever appropriate e.g. bottled water, tea, coffee,juices, energy drinks3. Grow system profitability & capability together with the bottlers4. Creatively serve customers (e.g. retailers) to build their businesses5. Invest intelligently in market growth6. Drive efficiency & cost effectiveness by using technology and large scale productionto control costs enabling our people to achieve extraordinary results every day.

Page 10: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

There are many ways to structure an organization. For example, a structure may be builtaround: function: reflecting main specialisms e.g. marketing, finance, production,distribution product: reflecting product categories e.g. bread, pies, cakes, biscuits process: reflecting different processes e.g. storage, manufacturing, packing, delivery.The Coca-Cola Company, have built flexible structures which, wherever possible, encourageteamwork. For example, at Coca-Cola Great Britain any new product development (e.g.

Coca-Cola Vanilla) brings together teams of employees with different specialisms.At such team meetings, marketing specialists clarify the results of their market researchand testing, food technologists describe what changes to a product are feasible, financialexperts reports on the cost implications of change.The corporate segment -Head OfficeThe Coca-Cola Company has a corporate (Head Office) segment that is responsible forgiving the Company an overall direction and providing support to the regional structure.

Key strategic decisions at The Coca-Cola Company are made by an Executive Committee of12 Company Officers. This Committee helped to shape the six strategic priorities set outearlier. The Chair of the Executive Committee acts as a figurehead for the Company andchairs the board meetings. He is also the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and as such he is thesenior decision maker. Other executives are responsible either for the major regions (e.g.Africa) or have an important business specialism e.g. the Chief Financial Officer.

Page 11: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

As a company whose success rests on its ability to connect with local consumers, it makessense for The Coca-Cola Company to be organised into a regional structure which combinescentralisation and localisation. The Company operates six geographic operating segments -also called Strategic Business Units (SBUs) - as well as the corporate (Head Office) segment.

Each of these regional SBUs is sub-divided into divisions. Take the European Union, SBU,for example. The UK fits into the Northwest Europe division. This geographical structurerecognizes that: markets are geographically separated tastes and lifestyles vary from area to area. As do incomes and consumptionpatterns markets are at different stages of development.At a more local level the management of The Coca-Cola Company involves a number offunctional specialisms. The management structure for Great Britain illustrates this.

Page 12: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

The structure of Coca-Cola Great Britain combines elements of centralization anddecentralization. Divisions and regions operate as business unit teams, with each Directorreporting to the General Manager, i.e. Division President.

However, there is a matrix structure for each function e.g. the Finance Director in the GBDivision reports to the GB President, but also to (dotted line) the Finance Director of NorthWest Europe Division. In addition, functions within the Company operate acrossgeographical boundaries to share best practice.

To take another example of local decision making at a regional (local) level the variousSBUs are responsible for region-specific market research, and for developing localadvertising, e.g. using the languages of the countries in which The Coca-Cola Companyoperates. A major region like Great Britain has its own marketing structure, organized asshown on the diagram.

Page 13: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

Conclusion:If the Coca-Cola Company was operating in national level and is recognized and consumedwithin a particular country, it size would be comparatively small. In that scenario, structureof the company would commence from division level, as shown below:

Coca-Cola, a mature company, has long chain of command from business owner to frontlineemployee. Hence, it is more focus on developing an organizational structure to improveefficiency and profitability.Most of the bottlers working with Coca-Cola Company has machine with updatedtechnology, which ensure the fulfillment of business demand. Most of them have threestrong department; technical, selling and distribution and Research and Developmentdepartment.Example

Innovation and organizational structure and working styleDonna Phillips would have to commute more than two hours each day from her home inCamrose,aberta to the consulting firm where she works in st. Albert. Fortunately she hasbeen able to cut that time down to about ten seconds. Philips is one of the 1.5 millionCanadians who have become telecommuters.“It gives me the opportunity to work in my field without having to commute, “says Phillips,who has worked for Bradley wells consulting for the past two years from her home office.”It’s certainly far more desirable for me.”Advancement of technology has made possible to knowledge worker to work from homerather than office, often without clients knowing it.Company has to adjust itself with new technology; as a result an organization has to modifyits organization structure and working methodJapan had increased by the end of 2002 the number of home based employees to 2000,nearly seven times of current worker of that time. The program targets about 10000employees engaged in indirect departments such as personnel and accounting, as well asthe marketing department. If realized, the company will have one in every five employeesworking at home in front of their PCs for more than one day per week, communicating withthe company via email and telephone.The average commuting time of IBM Japan employees, round trip, is about two and halfhours, the personnel group expects that, by switching to home based work employees will

Page 14: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

have more time to spare, increasing their work efficiency and facilitating their healthmanagement efforts.IBM Japan is the first company in Japan to implement a home based work program onmassive scale, targeting several thousand employees.(Source: the jillabour flash, 15 march 2002)

Page 15: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

1.“Retaining talent, inculcating sense of loyalty for maintaining efficiency in terms of profitgeneration, managing survival and growth, are some of the most difficult challenges beforea professional manager in ever growing competitive business environment”.Elaborate this statement; explain underlying concepts with examples from the organizationyou have worked for or familiar with. Briefly describe the situation and the organization,you are referring to.AnswerNow a day’s Human resource is consider as vital resource of an organization. Onemotivated staff with power can change the whole organization’s values and culture. Hence,it said that it is easy to hire 100 staffs but difficult retain a good one.Motivation may stem from personal interest such as keeping safe or from external factorssuch as praise and reward.Different theories have been suggested for motivating employees. Pay is considered aprimary motivator. Other motivating factors include:

appreciation of hard work a sense of achievement responsibility and empowerment opportunity for advancement a sense of challenge and enjoyment. Full support (resource and human) Synchronization of company and personnel goal Career and succession planning for employee

Benefits of motivated staffA motivated workforce will work harder and achieve greater output in less time, thereforereducing labour costs. It requires less supervision and demonstrates pride in its work,making a greater impact on the customer.Motivated employees have greater concentration and are less likely to make mistakes,cause accidents or be involved in conflict. They are also likely to show greater loyalty to thecompany and have less absenteeism. An unmotivated workforce will be the opposite, beingdissatisfied with its role in the work environment. This can negatively affect both thequality of the work as well as how efficiently employees carry out their jobs.Organization I am referring toTesco began in 1919 with one man, Jack Cohen, a market stallholder selling groceries inLondon. TESCO was formed out of a merger with T.E. Stockwell from whom he purchasedtea for sale on the stall. The first store opened in 1929. Since then, Tesco has expandedacross the world. It now has over 2,200 stores including hypermarkets and Tesco Expressoutlets to meet different customer needs. As a conglomerate Tesco also offers alternativegoods and services such as insurance, banking and online shopping. With net profits ofaround £3.4 billion Tesco has become the largest British retailer and one of the world's

Page 16: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

leading retail outlets on three continents. Tesco's growth has resulted in a worldwideworkforce of over 468,000 employees.To support its growth, Tesco needs staff that are motivated, flexible and well-trained andwho recognize customer needs. In turn, Tesco's employees are supported by the companyin their various roles and at different levels - from customer assistants in stores todepartment managers; from warehouse employees to office and logistics staff. Tescorecognizes that employee motivation is important for the continued growth of thecompany.Tesco motivates its employees by increasing their knowledge, skills and job satisfactionthrough training and development and providing relevant and timely reward andrecognition.Tesco considers that the business depends on two groups of people customers and staff. Itappreciates that staff are unique and have diverse lifestyles outside of work. To this endTesco supports staff with a work/life balance and offers reward through: flexible working free or reduced rate health benefits discount gym membership competitive salaries staff discount company share options.

Valuing employeesTesco has discovered that it is important to create trust and respect. It has found that byvaluing employees, providing realistic goals, and an interesting environment for them towork in it; increases employees’ motivation.Tesco's Employee Reward Program; has some similarity to Taylor’s theory. Its financialreward packages are one motivating factor. However, there are factors other than moneywhich motivate people in both their personal and working lives. Tesco goes far beyondTaylor and gives more than just simple pay increases. It supports the varied lifestyles ofindividual employees through relevant and targeted benefits.

Page 17: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

Employees are more motivated if they feel content in their work. This is exactly what Tescofollowed; it created a good working environment where employees feel valued, generallythrough increased communication and being asked for their opinions. Employeemotivation is also increased by investing in its staff through training and development. Inturn this enhances their knowledge, skills and their sense of job satisfaction.Measuring staff satisfactionEvery year Tesco invites its staff to take part in a staff satisfaction survey called Viewpointwhich gives them the opportunity to express their views on almost every aspect of theirjob. The results from the survey help Tesco make sure it is offering the right things to itsstaff to keep them motivated. Some of the benefits available to staff include:

Lifestyle break this offers 4-12 weeks off work and guarantees the job back at theend Career break this allows staff between 6 months and 5 years away from work withright of returnPension scheme this award-winning scheme provides clearly defined long term benefits

CommunicationAt Tesco the Mayo theory is seen to be operating throughout the company. Communicationis an extremely important factor in motivating employees. This may be through 1-to-1discussions with managers, through the company intranet or newsletters or through moreformal structures such as appraisals.Line managers hold a daily Team Meeting to update staff on what is happening for the dayand to give out Value Awards. These awards can be given from any member of staff toanother as a way of saying “thank you” and celebrating achievements.Motivation from training and developmentTesco also promotes motivation through its many training and development opportunities.Everyone has access not just to the training they need to do their job well but also toleadership training to grow within the company. Tesco offers strategic career planning tohelp staff 'achieve the extraordinary'.In 2009 Tesco appointed 3,000 managers 80% internally. As well as an annual careerdiscussion with every employee, the company also emphasizes the development of thewhole person and has implemented a system of 360 degree feedback. This is a personaldevelopment tool which provides feedback from a selection of people with whom theemployee works. This helps employees to understand their behavior, strengths andweaknesses within the workplace as others see them. The idea of the program is to 'TakePeople with You' and 'To Gain the Hearts and Minds of Others' in order to improveindividuals and get things done efficiently.

Page 18: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

ConclusionEmployee motivation is an important task for managers. Early motivational theory such asthat of Taylor suggested that pay motivated workers to improve production.Tesco provides opportunities for its managers and staff to take a share and a greaterinterest in their own employment. Since every employee is an individual, with differentneeds and aspirations, the process of reviews and personal development plans allowsrecognition of their abilities and achievement, as well as potential development.This benefits the individual by providing career progression. It also benefits Tesco byensuring the business can deliver high levels of customer service through its skilledemployees.Managing survival and growthA manager has to seek continuous growth of an organization and has to tackle everyobstacle that may risk organization’s survival.Mainly, there are two set of factors, internaland external, that impinge upon film’s survival and growth.Internal factors:1. Choice of technology,2. Efficiency of labors,3. Competence of managerial staff,4. Company image,5. Financial resources and othersExternal factors:1. Government policy,2. Laws and regulation,3. Changing customer tastes,4. Attitudes and values,5. increasing competition and otherEXAMPLEJanakpur cigarette (JC) and Surya Tobacco (ST)JC and ST are two factories producing cigarettes and competing together for last 20 years.The two factories are engaged in a cut throat competition to become the number onecigarette manufacturer.JC is relatively older than ST. the JC manager says, ‘we are public enterprise and have tofollow the order of the concerned ministry in every respect. Many times we wait for repliesfrom the line ministry to make decision on personnel. Marketing and finance related

Page 19: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

issues.” However, the manager adds “employees working in this factory are having a feelingof more job security than with our competitor in the private sector.”The ST Manager presents a different view:” our technology is modern, people are smartand they work in a competitive manner. Our employees are performance based and highlymotivate”. ST has recruited some the qualified employees from JC offering a higher salary atthe time of beginning of production in the 1980s.In order to compete in market JC employees have to work with a salary plus some benefitsfor increased sales based on the decision of the top management. In case of ST, the fieldmanager can decide on the promotion and other formsof rewardsof its sales staff. Apartfrom a regular salary, the sales staffs are getting five times more than they do JC’s field staff.Infact it is realized that JC employees work as salaried employees whereas ST employeeswork as more responsive to customer needs. In fact, JC sales staffs are or customer focused.Most of the pant supervisors working in ST pant are young and there is no great age gapamong the supervisors. In JC, many supervisors are at the retiring age and 10 percent of thetotal supervisors are young and new recruits. There are many cases of conflict betweenold- aged and young employee in JC over the reward system as in ST. old aged supervisorsare not interested in the reward system as they are in JC.“Being in Government Company, JC has toavoid unethical dealings with the customers; atthe same time, we cannot go against the order of the government and our man interestshould be in the long term job security of employees”, the manager of JC believes. “Toprotect business in the private sector, earning from sale is avital issue, therefore, whateveraction or decisions the ST takes, it will not forget the “profit” and “people”, argues the STManager.ConclusionInternal factors like choice of technology, motivated staffs, efficient managers and companyvalues; played important role in growth of ST Company. At same time, JC jeopardize itsexistence by following old traditional management system, retaining old technology, andold fashioned managers.External factor, like government policy, attitude toward the customers and increasingcompetitors were the most vulnerable factor of JC Company that jeopardizes theirexistence.

Page 20: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

3. What are the determinants of organizational climate and culture? Briefly describe howthese affect various functions of the organization. Explain with examples from theorganization you have worked for or familiar with. Specifically describe the situations andmain features of the organization you are referring to with respect to the concepts referredin this question.AnswerOrganizational climate (sometimes known as Corporate Climate) is the process ofquantifying the “culture” of an organization. It is a set of properties of the workenvironment, perceived directly or indirectly by the employees, that is assumed to be amajor force in influencing employee behaviorGardner (2000) reveals that organizational climate is the atmosphere that employeesperceive in their organizations by practices, procedures and rewards. Stated simply, peoplerespond to work environments in terms of how they perceive these environments and akey substantive condemn in perception is the degree to which individuals perceivethemselves as being personally benefiting as opposed to being personally harmed(hindered) by their environment (Adler and Kwon 2002).We can define Organizational culture as the pattern of beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, andcustoms that exists within an organization.Organizational culture can be supportive or unsupportive, positive or negative. It can affectthe ability or willingness of employees to adapt or perform well within the organization.Organizational culture may result in part from senior management beliefs or from thebeliefs of employees.Following are determinants of organizational climate and culture:

1. Economic condition2. Leadership style3. Organizational policies4. Managerial values5. Organizational values6. Characteristics of members7. Organizational sizeThe company I am referring

Garud Securities P. Ltd.Garud Securities P. Ltd., a security company, was initiated as guard provider. Till date it3000 security guards with Garud electronic security department and Garud EnergyDepartment.

Page 21: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

Their services apart from security guards are CCTV surveillance, remote access, alarmsystem, GSM security panel system, CMS system, alternative energy system.Garud has been growing gradually from its commencement, so its economic condition.Initial they only provide uniform and security tools to their guards. As they are becomingeconomically sound, they are providing advance gadgets and transportation facilities totheir guards. It has already initiated incentive and award system to motivate it guards.Garud is willing to invest in new training project with Malaysia for advancement itssecurity service.Sabal Chandra Shah, Managing Director, has a vital role for development of Garud. As weknow the leadership style prevailing in an organization has a profound influence inprogress of organization, different values and characteristics of Shah has directlyinfluenced the organization.Maintaining order, criticizing poor performance of any guards, conducting training andorientation class to overcome any problem, exercising full authority and control are somehis characteristics and values. Though full authority and control are usually discarded, butin case of securities company full authority leadership style are more effective.Garud has three departments1. Garud support service2. Garud electronic security system and3. guard supplierDifferent department has its own managers, and its specific function. MD and othermanagers organize meeting frequently, twice a week, to know and discuss current situationand progress of an organization. Nobody makes pro action decision. They always prepareshort term objectives and perform accordingly to achieve it. With their economical andphysical resources, they always want to try new projects. Recently, they have expandedtheir organization with electronic department which deals with electronic security system.Every worker does not have direct approach to higher level of organization, but there iscertain procedures which help to call complain. Respective managers of department areresponsible to discuss about their department shortcoming and problems. For easement ofguards, if they have any personnel complains or difficulties working with current enrolledcompany, they can take help of GSS. GSS handles problems of its guards and clients, it savetime of higher level management.The environment of organization is alike with army and police service. Every workershould have trained in well known training organization, hence discipline, well mannered,activeness are key character of its worker. There is also age boundary, only people between

Page 22: Ignou Sovled Assignment Ms01

18 to 50 can continue the service. This type of policies and values have significant role inimprovement of an organization.They have been upgrading their services using two practices:1. Employee feed backThe company hires limited numbers of trained guards annually. Then it allocatesthem to particular institutions, organization and personnel. Allocated guardsworked as per company’s rules and regulation.Company has different department for patrolling, surveillance, bouncers. In everymeeting, employees interest are share, questioner and suggestions are placed.2. Customer suggestion:This is an essential part of communication of any organization. An organizationshould be customer oriented, so customers’ suggestion, hint, idea are essentialfactors to be consider while taking a decision.The head of departments, in regular basis, do make personnel interaction with everyclient (most of them were banks, finance companies and VIPs)From both practices what they have found is physical security is not enough and reliable. Inanother hand, Union and politics in guard are two main threats to company. In suchscenario, with help of employee feedback and customer suggestions, they decided toexpand. They added electronic security departments, which deal with CCTV surveillance,alarm system, electronic equipment related to security. Soon after expansion their clientsraise by 69%, because client were assure that system like cctv will be provide proof if anyincident occur. Even if there is human error, clients were comfort due to alarm system andelectronic security system. Soon afterward, clients demanded different security system asper their requirement, like glass break sensor, motion sensor, magnetic door sensor, andpatrolling services.