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Illustrative Examples - Unit 3 Complete your chart using the information provided in this document. Other acceptable sources are: -Traditions and Encounters -The Earth and Its People -Textbook located on the class website -Textbook page -Any AP approved review materials When completing this packet, you must relate each illustrative example to the identified part of of the Key Concepts.
Transcript
  • Illustrative Examples - Unit 3Complete your chart using the information provided in this document.Other acceptable sources are:-Traditions and Encounters-The Earth and Its People - Textbook located on the class website - Textbook page-Any AP approved review materials

    When completing this packet, you must relate each illustrative example to the identified part of of the Key Concepts.

  • Exchange Networks CB Framework 3.1.I B

    Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks.Communication and exchange networks developed in the Americas.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Andes- Mesoamerica Use the texts to go beyond what is on the

    following pages

  • Andes/Mesoamerica

    Use the following website to aid in your information collection.

    The website is really tiny so the entire thing will copy into your browser.

    http://apworldipedia.com/index.php?title=Key_Concept_3.1_Expansion_and_Intensification_of_Communication_and_Exchange_Networks

  • Credit & Money Economies CB Framework 3.1.I C

    Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks.The growth of interregional trade in luxury goods was encouraged by significant innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies including the caravanserai, compass use, the astrolabe, and larger ship designs in sea traveland new forms of credit and the development of money economies.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Banking Houses- Use of Paper Money Use the texts to go beyond what is on the following pages

  • Banking Houses

    As much as I HATE WIKIPEDIA these provide a good overview for these items.

    Banking Houses: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_banking

  • Coin & Paper Money Use the following website to aid in your

    information collection

    We start to transition from the barter system to using items strictly for buying items

    Coins are pieces of hard material used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government.

    The first European coin to use Arabic numerals to date the year in which the coin was minted was the St. Gall silver Plappart of 1424

  • Coin & Paper Money Chinese start using paper money. Development of the banknote began in the Tang

    Dynasty during the 7th century, with local issues of paper currency, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty

    Its roots were in merchant receipts of deposit during the Tang Dynasty (618907), as merchants and wholesalers desired to avoid the heavy bulk of copper coinage in large commercial transactions.

    Europeans, Mongols, and other Chinese dynasties follow the paper money example.

  • Environmental & Technologies CB Framework 3.1.II A

    The movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects.The expansion and intensification of long-distance trade routes often depended on environmental knowledge and technological adaptations to the environment.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Vikings- Arabs & Berbers Use the texts to go beyond what is on the

    following pages

  • The Vikings

    Mostly from Norway/Sweden

    Ended up exploring/invading a large part of Europe

    Specifically the Scandinavian Vikings

    NOW what did they use to get there?

  • The Vikings and the Longship The Longship,

    most popular means of transportation of the Vikings.

    Vikings needed ships to travel fast, carry large amounts of cargo (AKA stuff), and fit into small places, like the rivers of Europe.

  • The Vikings and the Longship The Vikings were

    able to utilize their knowledge of the ENVIRONMENT

    This ship was used to travel in open waters, along the coast, and in rivers and estuaries (he tidal mouth of a large river, where the tide meets the stream)

  • The Vikings and the Longship The Longship was designed to be fast in open

    waters (rowing and sails were utilized) However, it was a narrow ship, and even more

    narrow at the bottom, allowing it to move through very shallow water.

    This advantage allowed the Vikings to move along the coast and through rivers within Europe.

    The ships were also symmetrical in a sense. The front was the same as the back (like a worm where is the head on that??) This symmetry allowed for changing direction in narrow places easily the ship did not need to be turned around.

  • Environmental knowledge & technological adaptations No information of navigation through stars No Compass

    -However Aware of heavy wind made the sails extremely

    large Knowledge of underwater currents made keel

    deeper under the center of their ship (helped resist tug of underwater currents)

    Knowledge of waves capable of breaking into the boat in rough weatherThe raised bow(symmetrical on both ends)

  • The Arabs & Berbers Use the following to aid in your information collection The website is tiny in order to make it clickable https://books.google.com/books?id=aujp0cT_TiEC&pg=PA

    220&lpg=PA220&dq=camel+saddles+history&source=bl&ots=bpFALVCpID&sig=sYok0ydK1AXNdk75IzP1TJkkDbU&hl=en&ei=SP_PTsbLBcTr0gHa_Pw1&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&sqi=2&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=camel%20saddles%20history&f=false

    USE THE LINK BELOWhttps://books.google.com/books?id=aujp0cT_TiEC&pg=PA220&lpg=PA220&dq=camel+saddles+history&source=bl&ots=bpFALVCpID&sig=sYok0ydK1AXNdk75IzP1TJkkDbU&hl=en&ei=SP_PTsbLBcTr0gHa_Pw1&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&sqi=2#v=onepage&q=camel%20saddles%20history&f=false

  • Diffusion of Languages CB Framework 3.1.II C

    The movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects.Some migrations and commercial contacts led to the diffusion of languages throughout a new region or the emergence of new languages.

    The following pages provide information and link to information about the following:

    - Bantu Language- Turkic & Arabic Languages Use the texts to go beyond what is on the

    following pages

  • Bantu

    Use the following to aid in your information collection

  • Bantu Languages Swahili The Bantu languages descend from a common Proto-

    Bantu language, which is believed to have been spoken in what is now Cameroon in West Africa.

    An estimated 2,5003,000 years ago, although other sources put the start of the Bantu Expansion closer to 3000 BC,speakers of the Proto-Bantu language began a series of migrations eastward and southward, carrying agriculture with them.

    This Bantu expansion came to dominate Sub-Saharan Africa east of Cameroon, an area where Bantu peoples now constitute nearly the entire population.

  • Swahili

    Swahili is traditionally regarded as being the language of Arab-ruled Zanzibar, spread along the coast by the Arab trade in various goods. Whether it was first spoken by natives of the mainland opposite Zanzibar who were brought to Zanzibar as slaves, or whether Zanzibar had a native African population, is uncertain.

    Arab traders are known to have had extensive contact with the coastal peoples from at least the 6th century A.D. and Islam began to spread along the East African Coast from at least the 9th century.

    There is also cultural evidence of early Persian (or Arabo-Persian) settlement on Zanzibar from Shiraz in present-day Iran. The African population of the island holds the tradition that it is descended from intermarriage of these Shirazi with natives.

  • Turkic/Arabic

    Use the following to aid in your information collection

  • Diaspora Communities CB Framework 3.1.III B

    Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing, or the creation of new, networks of trade and communication.In key places along important trade routes, merchants set up diasporic communities where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Muslim Merchant Communities- Chinese Merchant Communities Use the texts to go beyond what is on the

    following pages

  • Muslim Merchant Communities Use the following websites to aid in your

    information collection http://www.blackpast.org/perspectives/islam-and-african-diaspora-indian-ocean-world

    http://exhibitions.nypl.org/africansindianocean/essay-east-africa.php

  • Muslim Merchant Communities Within the first four centuries of its founding,

    Islam spread as both a religion and a political force.

    From the Arabian Peninsula, Muslims moved down the East African coast and eastward to the areas comprising modern-day Iraq, Iran, India, Sri Lanka, and beyond.

    By the fourteenth century, Muslim-ruled city-states dotted the East African coastline and gained popular support in Malaysia and Sumatra; by the mid-sixteenth century, Islam had not only become dominant in northern India but counted a number of vibrant communities in distant China.

  • Muslim Merchant Communities

    During the Yuan and Ming dynasties, Muslims enjoyed protected status and even held high-ranking government positions-as with the Admiral Zheng He, who led an imperial fleet to East Africa in 1414.

    Islam took hold in the Indian Ocean through a combination of trade, military conquest, and peaceful conversion-the latter mostly done through the work of Sufis.

    Muslims incorporated themselves into social and political organizations; in addition to merging culturally, they also created syncretism (merging religions for new belief systems)

    A new religious and philosophical outlook, such as Din i-Ilahi, promoted by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, combined elements of Islam, Hinduism, Jainism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism.

  • Muslim Merchant Communities

    Muslim merchants often married local women this helped push them into local societies

    Many locals convert to Islam through the spread by these merchants

    Muslim communities were often set apart from the local communities, and merchants become a sub-caste within the Indian society

  • Chinese Merchant Communities Use the following websites to aid in your

    information collection http://www.oac.cdlib.org/view?docId=hb138nb08w&doc.view=frames&chunk.id=ss1.01&toc.id=ss1.02&brand=oac4

    http://www.everyculture.com/East-Southeast-Asia/Chinese-in-Southeast-Asia-Orientation.html

  • Travelers CB Framework 3.1.III C

    Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing, or the creation of new, networks of trade and communication.As exchange networks intensified, an increased number of travelers within AfroEurasia wrote about their travels."

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Ibn Battuta- Marco Polo- Xuanzang Use the texts to go beyond what is on the following pages

  • Ibn Battuta

    Use the following websites to aid in your information collection

    http://www.muslimheritage.com/article/ibn-battuta http://www.ibnibnbattuta.com/p/who-was-ibn-battuta.html http://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/1354-ibnbattuta.asp https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/big-history-project/expansion-interconnection/exploration-interconnection/a/ibn-battuta

  • Ibn Battuta February 25, 1304 1368 or

    1369, was a Moroccan explorer of Berber descent.

    Over a period of thirty years, IbnBattuta visited most of the known Islamic world as well as many non-Muslim lands. His journeys included trips to North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Africa and Eastern Europe in the West, and to the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China.

    In June 1325, at the age of twenty-one, Ibn Battuta set off from his hometown on a hajj.

    Ibn Battuta doesnt return home for 25 years.

  • Ibn Battuta

  • Marco Polo Use the following websites to aid in your

    information collection http://www.silk-road.com/artl/marcopolo.shtml http://www.biography.com/people/marco-polo-9443861#early-life http://www.history.com/topics/exploration/marco-polo

  • Marco Polo C.1254 January 89, 1324 Italian merchant traveler from

    the Republic of Venice His book introduced

    Europeans to Central Asia and China.

    He learned the mercantile trade from his father and uncle.

    Polo describes paper money and the burning of coal, he fails to mention the Great Wall of China, Chinese characters, chopsticks, or footbinding.

  • Xuanzang Use the following websites to aid in your

    information collection http://asiasociety.org/xuanzang-monk-who-brought-buddhism-east http://www.silk-road.com/artl/hsuantsang.shtml http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/special/travel_records.pdf

  • Xuanzang 602-664 A Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar,

    traveler, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang Dynasty

    traveled throughout China in search of sacred books of Buddhism

    Xuanzang developed the desire to visit India, was concerned about the incomplete and misinterpreted nature of the Buddhist scriptures that had reached China.

  • Diffusion of Literature, Art, and Culture CB Framework 3.1.III D

    Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing, or the creation of new, networks of trade and communication.Increased cross-cultural interactions resulted in the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions, as well as scientific and technological innovations.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Toltec/Mexica and Incan Traditions- Spread of Hinduism & Buddhism into SE Asia Use the texts to go beyond what is on the following

    pages

  • Toltec/Mexica/Inca Use the following websites to aid in your

    information collection http://www.ancient.eu/Toltec_Civilization/ http://www.desertusa.com/ind1/ind_new/ind5.html http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/HIST101-Subunit-8.2.3-Toltecs-FINAL.pdf

    http://www.english-online.at/history/inca/inca-civilization.htm

    http://www.ancient.eu/Inca_Religion/

  • Hinduism/Buddhism Use the following websites to aid in your

    information collection https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hinduism/The-spread-of-Hinduism-in-Southeast-Asia-and-the-Pacific

    http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/southeast.htm

  • Diffusion of Crops CB Framework 3.1.IV

    There was continued diffusion of crops and pathogens, including epidemic diseases like the bubonic plague, along trade routes.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:

    - Bananas in Africa- New Rice Varieties in East Asia Use the texts to go beyond what is on the

    following pages

  • Bananas Use the following From New Guinea and the Philippines, bananas dispersed far and wide across the tropics, in all directions. It is probable that bananas arrived in India, Indonesia, Australia, and Malaysia, within the first two millennia after domestication. Plantains may have been grown in eastern Africa as early as 3000 BCE, and in Madagascar by 1000 BCE. The plantain had certainly reached the African continent between 500 BCE and 500 CE. Buddhist literature notes the existence of the banana in 600 BCE, and when Alexander the Greats expeditions led him to India in 327 BCE, he stumbled across the fruit. Perhaps most surprising, the banana may have arrived in South America well ahead of Europeans, as early as 200 BCE, carried by sailors of Southeast Asian origin. By the 3rd century CE, plantains were being cultivated on plantations in China.

    Bananas were redistributed and rediscovered for a second time around the Indian Ocean world carried by the wave of Islam. Referenced in Islamic literature in the 11th century BCE, Muslim merchants carried the banana along trade routes to and from various places in South Asia and the Middle East. By the 1200s, the banana had reached into North Africa and in Moorish-controlled Spain. It is also likely that Islamists carried the banana from eastern to western Africa.

  • Rice Use the following websites to aid in your

    information collection http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/song/tech/rice.htm

  • Traditional Sources of Power CB Framework 3.1I.I A

    Empires collapsed in different regions of the world, and in some areas were replaced by new imperial states or political systems.Following the collapses of empires, imperial states were reconstituted in some regions, including the Byzantine Empire and the Chinese dynasties (Sui, Tang, and Song), combining traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovations better suited to their specific local context.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Patriarchy- Religion Use the texts to go beyond what is on the following pages

  • Patriarchy Use the following websites http://www.emayzine.com/index.php/history-103/history-103-week-1/107-the-sui-dynasty

    http://www.slideshare.net/MrRoher/sui-tang-song-china-continuities-changes-26976025

    http://globalconnections.champlain.edu/2015/04/16/womens-rights-in-the-byzantine-empire/

  • Religion Use the following websites to aid in your

    information collection http://www.historydoctor.net/Advanced%20Placement%20World%20History/byzantine_religion_and_influence.htm

    http://www.ancient.eu/Byzantine_Empire/

  • Innovations CB Framework 3.1I.I A

    Empires collapsed in different regions of the world, and in some areas were replaced by new imperial states or political systems.Following the collapses of empires, imperial states were reconstituted in some regions, including the Byzantine Empire and the Chinese dynasties (Sui, Tang, and Song), combining traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovations better suited to their specific local context.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- New Methods of Taxation- Tributary Systems Use the texts to go beyond what is on the following pages

  • Taxation Use the following to aid in your information

    collection

  • Government Imposed Labor Taxes

    This is just like any other tax we know about something is given to the government (typically the king) for payment to fund different things.

    Taxes could be in land, crops, or in other ways (fee for moving place to place, fee for marrying, fee for travel, fees to mint coins, etc.)

    EXAMPLE : The Geld in Europe this was a tax used to pay for mercenaries in 1012.

  • Coerced Labor Coerced means FORCED so

    what kind of labor is this?

    FORCED LABOR! Serfdom was one way to coerce

    labor out of people (review: Serfdom in Europe and Japan serfs worked a specific area of land (labor) in exchange for protection from the lords. Lowest part of society.)

    Mita This was an Incan form of coerced labor. It was a corvee(unpaid labor forced on people of certain social classes typically peasants) Incans used this as a tribute system for doing community projects.

  • Military Obligations This also goes along with

    Feudalism. Peasants who were living on the land were obligated to provide military service to the Lord/King if the need should arise.

    The Vassals were also required to defend the territory of the Lord

    The primary reason why the Lords entered into the Feudal relationship was for this military service and defense of the Lords territory

  • Tributary Use the following to aid in your information

    collection

  • Tributary Systems A tribute is wealth, often in kind, that one

    party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.

    Various ancient states exacted tribute from the rulers of land which the state conquered or otherwise threatened to conquer.

    In case of alliances, lesser parties may pay tribute to more powerful parties as a sign of allegiance and often in order to finance projects that benefited both parties.

    Katniss Everdeen different kind of tribute.

  • To be called "tribute" a recognition by the payer of political submission to the payee is normally required; the large sums, essentially protection money, paid by the later Roman and Byzantine Empires to barbarian peoples to prevent them attacking imperial territory, would not usually be termed "tribute" as the Empire accepted no inferior political position.

    Payments by a superior political entity to an inferior one, made for various purposes, are described by terms including "subsidy.

  • Tribute in China In China, the tribute system began from ancient China period to

    provide both an administrative means to control their interests, as well as a means of providing exclusive trading priorities to those who paid tribute from foreign regions.

    It was an integral part of the Confucian philosophy and was seen by the Chinese as equivalent to the familial relation of younger sons looking after older parents by devoting part of their wealth, assets, or goods to that purpose.

    Political marriages also existed between the Chinese empire and tribute states, such as Songtsen Gampo and Wencheng (Gyasa).

    China often received tribute from the states under the influence of Confucian civilization and gave them Chinese products and recognition of their authority and sovereignty in return.

    There were several tribute states to the Chinese-established empires throughout ancient history, including neighboring countries such as Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Borneo, Indonesia and Central Asia.

    This tributary system and relationship are well known as Jimi or Cefeng or Chaogong.

  • City States CB Framework 3.1I.I B

    Empires collapsed in different regions of the world, and in some areas were replaced by new imperial states or political systems.In some places, new political entities emerged, including those in various Islamic states; the Mongol khanates; new Hindu and Buddhist states in South, East, and Southeast Asia; city-states; and decentralized government (feudalism) in Europe and Japan.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Those on the Italian Peninsula- In East Africa Use the texts to go beyond what is on the following

    pages

  • Those on the Italian Peninsula The Italian city-states were a political phenomenon of small

    independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian peninsula between the 9th and 15th centuries.

    After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, urban settlements in Italy generally enjoyed a greater continuity than in the rest of western Europe.

    Many of these towns were survivors of earlier Etruscan, Umbrian and Roman towns which had existed within the Roman Empire.

    The republican institutions of Rome had also survived. Some feudal lords existed with a servile labor force and huge tracts of land, but by the I1th century, many cities, including Venice, Milan, Florence, Genoa, Pisa, Lucca, Cremona, Siena, Citt di Castello, Perugia, and many others, had become large trading metropoles, able to obtain independence from their formal sovereigns.

    These city states, particularly Florence, will give rise to the Italian Renaissance starting around 1350, due to increased merchant activity. The influence of the Renaissance (art, humanism, and secular interests) will spread through out Europe and take on distinct differences between Italy and Northern Europe.

  • East Africa Swahili Coast (Around 900 - 1500) - The Swahili

    city-states were trade centers in eastern Africa. Their growth was due largely to the increase in trade along the Indian Ocean Basin. Bantu settlers on the coast and Arab merchants who traded along the east African coast interacted to create city-states such as Mogadishu, Sofala, and Kilwa. Swahili is a language that blends Bantu and Arabic. Merchants traded gold, slaves and ivory for pottery, glassware, and textiles from Persia, India and China. City-states were governed by kings, who controlled the trade, as well as the taxes. Wealthy merchants often converted to Islam, but did not give up their own religions or traditions.

  • Synthesis by States CB Framework 3.1I.I C

    Empires collapsed in different regions of the world, and in some areas were replaced by new imperial states or political systems.Some states synthesized local with foreign traditions.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Persian Traditions to Islamic States- Chinese Traditions to Japan Use the texts to go beyond what is on the

    following pages

  • Persian Traditions Use the following website to help http://www.mei.edu/content/islamic-civilization

  • Chinese Traditions Use the following websites to aid in your

    information collection http://www.char4u.com/content/the-influence-of-chinese-culture-on-japanese-culture/

  • Diffusion of Science & Technological Innovations CB Framework 3.1I.II A

    Interregional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers.Technological and cultural transfers were taking place: -between Tang China and the Abbasids; -across the Mongol Empire; -between Muslims and Christians in the Mediterranean region during the Crusades; -and during Chinese maritime activity led by Ming Admiral Zheng He."

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- The spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia

    into the Islamic Empires & western Europe- The influence of Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim Scholars Use the texts to go beyond what is on the following pages

  • Tang China and the Abbasids

    Chinese spread the art of paper making

    Key Battle that spread this: Battle of Talas River The weakened Chinese Empire was no longer in any position to

    interfere in Central Asia, so the influence of the Abbassid Arabs grew.

    Most significant of all, among the prisoners of war captured by the Abbassids after the Battle of Talas River were a number of skilled Chinese artisans, including Tou Houan.

    Through them, first the Arab world and then the rest of Europe learned the art of paper-making.

    Arabs controlled Spain and Portugal, as well as North Africa, the Middle East, and large swaths of Central Asia.

  • Printing/Gunpowder Use the following websites to aid in your

    information collection http://apworldhistory2012-2013.weebly.com/movement-of-gunpowder-from-east-to-west.html

    http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/song/readings/inventions_gifts.htm

    http://www.silk-road.com/artl/gun.shtml

    http://www.gohistorygo.com/mongol-empire Watch the Crash Course about the Mongols https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/crashcourse-worldhistory/road-trip-conquest-trade-2/v/crash-course-world-history-17

  • Greek/Indian Mathematics Use the following websites to aid in your

    information collection http://www.storyofmathematics.com/islamic.html

  • Tech Innovations CB Framework 3.III.I A

    Innovations stimulated agricultural and industrial production in many regions.Agricultural production increased significantly due to technological innovations.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Chinampa Field System- Waru-Waru Use the texts to go beyond what is on the

    following pages

  • Chinampas Use the

    following

  • Chinampas Use the following website http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/chinampas-floating-gardens-mexico-001537

  • Waru-Waru Use the following to aid in your information

    collection

  • Waru-Waru

    Use the following website http://www.oas.org/dsd/publications/unit/oea59e/ch27.htm

  • Free-Peasant Revolts CB Framework 3.III.III A

    Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were also some important changes in labor management and in the effect of religious conversion on gender relations and family life.New forms of coerced labor appeared, including serfdom in Europe and Japan and the elaboration of the mita inthe Inca Empire. Peasants resisted attempts to raise dues and taxes by staging revolts. The demand for slaves for both military and domestic purposes increased, particularly in central Eurasia, parts of Africa, and the eastern Mediterranean.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- In China- In the Byzantine Empire Use the texts to go beyond what is on the following pages

  • China

    Rebellion by northern tribes dissatisfied with Mongol rule, followed by famine and floods in the south, prompted the messianic Red Turban Society to launch a rebellion, which helped pave the way for the fall of the Yuan in 1368

    Byzantine Empire

    Peasants revolt after higher taxes and more grain production was demanded by the nobles.

    Justinian ends it

  • Changes in Gender Relations CB Framework 3.III.III D

    Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were also some important changes in labor management and in the effect of religious conversion on gender relations and family life.Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Neo-confucianism were adopted in new regions and often caused significant changes in gender relations and family structure.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Divorce in some Muslim States- Foot Binding Use the texts to go beyond what is on the following pages

  • Divorce Use the following presentation slide #22 http://www.mercycatholic.org/upload/mangieri_lee/thepostclassicalperiod.pdf

  • Islam & Women The Quran explicitly states that men and women

    are equal in the eyes of God. Furthermore, the Quran:

    instructs Muslims to educate daughters as well as sons

    insists that women have the right to refuse a prospective husband

    gives women rights if they are divorced by their husband

    gives women the right to divorce in certain cases gives women the right to own and inherit

    property

  • Foot-Binding Use the following websites to aid in your

    information collection http://www.bbc.com/news/in-pictures-28208695 http://www.chinahighlights.com/shanghai/article-discover-foot-binding.htm

  • Luxury Trade Goods CB Framework 2016 KC 3.1

    Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks.The growth of interregional trade in luxury goods was encouraged by significant innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies, including the caravanserai, use of the compass, astrolabe, and larger ship designs in sea travel; and new forms of credit and monetization.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Silk & Cotton Textiles- Spices Use the texts to go beyond what is on the following pages

  • Silk Use the following to aid in your information collection The high Middle Ages saw continued use of techniques for

    silk manufacture. Between the 10th and 12th centuries, small changes began to appear.

    In a short time, new fabrics began to appear; hemp and cotton each also had their own particular techniques of manufacture.

    Known since Roman times, silk remained a rare and expensive material. Byzantine magnaneries in Greece and Syria (6th to 8th century), and those of the Arabs in Sicily and Spain (8th to 10th century) were able to supply the luxury material in a much greater abundance.

    http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/song/readings/inventions_gifts.htm#silk

  • Cotton Textiles Use the following to aid in your information

    collection Cotton was a common fabric during the Middle

    Ages, and was hand-woven on a loom. Cotton manufacture was introduced to Europe during the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily.

    The knowledge of cotton weaving was spread to northern Italy in the 12th century, when Sicily was conquered by the Normans, and consequently to the rest of Europe. The spinning wheel, introduced to Europe circa 1350, improved the speed of cotton spinning.

  • Spices

    Use the following slides to aid in your information collection

  • Luxury Goods - Spices

    The spice trade refers to the trade between historic civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.

    Spices such as cinnamon, cassia, cardamom, ginger, and turmeric were known, and used for commerce, in the Eastern World well into antiquity.

  • Spice Trade The Spice trade had brought great riches to the Abbasid

    Caliphate, and even inspired famous legends such as that of Sinbad the Sailor.

    These early sailors and merchants would often set sail from the port city of Basra and eventually after many voyages they would return to sell their goods including spices in Baghdad.

    The fame of many spices such as nutmeg and cinnamon are attributed to these early Spice merchants.

    Spices were among the most expensive and in-demand products of the Middle Ages, used in medicine.

    They were all imported from Asia and Africa. Venetian merchants distributed then the goods through

    Europe until the rise of the Ottoman Empire, that eventually led to the fall of Constantinople in 1453, barring Europeans from important combined land-sea routes.

  • Islamic States CB Framework 2016 KC 3.2

    Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged.In some places, new forms of governance emerged including those developed in various Islamic states, the Mongol Khanates, city-states, and decentralized government (feudalism) in Europe and Japan.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Muslim Iberia- Delhi Sultanates Use the texts to go beyond what is on the following

    pages

  • Muslim Iberia Use the following slides for your information

    about Muslim Iberia

  • Cotton, Sugar, Citrus

    Cotton, sugar, and citrus spread throughout Dar al-Islam and the Mediterranean because of their equivalent climate and Muslims introduced them by trade.

    First, Dar al-Islam and the Mediterranean had about the same weather year-round, so similar climate = new products in the Med.

    Second, the Muslims introduced Citrus fruits, rice, and cotton to west and Sub-Saharan Africa.

    They also brought sugarcane to southwest Asia and North Africa.

    Third, Europeans brought sugarcane to Mediterranean islands of Sicily, Cyprus, and Crete. This led to the use of slave labor and increased trade and movement.

  • New Forms of Governance Muslim Iberia -

    also known as Moorish Iberia or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim state occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain, Portugal, Andorra, and part of southern France

  • For much of its history, it existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north.

    After the fall of the Umayyad Andalusian kingdom, it was fragmented into a number of minor statesand principalities, most notably the Emirate of Granada.

    Attacks from the Christian Castillians intensified, led by Alfonso VI.

    The Almoravid empire intervened and repelled the Christian attacks on the region, deposing the weak Andalusian Muslim princes and including Al-Andalus under direct Berber rule.

    In succeeding centuries, it became a province of the Berber Muslim empires of the Almoravids and Almohads, both based in Marrakesh.

  • Ultimately the Christian kingdoms of the north overpowered their Muslim neighbors.

    In 1085, Alfonso VI captured Toledo, starting a gradual Muslim decline.

    With the fall of Crdoba in 1236, the Emirate of Granada was the only Muslim territory in what is now Spain.

    The Portuguese Reconquista culminated in 1249 with the conquest of the Algarve by Afonso III.

    In 1238, the Emirate of Granada officially became a tributary state to the Kingdom of Castile, then ruled by King Ferdinand III.

    Finally, on January 2, 1492, Emir Muhammad XII surrendered the Emirate of Granada to Queen Isabella I of Castile, who along with her husband King Ferdinand II of Aragon were known as the "Catholic Monarchs."

    The surrender ended Muslim Iberia as a political entity, though aspects of Islamic culture are still evident in the region.

  • Delhi Sultanates Use the following to aid in your information

    collection

  • Islam and India

    Gupta Dynasty under severe pressure from Nomadic invaders

    In 451 CE White Huns from central Asia invaded and disrupted Gupta rule

    Mid 6th Century Gupta collapsed From collapse until 16th century India

    remained divided until the Turkish Mughals invaded

  • Quest for Centralized Imperial Rule After fall of Gupta

    -local states contested for power and territory-Northern India became a region of continuous tension and war-Nomadic Turkish-speaking peoples from central Asia frequently took advantage of the unsettled states to cross the Khyber Pass and force their way into India-They became absorbed into Indias social system

  • Harsha First half of the 7th century King Harsha

    (rule 606-648) temporarily unified rule in most of India

    Reputation of piety, liberality, and scholarshipCollapse of Harsha Unable to establish permanent centralized

    rule Local rulers established their authority too

    securely before Harsha he could not overthrow them

  • Islam into N. India

    The Conquest of Sind N. India experienced arrival of Islam and

    Islamic states Islam was spread by several routes

    1. Military: Arab forces had been exploring India starting mid 8th century-In 711 an expedition conquered Sind-Sind passed in the Abbasid caliphs

  • 2. Merchants spread Islam through their trade practices in the coastal regions of N and S India

    3. Migration and Invasion Turkish speaking people who practiced Islam came into the region

  • Mahmud of Ghazni

    Leader of Turks in Afghanistan 1001-1027 led 17 raiding expeditions

    into India and annexed several Indian states

    Mostly wanted to plunder not rule India Destroyed Hindu and Buddhist temples

    and shrines and replaced them with Islamic temples but this did not force people to become Muslim

  • Sultanate of Delhi

    Mahmuds successors mounted a more systematic campaign to conquer N. India and put it under Islamic rule

    Early 13th century conquered most of N. Hindu Kingdoms

    Created Islamic state known as the Sultanate of Delhi Capital at Delhi Ruled 1206-1256 No permanent bureaucracy or administrative

    apparatus Land was mostly populated by Hindus Sultans prominently sponsored Islam established a

    secure place for their faith in cultural India

  • New Trading Cities CB Framework 2016 KC 3.1

    Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks.Existing trade routes including the Silk Roads, the Mediterranean Sea, the Trans-Saharan, and the Indian Ocean basin flourished, and promoted the growth of powerful new trading cities.

    The following pages explain briefly the following:- Novgorod- Melaka- Venice Use the texts to go beyond what is on the following pages

  • Novgorod Use the following information to aid in your information collection

  • New Trading City NovgorodWhat is Novgorod?

    -Novgorod was considered to be the second main city after Kiev. -It was a rich and a powerful city, and the State of Novgorod was as large as the present Sweden.

    The Power of Novgorod-The power of The Novgorod State was based on the international trade. Novgorod was the main Russian port for many centuries and was important for Baltic sea trade, so the city participated in the Hansa Union (also called Hanseatic League) (the union of the richest trading ports). -Also, one of the main routes for medieval Europe lead through Novgorod, and it was on the way from Northern Europe to Roman Empire and Constantinople.

  • NovgorodThe First and Only Republic of Russia

    -Novgorod was the city of trade, that is why merchants gained power. -Merchants decided to get rid of the nobles.-It then became the first and the only republic in Russia. -Soon after that, the Tartar army occupied most of the country and Novgorod was the only city, which wasn't captured by Tartars. -Novgorod is situated in the north of Russia and was separated from the rest of country by the swamps, so the Tartars weren't able to reach the city.

  • NovgorodBecoming Part of the Moscow State

    -From the very beginning of Russian history, Russia was divided into small princedoms, which fought against each other. -In the 15 century princedom of Moscow was becoming more and more powerful and was constantly taking the new territories. -The Novgorod army was defeated and Novgorod was added to the State of Moscow.-Afterwards the city was becoming less and less powerful and finally, when St. Petersburg was built, Novgorod lost its importance as the only Russian port near the Baltic Sea.

  • Novgorod Important Dates1014 - Novgorod got independence. Generally Novgorod was the part of Kievskaya Rus' Kingdom (first Russian state), but the small town soon became a rich city and obtained enough power to proclaim independence and set up an own state.

    1136 - A republic was set up in the state of Novgorod. Princes from the very beginning had ruled Novgorod, but soon people became tired of nobles and proclaimed a republic.

    They had a special type of election: there was a big square where people of Novgorod gathered and shouted for their candidates. The candidate who was accepted louder became a Ruler. Princes were still invited, but only as military leaders hired with their own armies to protect the city.

    1478 - Novgorod became part of Moscow kingdom and republic was wiped off. Kingdom of Moscow was becoming more and more powerful; it had already joined many cities and towns all over Russia. It was turn of Novgorod to join. Novgorod could not keep the republic and the first republic in Russia was cut down.

  • **The Kievan Rus**

    Use this Crash Course for some context The link is tiny to make it clickable

    https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/crashcourse-worldhistory/road-trip-conquest-trade-2/v/crash-course-world-history-20

  • Melaka (Malacca)

    Use the following to aid in your information collection

  • Melaka 15th century spread of Islam gained real momentum State of Melaka sponsored faith throughout the

    region they had a strategic location and were prominent traders

    Built a substantial Navy powerful state through maritime trade

    Began as a Hindu state but soon became predominately Islamic

    Mid 15th century the ruling elites converted to Islam They sponsored missionaries to spread Islam through

    SE Asia Islam linked SE Asia to the Cultural world of India

  • Venice

    Use the following to aid in your information collection

  • Venice

    Watch the Crash Course about Venice and the Ottoman Empire

    The link is small in order to make it clickable

    https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/crashcourse-worldhistory/road-trip-conquest-trade-2/v/crash-course-world-history-19


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