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iNacol quality workshop october 2012

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Quality Assurance in K12 Online & Blended Programs Randy LaBonte Destiny Education Consulting [email protected] @rlabonte
  • 1. About me 2

2. Leadership & TechnologyMy thinking has been influenced by: Doctoral research on leadership in technology-enhancedlearning situations Consulting work with the BC online K-12 schools Development of standards and quality review Policy and practice consultation with AB post-secondary Online support for community access facilitators Continuing research of online programs3 3. About the RoomWhere From US? From Canada?? International?Who K-12 Educator? Post-secondary Faculty? Administration / Government? Others?? 4 4. Questions for you to reflect on 1. How can the existing quality assurance measures beused to evaluate K12 online and blended learningprograms? 2. How can the evaluation process benefit learningoutcomes and results without taking away frominstructional delivery? 3. What are the top 3 barriers to achieving quality inonline and blended learning programs? 4. What are some of the successes in applying a qualitymetric to online and blended learning programs?5 5. Technology &Education Collision course? MANAGING E-LEARNING IMPLEMENTATION:April 20, 2006 What Do Real Leaders Do?6 6. Technologyin context Students today depend too much upon ink. Theydont know how to use a pen knife to sharpen apencil. Pen and ink will never replace the pencil.National Association of Teachers, 1907 7 7. Technologyin context If technology is the answer, what is the question? The paradox of technology enhanced education is thattechnology changes very rapidly and human beings veryslowly. It would seem to make sense for proponents of e-learningto begin with the students.Bates & Poole, 2003, p. xiii 8 8. Its About Pedagogy Technology is often viewed aspedagogically neutral (Moll, 2001) Yet the organization of learning andengagement of learners througheducational technology is essential topedagogy (Bednar, Cunningham, Duffy, &Perry, 1992; Gayol&Schied, 1997) 9 9. Assumptions underlying early e-Learning1. That people predictably transfer learning from one situation to another.2. That learners are passive receivers of wisdom vessels into which knowledge is poured.3. That learning is the strengthening of bonds between stimuli and correct responses.4. That learners are blank slates on which knowledge is inscribed.5. That skills and knowledge, to be transferable to new situations, should be acquired independent of their contexts of use. 10 10. Pedagogical shift? 11 11. e-Learning Challenge A fundamental question in understanding quality in e-learning is not only how to define it, but how to fosterquality instructional and leadership practices the aimwhen using technology is not to be as good as face-to-face teaching but better (Bates & Poole, 2003, p.23).12 12. 14 13. Defining Quality Qualitys economical importance comes from itsperceived ability in business terms to lower costs,improve employee commitment, and ensure continuousimprovement within a dynamic environment(Dawson &Palmer, 1995) Pedagogical meaning focuses on enhancing the process oflearning and the interaction between the learner and thelearning environment Despite all that has been written about quality,Wikipediasums it up best, stating quality is perceptual,conditional and somewhat subjective (Wikipedia, 2010,1).15 14. How can quality be achieved in K-12 e-learning even ifits description is fleeting and elusive? What does quality e-learning look like? How do you know it? Out-loud thoughts 16 15. Quality & Standards The focus on quality in e-learning began with theexamination of the quality of course materials and digitallearning content provided to students. Standards were created to address the quality of thecourse focus on instructional design, accessibility,resources, and assessment BC- http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/dist_learning/docs/digital_learning_standa rds.pdf Shift to standards on instructional delivery (accreditation) BC http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/dist_learning/docs/dl_standards.pdf17 16. Measuring QualityiNACOL Standards http://www.inacol.org/research/nationalstandards/index.phpInternational Society for Technology in Education http://www.iste.org/standards.aspxWASC Accreditation Criteria for Online Schools http://www.acswasc.org/pdf_general/WASCSupplementForOnlineSchools.pdf 18 17. Standards, such as those published by such organizationsas the International Society for Technology in Educationand the International Association for K-12 OnlineLearning, simply fall short by describing a minimum,whereas qualitys focus should be on the maximumattainable. (Bates & Poole, 2003) 19 18. iNACOL Standards The online teacher knows the primary concepts and structures of effective online instruction and is able to create learningexperiences to enable student success. The online teacher understands and is able to use a range of technologies, both existing and emerging, that effectivelysupport student learning and engagement in the online environment.The online teacher plans, designs, and incorporates strategies to encourage active learning, application, interaction,participation, and collaboration in the online environment. The online teacher promotes student success through clear expectations, prompt responses, andregular feedback. The online teacher models, guides, and encourages legal, ethical, and safe behavior related to technology use. The online teacher is cognizant of the diversity of student academic needs and incorporates accommodations into the onlineenvironment.The online teacher demonstrates competencies in creating and implementing assessments in online learning environmentsin ways that ensure validity and reliability of the instruments and procedures. The online teacher develops and delivers assessments, projects, and assignments that meet standards-based learning goalsand assesses learning progress by measuring student achievement of the learning goals. The online teacher demonstrates competency in using data from assessments and other data sources to modify content andto guide student learning. The online teacher interacts in a professional, effective manner with colleagues, parents, and other members of thecommunity to support students success. The online teacher arranges media and content to help students and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively in theonline environment.20 19. iNACOL Standards Online Environment & Technology Active Learning & Engagement Inclusion & Accessibility Assessment Strategies Professional & Ethical Instructional Design21 20. Arewe falling short?? Discussion...22 21. 23 22. Standards-based approach Missing from this approach is an examination of theextent of interaction between and among teacher andstudents the extent of contact between the teacherand those taught as well as the levels of socialization,sharing of experiences and visible involvement in theprocess of learning (Koul, 2006, p.178). 24 23. Total Quality Management Quality is not just about management process (learnerachievement), customer satisfaction (learner opinion), orquantification of product (course content). Quality is the relations among learners and teachers inthe learning community that describe, and are theevidence of, quality learning.25 24. Quality and Interaction... High quality interaction with learning materials, interaction between teachers and learners and interaction among learners, are all essential for effective learning.Bates, A.W. (2006), p.22226 25. Teachers and Quality Analysis of 400,000 students in 3000 schools found themost important predictor of quality was the teacher Teacher effect on student achievement was both additiveand cumulativeRice (2003) The quality of a students teacher is the most importantdeterminant of learning after family background.Hanushek (1992)27 26. Importance of social interactionResearch conducted by Richard Light of Harvard: One of the strongest determinants of student successwas not instructor teaching style, rather the ability toform and participate in small study groups Students who studied in groups: More prepared for class Better engaged in their studies Learned significantly more than students who worked on their own Light, R.J. (2001)28 27. Quality and Technology Ungerleider and Burns (2003) found that theeffectiveness of technology use was correlated to thelevel of interactivity provided by the technology, or theengagement of the learner. understanding that interaction through the use oftechnology is pivotal to building insight into quality in e-learning 29 28. Quality, then, is largely a result of the participation, negotiation between educational stakeholders, and interaction between and among students and teachers in the learning environment.30 29. Managing Quality1. How can the existing quality assurance measures be used to evaluate K12 online and blended learning programs?2. How can the evaluation process benefit learning outcomes and results without taking away from instructional delivery?3. What are the top 3 barriers to achieving quality in online and blended learning programs?4. What are some of the successes in applying a quality metric to online and blended learning programs?31 30. Discussion32 31. 33 32. Quality and Theory Defining quality on the basis of standards is oneapproach, but to truly understand, analyze and assessquality it must be situated within a theoretical framework(Ellis, et.al., 2007; Deepwell, 2007). 34 33. Community of Inquiry Model 35 34. The idealized view of education, as a criticalcommunity of learners, is no longer just an ideal, buthas become a practical necessity in the realization ofrelevant, meaningful, and continuous learning. It iswithin such a community of learners that the potentialof e-learning will be fully realized. Garrison& Anderson, 2003, p.3 36 35. Research-based Garrison, Anderson, and Archers (2000) Community of Inquiry framework is the foundation for instructional practice 37 36. The model is social constructivist in nature and grounded in John Deweys (1938) notion of practical inquiry. Since its initial formulation ten years ago, the Community of Inquiry framework has been used by educators worldwide to inform research and practice. Most recently, the development of a common CoI survey has resulted in a flurry of new research that is supporting understanding of online learning. 38 37. Theoretical FrameworkCommunities of Inquiry Survey: Link to Surveyhttp://communitiesofinquiry.com/methodology 34 question Likkert Scale Teaching Presence Social Presence Cognitive Presence39 38. British Columbia Context 35,000 educators 600,000 students 60 school districtsurban/rural Declining enrolment 55 public DL schools 18 independent DLschools Online Choice: Openboundaries40 39. Two lenses for measuringComplianceQualityFundingParticipationCurriculum-focused Learner-focusedSupervisionEngagementAssessment Personal knowledgeAchievementSuccessCompletion Satisfaction 40. DL Quality Review ProcessInternal review by DL educators Instructional/leadership review models for reflection on DLStandards supporting school planning processes Collection and monitoring of data to shape DL practiceExternal Review (select DL school sites) Initial meeting(s) with school staff and district staff Review of DL achievement data, satisfaction info, etc. Observation/discussion with instructional, support and admin staff Sharing observations external team and district/school staff Post site review meeting (observations and data analysis, areas ofstrength /improvement) Publication of external review formal report 42 41. BC Quality ReviewData-driven process analyzing: Student Success DL achievement data, provincial exam data, Foundation Skills Assessment testresults, satisfaction surveys, and district and school-level data Instructional Practice Standards; research on emerging e-learning instructional practice; DL staffexperience and practice; integration and use of educational technologies;strategies for supporting learner engagement; and learning resources Leadership Practice Support of emerging DL instructional practices; parent, student & staffinvolvement, input, and satisfaction; planning and school improvementprocesses; and audit, School Act, and DL Agreement compliance 43 42. Quality Review ModelStudent Success (engagement, achievement & satisfaction)ExternalEmergingReviewImplementing Quality Practice -Instructional & Leadership -Sharing &Observing, ValiPracticesApplying New dating, & StrategiesRecommendingInternal Review(part of school planning process) 44 43. 45 44. Commonwealth of Learning Quality Assurancehttp://www.col.org/PublicationDocuments/QA%20NFE_150.pdfhttp://www.col.org/PublicationDocuments/pubQAOSToolkit.pdf 46 45. Commonwealthof Learning Quality assurance is the systematic monitoring and evaluation of thevarious aspects of systems, projects or programs to maximize theprobability of standards being achieved for specified performanceindicators. (p. 15 http://www.col.org/PublicationDocuments/QA%20NFE_150.pdf) Harvey and Green (1993) five interrelated ways of defining quality 1. Excellence: Learning as something exceptional, unique 2. Consistency: Learning is consistent and focused on common outcomes 3. Fitness for purpose: Meeting pre-determined requirements, needs or desires 4. Value for money: Return on investment in learning 5. Transformation: Quality as enhancement and empowerment47 46. Quality Matters Three primary components: Quality Rubric no matter what the rubric A Peer Review Process or accreditation QM Professional Development a focus on learning http://www.qmprogram.org/ 48 47. Open Question Period 49 48. Quality: Final Words In the final analysis, it is the teachers personal mastery ofthe art of instruction and their sensitivities to the needsof students that determine course quality.Alley and Jansak, 2001 50 49. Resources http://www.inacol.org/research/nationalstandards/index.php http://www.col.org/PublicationDocuments/QA%20NFE_150.pdf http://www.col.org/PublicationDocuments/pubQAOSToolkit.pdf http://communitiesofinquiry.com/model http://scholar.google.ca/scholar?q=communities+of+inquiry&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart&sa=X&ei=DS-LT7vfEarUiALX6t3ZCw&ved=0CBoQgQMwAA http://communitiesofinquiry.com/sites/communityofinquiry.com/files/Critical_Inquiry_model.pdf http://communitiesofinquiry.com/sites/communityofinquiry.com/files/CoI%20Draft%2014b.doc http://wiki.ubc.ca/images/1/19/SECTIONS_Framework.pdf http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/dist_learning/docs/dl_standards.pdf http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/dist_learning/quality_review.htm 50. Measuring Quality: Randy LaBonte 52 51. Quality Assurance in K12Online & Blended ProgramsRandy LaBonteDestiny Education [email protected] @rlabonte 53 52. Managing Quality1. How can the existing quality assurance measures be used to evaluate K12 online and blended learning programs?2. How can the evaluation process benefit learning outcomes and results without taking away from instructional delivery?3. What are the top 3 barriers to achieving quality in online and blended learning programs?4. What are some of the successes in applying a quality metric to online and blended learning programs?54 53. Sloan Consortium Sloan Consortium published a quality framework basedon the five pillars of learning effectiveness, costeffectiveness and institutional commitment, access,faculty satisfaction, and lastly student satisfaction(Moore, 2005). The framework can be applied in educational settings aswell as corporate training learning environments. A quick guide to its five pillars of quality is also availableon their website for download. http://sloanconsortium.org/sites/default/files/pages/Sloan-C%20Pillar%20Reference%20Manual.pdf55 54. 56