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Index Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. A Abdominal distention, with ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 763–764 Abscesses, with dermatologic diseases, in chinchillas, 574 in guinea pigs, 557 in mice, barbering associated with, 810 in rabbits, subcutaneous, 554 in reptiles, 527 pododermatitis-related, 717 Abuse, self-injurious behaviors related to, 806 Acaricide drugs, for ectoparasites, in small mammals, 641 Acrylic ramp and the pin, for beak growth abnormalities, in avians, 788 Acupuncture, for pododermatitis, 732 Adhesives, for avian fractures, 782, 784 Adrenal disease. See Hyperadrenocorticism. Adrenal panel, for erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 603–604 Aesthetics, of fish dermatology, viral infections and, 688–689 Age, ovarian cysts related to, in guinea pig, 760–761 Aggression, barbering and, 810 Alopecia, as behavioral dermatopathy, 807–808 in guinea pigs, 812–813 stress impact on, 804, 809 with ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 763–765, 770, 812 differential diagnosis of, 765 Alternative therapies, for pododermatitis, 731–732 acupuncture as, 732 natural remedies as, 731–732 therapeutic laser as, 731–732 Amphibian dermatology, chytridiomycosis in, 669–685 B. dendrobatidis life cycle, 670. See also Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). cause of death from, 671 clinical signs of, 671–672 diagnosis of, 672–675 introduction to, 669–670 normal skin physiology and, 670 pathophysiology of, 670–671 skin physiology in, 670 summary overview of, 682 treatment of, 675–682 chemicals in, 679–680 benzalkonium chloride as, 680 formalin as, 679 malachite green as, 679 Vet Clin Exot Anim 16 (2013) 821–862 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1094-9194(13)00065-0 vetexotic.theclinics.com 1094-9194/13/$ – see front matter ª 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Page 1: Index

Index

Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type.

A

Abdominal distention, with ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 763–764

Abscesses, with dermatologic diseases, in chinchillas, 574

in guinea pigs, 557

in mice, barbering associated with, 810

in rabbits, subcutaneous, 554

in reptiles, 527

pododermatitis-related, 717

Abuse, self-injurious behaviors related to, 806

Acaricide drugs, for ectoparasites, in small mammals, 641

Acrylic ramp and the pin, for beak growth abnormalities, in avians, 788

Acupuncture, for pododermatitis, 732

Adhesives, for avian fractures, 782, 784

Adrenal disease. See Hyperadrenocorticism.

Adrenal panel, for erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 603–604

Aesthetics, of fish dermatology, viral infections and, 688–689

Age, ovarian cysts related to, in guinea pig, 760–761

Aggression, barbering and, 810

Alopecia, as behavioral dermatopathy, 807–808

in guinea pigs, 812–813

stress impact on, 804, 809

with ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 763–765, 770, 812

differential diagnosis of, 765

Alternative therapies, for pododermatitis, 731–732

acupuncture as, 732

natural remedies as, 731–732

therapeutic laser as, 731–732

Amphibian dermatology, chytridiomycosis in, 669–685

B. dendrobatidis life cycle, 670. See also Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd).

cause of death from, 671

clinical signs of, 671–672

diagnosis of, 672–675

introduction to, 669–670

normal skin physiology and, 670

pathophysiology of, 670–671

skin physiology in, 670

summary overview of, 682

treatment of, 675–682

chemicals in, 679–680

benzalkonium chloride as, 680

formalin as, 679

malachite green as, 679

Vet Clin Exot Anim 16 (2013) 821–862http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1094-9194(13)00065-0 vetexotic.theclinics.com1094-9194/13/$ – see front matter ª 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Page 2: Index

Index822

Amphibian (continued )

chloramphenicol in, 678–679

failure of, 676

general considerations in, 675–676

itraconazole in, 676–678

other azole antifungals in, 678

probiotics in, 680

supportive strategies in, 681–682

antibiotics as, 678–679, 681

fluid therapy as, 681

nutrition as, 681–682

temperature in, 680

terbinafine in, 679

clinical approach to, 525, 531–537

dermatologic examination for, 525, 531–532

clinical examination in, 525

clinical history in, 525

diagnostic testing for, 531–532

differential diagnoses of, 532–537

acidic or alkaline environment, 536–537

ammonia toxicity, 537

arthropods, 533

bacterial diseases, 534

chlamydophilosis, 534

chytrid, 535

elevated water hardness, 536

flavobacteriosis, 534

fly larvae, 534

fungal diseases, 535–536

gas bubble disease, 536

husbandry-related diseases, 536–537

lead toxicity, 537

leeches, 533

metabolic bone disease, 536

mites, 534

mycobacteriosis, 534

nematodes, 533

neoplasia, 537

nutritional deficiencies, 536

parasitic diaereses, 533

pigmented fungi, 535

protozoal disease, 533

ranavirus, 535

red leg syndrome, 534

rostral abrasions, 537

ticks, 534

trematodes, 533

water molds, 536

skin structure and function review for, 525

summary overview of, 523, 525, 575

Amputation, self-injurious behaviors and, 807

Page 3: Index

Index 823

Amyloidosis, with pododermatitis, 717

Amyxomatous (respiratory myxomatosis), in rabbits, 708, 710–711

Anal swab, for viral infections, in fish, 690

Analgesia, for pododermatitis, 730

Anatomic abnormalities, pododermatitis related to, 722–723

Anchor worm, in fish, 541

Antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (AIPMMA) beads, for pododermatitis

lesions, 730

Antibiotics, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 678–679, 681

for erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 601, 606

for pododermatitis, systemic, 729–730

topical, 729–730

Antidepressants, for self-mutilating sugar gliders, 813

Antifungal regimens, for Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in humans, 667

in reptiles, 666

for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 676–678

Antigen/antibody tests, for viral infection, in fish, 691, 693, 697

Antiinflammatory drugs. See also Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs).

for erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 601–602, 606–607

Antimicrobial ointments, for pododermatitis, 729–730

Antimicrobial therapy, for VUND, in reptiles, 750

Arenavirus, in reptiles, VUND associated with, 742

Arthritis, with pododermatitis, 717–718

Articular gout, in avians, 795–797

Aspergillus spp., in avians, beak, claw, and feet conditions related to, 792

Autoimmune disease, in reptiles, VUND associated with, 741

Avascular necrosis, of avian distal extremities, 785–786

pododermatitis as, 717

Avian dermatology, beak, claws, and feet in, 777–799

anatomy of, 778–779

beak or bill, 778

claws, 778–779

feet, 779

environmental causes of, 779–788

avascular necrosis of distal extremities as, 785–786

avulsion fractures as, 782–783

beak growth abnormalities as, 786–787

treatment of, 787–788

fractures as, 781–783

treatment of, 782–784

frostbite injuries as, 781–782

leg-band injuries as, 780–781

pododermatitis as, 784–785

thermal injuries as, 781

trauma as, 779–780

idiopathic causes of, 793–797

articular gout as, 795–797

beak overgrowth as, 795–797

brown hypertrophy of the cere as, 797

neoplasia as, 793–794

self-mutilation as, 794–795

Page 4: Index

Index824

Avian (continued )

infectious causes of, 788–793

bacterial agents as, 792–793

fungal agents as, 792

parasitic agents as, 788–789

viral agents as, 789–791

treatment of, 791–792

introduction to, 777–778

nutritional causes of, 778–779, 793

summary overview of, 797–798

clinical approach to, 539, 545–551, 556

dermatologic examination for, 546, 551, 556

clinical examination in, 546, 551

clinical history in, 546

diagnostic testing for, 551, 556

differential diagnoses of, 547–550, 556

allergic skin disease, 550

articular gout, 550

aspergillosis, 548

bacterial diseases, 547

bumblefoot, 547

candidiasis, 548

chronic ulcerative dermatitis, 549

constricted toe syndrome, 550

feather follicle cysts, 550

feather mites, 547

feather picking, 549, 551, 556

fungal diseases, 548

giardiasis, 547

hypothyroidism, 550

idiopathic diseases, 549–550

malassezia, 548

mycobacterial granuloma, 547

neoplasia, 549

nutritional deficiencies, 549

Ornithonyssus spp., 547

papillomas, 548

parasitic diseases, 547

polyoma virus, 548

poxvirus, 549

psittacine beak and feather disease, 548

quill mites, 547

red mite, 547

scaly leg/beak mite, 547

viral diseases, 548–549

xanthomatosis, 549

skin structure and function review for, 545–546

feather types and properties, 546

summary overview of, 523, 539, 545, 575

pododermatitis in, 715–735. See also Pododermatitis.

differential diagnoses of, 547

Page 5: Index

Index 825

environmental causes of, 784–785

foot anatomy and physiology and, 716

raptor examples of, 717–720, 724

Avipoxvirus spp., in avians, beak, claw, and feet conditions related to, 791–792

Avulsion fractures, of avian beak, claws, and feet, 782–783

Azathioprine, for erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 602–603, 607

Azithromycin, for pododermatitis, 730

Azoles, for Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in humans, 667

in reptiles, 666

for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 678

B

Bacterial dermatitis, in reptiles, 526, 530

ulcerative, 526, 530

self-trauma associated with, 815

Bacterial infections

in amphibians, 534

in avians, beak, claws, and feet conditions related to, 792–793

differential diagnoses of, 547

in chelonia, VUND associated with, 743–745

management of, 750–751

in chinchillas, 574

in ferrets, pyoderma as, 570

with erythema multiforme, 604

in fish, differential diagnoses of, 541, 545

septicemia associated with, 542

in gerbils and hamsters, pyoderma as, 561

in guinea pigs, 557

in mice and rats, 566

in rabbits, 554

in reptiles, differential diagnoses of, 526, 530

VUND associated with, 743–745

in snakes, ulcerative, in python, 526, 530

VUND associated with, 743, 745, 749

in tortoises, desert, 744–745

swamp, 745

water, 745, 747–748

pododermatitis related to, 717, 724

Bacterial ulcerative dermatitis, in python, 526, 530

self-trauma associated with, 815

Ball bandage, for avian fractures, 784

for pododermatitis, 727–729

Bandaging, for avian fractures, 784

for pododermatitis, 727–729

ball, 727–729

interdigital, 727–728

nonadherent wound dressings for, 727

polypropylene foam shoes for, 727–728

raptor cautions with, 728–729

semiocclusive dressings for, 727

Page 6: Index

Index826

Bandaging (continued )

wet-to-dry, 728

for VUND, in reptiles, 751

Barbering, in degus, 808

in gerbils and hamsters, 807–808

differential diagnoses of, 563

in guinea pigs, 812–813

differential diagnoses of, 559

in mice, 804, 808–810

differential diagnoses of, 568

in rabbits, 555, 808

in rats, 568, 808

in small mammals, 807–808

Basal cell tumor with sebaceous and squamous differentiation, in ferrets, 572, 581–583

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), in amphibians, 669–685

cause of death from, 671

clinical signs of, 671–672

diagnosis of, 672–675

host resistance to, 671

introduction to, 669–670

life cycle of Bd and, 670

normal skin physiology and, 670

pathophysiology of, 670–671

summary overview of, 682

treatment of, 675–682

chemicals in, 679–680

benzalkonium chloride as, 680

formalin as, 679

malachite green as, 679

chloramphenicol in, 678–679

failure of, 676

general considerations in, 675–676

itraconazole in, 676–678

other azole antifungals in, 678

probiotics in, 680

supportive strategies in, 681–682

antibiotics, 681

fluid therapy, 681

nutrition, 681–682

temperature in, 680

terbinafine in, 679

life cycle of, 670

Beak, of avians, dermatologic conditions of, 777–799

anatomy of, 778

environmental causes of, 779–788

avulsion fractures as, 782–783

fractures as, 781–783

treatment of, 782–784

growth abnormalities as, 786–787

treatment of, 787–788

thermal injuries as, 781

Page 7: Index

Index 827

trauma as, 779–780

idiopathic causes of, 793–797

brown hypertrophy of the cere as, 797

neoplasia as, 793–794

overgrowth as, 795–797

self-mutilation as, 794–795

infectious causes of, 788–793

bacterial agents as, 792–793

fungal agents as, 792

parasitic agents as, 788–789

viral agents as, 789–791

treatment of, 791–792

introduction to, 777–778

nutritional causes of, 778–779, 793

summary overview of, 797–798

Beak deformity, in avians, 786

Beak growth abnormalities, in avians, 786–787

overgrowth as, 795–797

treatment of, 787–788

Beak overgrowth, in avians, 795–797

Bearded dragons, Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii in, 661–663

Behavioral dermatopathies, 801–820

cutaneous sensory disorders in, 802, 806–807

introduction to, 801–802

of small mammals, 807–815

alopecia as, 807–808

in guinea pigs, 812–813

barbering in mice, 804, 808–810

fur chewing in chinchillas, 810–812

self-mutilation in sugar gliders, 813–814

ulcerative dermatitis as, 813–815

pododermatitis as, 724

primary psychiatric disorders in, 804–806

abnormal repetitive behaviors, 802, 804–805

self-injurious behaviors (self-mutilation), 805–806

in sugar gliders, 813–814

psychophysiologic disorders in, 802–804

stress and, 802–804, 809

summary overview of, 816

treatment of, 815–816

Benzalkonium chloride, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 680

Bill, of avians, anatomy of, 778

dermatologic conditions of. See Beak.

Biopsies, for viral infections, in fish, 690, 699

for VUND, in reptiles, 746

of skin. See Skin biopsy.

Biotin deficiency, dermatologic disease related to, in ferrets, 572

pododermatitis as, 723

Birds, dermatologic diseases in. See Avian dermatology.

Birnaviridae, in fish, 694

Bites/biting, pododermatitis related to, 724

Page 8: Index

Index828

Bites/biting (continued )

self-injurious behaviors and, 807

Bladder catheterization, for viral infections, in fish, 690

Blepharoconjunctivitis, with myxomatosis, in rabbits, 707–708, 710

Blood culture, for VUND, in reptiles, 746–747

treatment based on, 750

Body weight, pododermatitis related to, 720

Body-focused repetitive disorders (BFRD), 815

Boredom, in behavioral dermatopathies, 802, 812

Brain-derived neurotropin factor (BDNF), in stress response, 803–804

Brown hypertrophy of the cere, in avian, 797

Budgerigar, beak infections in, 788–789

brown hypertrophy of the cere in, 797

foot infections in, 788–789

leg-band injuries in, 780–781

pododermatitis in, 722

Bullfrogs, chytridiomycosis in, 680

Bumblefoot. See Pododermatitis.

Buprenorphine, for pododermatitis, 730

Burns, in avians, beak, claws, and feet conditions related to, 781

in reptiles, VUND associated with, 740

pododermatitis related to, 724

C

Cage mates, barbering of, 807–809

Canary, avascular necrosis of distal leg in, 785–786

claw tumors in, 793–794

Carcinoma, basal cell, with sebaceous and squamous differentiation, in ferrets, 572,

581–583

squamous cell. See Squamous cell carcinoma.

Carp, viral infections in, 694–697

Cere, brown hypertrophy of, in avian, 797

Chameleons, Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii in, 661, 663

Chelonia. See also Tortoises.

bacterial VUND in, 743–745

management of, 750–751

skin anatomy and physiology in, 738–740

wound healing in, 749, 751

Chemical treatments, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 679–680

benzalkonium chloride as, 680

formalin as, 679

malachite green as, 679

Chinchillas, dermatologic disease in, behavioral, fur chewing as, 810–812

dermatologic examination for, 569, 573

clinical examination in, 569

clinical history in, 569

diagnostic testing for, 569, 573

differential diagnoses of, 574–575

abscesses, 574

bacterial diseases, 574

Page 9: Index

Index 829

cotton fur syndrome, 574

dermatophytosis, 574

dietary deficiencies, 574

fungal diseases, 574

fur chewing, 574

fur-slip, 574

husbandry-related diseases, 574

matted fur, 574

moist dermatitis, 574

yellow ears/fat, 574

ectoparasites as, treatment of, 648

skin structure and function review for, 560, 565

summary overview of, 523, 560, 575

Chloramphenicol, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 678–679

Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), in reptiles, 659–668

as pathogen, 660

clinical signs of, 661

crocodilians, 664

diagnostic testing for, 664–665

epidemiology of, 660, 667

introduction to, 659–660

lizards, 661–663

risk factors for, 667

snakes, 663–664

species found to be infected with, 661–662

summary overview of, 667

therapy for, 665–667

VUND associated with, 743

zoonotic potential of, 667

Chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 669–685. See also Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd).

Claws, of avians, dermatologic conditions of, 777–799

anatomy of, 716, 778–779

environmental causes of, 779–788

avascular necrosis of distal extremities as, 785–786

avulsion fractures as, 782–783

fractures as, 781–783

treatment of, 782–784

frostbite injuries as, 781–782

leg-band injuries as, 780–781

pododermatitis as, 784–785

thermal injuries as, 781

trauma as, 779–780

idiopathic causes of, 793–797

articular gout as, 795–797

brown hypertrophy of the cere as, 797

neoplasia as, 793–794

self-mutilation as, 794–795

infectious causes of, 788–793

bacterial agents as, 792–793

fungal agents as, 792

parasitic agents as, 788–789

Page 10: Index

Index830

Claws (continued )

viral agents as, 789–791

treatment of, 791–792

introduction to, 777–778

nutritional causes of, 778–779, 793

summary overview of, 797–798

Clinical approach, to dermatologic disease, 523–577

in amphibians, 525, 531–537. See also Amphibian dermatology.

in avians, 539, 545–551, 556. See also Avian dermatology.

in fish, 532, 538–545. See also Fish dermatology.

in reptiles, 523–531. See also Reptile dermatology.

in small mammals, 552–575. See also Small mammal dermatology; specific mammal.

introduction to, 523

summary overview of, 575

Clinical examination. See Physical examination.

Clinical history. See History taking.

Coaptation, external, for avian fractures, 784

Cockatoos, beak growth abnormalities in, 786–787

PBFD in, 790–791

pododermatitis in, 723

Compulsive disorders, dermatopathies related to, 804–806

Computed tomography (CT), for pododermatitis, 725

Conformational abnormalities, pododermatitis related to, 722–723

Connecting rete (CR), in guinea pig, 758–759

Contaminants, environmental, VUND associated with, in reptiles, 741, 743

Coping, maladaptive, self-injurious behaviors related to, 806

Crocodilians, Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii in, 662, 664

as pathogen, 660

clinical signs of, 661

diagnostic testing for, 664–665

introduction to, 659–660

summary overview of, 667

therapy for, 665–667

zoonotic potential of, 667

wound healing in, 749

Crusting, behavioral dermatopathies and, 813–814

neutrophilic, with erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 605

with ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 765–766

Cryptocaryon protozoan, in fish, 688

Culture (and sensitivity), for Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in reptiles, 665

for pododermatitis, 725, 729

for viral infections, in fish, 691–693, 697, 699

for VUND, in reptiles, 743–747

treatment based on, 750

Cutaneous disease. See Dermatologic disease.

Cutaneous neoplasia, in small mammals, 579–598. See also specific mammal.

ferrets, 580–586

guinea pigs, 592–596

introduction to, 579–580

rabbits, 586–592

summary overview of, 596

Page 11: Index

Index 831

Cutaneous sensory disorders, behavioral dermatopathies related to, 802, 806–807

Cutting, behavioral dermatopathies related to, 805–806

in sugar gliders, 813–814

Cyclosporine, for erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 603, 607–608

CyHV1, in fish, 694–695

CyHV2, in fish, 694, 696

CyHV3, in fish, 694, 696–697

Cystadenoma, of apocrine gland, in ferrets, 572, 581, 585

Cysts, feather follicle, in avians, 550

ovarian, in guinea pigs, 757–776. See also Ovarian cysts.

Cytokines, in stress response, 804

Cytology, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 672–674

for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 766–767

for viral infections, in fish, 692

D

Dalila effect, in mice, 808–810

Dart frogs, chytridiomycosis in, 673–674

Database creation, minimal, for pododermatitis, 725

Debridement, surgical, for pododermatitis, 730

for VUND, in reptiles, 750–751

Degus, dermatologic disease in, barbering as, 808

ectoparasites as, 640, 649

Depression, self-injurious behaviors related to, 806–807

Dermal anatomy and physiology. See Skin anatomy and physiology.

Dermatitis, in chinchillas, moist, 574

in gerbils and hamsters, facial, 563

nasal, 563

in guinea pig, with ovarian cysts, 765–766

in reptiles, 737–755. See also Vesicular, ulcerative, and necrotic dermatitis (VUND).

bacterial, 526, 530

bacterial ulcerative, 526, 530

fungal, 527

pododermatitis as. See Pododermatitis.

self-trauma associated with, 815

ulcerative. See Ulcerative dermatitis (UD).

Dermatologic disease, behavioral, 801–820. See also Behavioral dermatopathies.

bumblefoot as, 715–735. See also Pododermatitis.

Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii as, in reptiles, 659–668. See also

Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV).

chytridiomycosis as, in amphibians, 669–685. See also Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

(Bd); Chytridiomycosis.

clinical approach to, 523–577

in amphibians, 525, 531–537. See also Amphibian dermatology.

in avians, 539, 545–551, 556. See also Avian dermatology.

in fish, 532, 538–545. See also Fish dermatology.

in reptiles, 523–531. See also Reptile dermatology.

in small mammals, 552–575. See also Small mammal dermatology; specific mammal.

introduction to, 523

summary overview of, 575

Page 12: Index

Index832

Dermatologic (continued )

cutaneous neoplasia as, in small mammals, 579–598. See also Cutaneous neoplasia.

dermatitis as. See also Dermatitis.

in reptiles, 737–755. See also Vesicular, ulcerative, and necrotic dermatitis (VUND).

ectoparasites as, in small mammals, 611–657. See also Ectoparasites.

erythema multiforme as, in ferrets, 599–609. See also Erythema multiforme (EM).

of beak, claws, and feet, in avians, 777–799. See also Beak; Claws; Feet.

ovarian cysts as, in guinea pigs, 757–776. See also Ovarian cysts.

viral. See also Viral infections.

in fish, 687–703. See also Fish dermatology.

in rabbits, 705–714. See also Rabbit dermatology.

Desert tortoises, bacterial-associated skin disease in, 744–745

Deslorelin acetate, for adrenal disease, in ferrets, with erythema multiforme, 608

for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 770–771

Dexamethasone, for pododermatitis, 729–730

Diet. See Nutrition.

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), for pododermatitis, 729–730

Distal extremities, of avians, avascular necrosis of, 785–786

Dominance behavior, barbering and, 810

Dot blot, for viral infection, in fish, 691

“Dry-docking,” for VUND management, in reptiles, 750–751

Ducks, pododermatitis in, 721

Dyesthesia, self-injurious behaviors related to, 806–807

E

Eastern massasauga snakes, Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii in, 664

Ecdysis, of epidermis, in reptiles, 740

wound care consideration of, 751

wound healing stages and, 748

Ectoparasites, in amphibians, 534

in avians, 547

in fish, 540–541

in reptiles, 527, 530

in small mammals, 611–657. See also specific mammal.

common characteristics of, 612

fleas as, 636–637, 639–640. See also Fleas.

helminths as, 639–640

introduction to, 552, 571, 611–612

lice as, 633–637. See also Lice.

mites as, 612–634. See also Mites.

differentiation aid for, 615–616

summary overview of, 641

therapy for, 640

drug contraindications in, 641

species-specific guidelines for, 648–657

ticks as, 635–636, 638. See also Ticks.

Edema (swelling), with myxomatosis, in rabbits, 707–708

Electrolyte transport, in amphibian skin, 670

chytridiomycosis depletion of, 671

Electron microscopy, for VUND, in reptiles, 747

Page 13: Index

Index 833

Enclosure temperature, for reptiles, VUND associated with, 741

Enrofloxacin, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 681

for pododermatitis, 730

Enteral tube feedings, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 682

Environment. See also Husbandry practices.

avian beak, claws, and feet conditions related to, 779–788

avascular necrosis of distal extremities as, 785–786

avulsion fractures as, 782–783

beak growth abnormalities as, 786–787

treatment of, 787–788

fractures as, 781–783

treatment of, 782–784

frostbite injuries as, 781–782

leg-band injuries as, 780–781

pododermatitis as, 784–785

thermal injuries as, 781

trauma as, 779–780

behavioral dermatopathies associated with, 805–807, 809–810, 812

treatment based on, 815–816

for chytridiomycosis prevention, in amphibians, 675

temperature and, 680

for pododermatitis prevention, 725–726

for reptiles, VUND associated with, 741, 743, 745

management of, 750

Enzyme topicals, for pododermatitis, 729

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for viral infections, in fish, 691, 697

Epidermis, in reptiles, ecdysis stages of, 740

in wound healing response, 748

layers of, 738–740

wound care consideration of, 751

Epithelial cells, in reptile epidermis layers, 738–739

regular replacement of, 740

wound healing response and, 748

Epizootic hematopietic necrosis virus (EHNV), 698

Erythema multiforme (EM), in ferrets, 599–609

adrenal disease associated with, 603–604

treatment of, 607–608

clinical course of, 600–604

progression variations in, 606–608

clinical history findings with, 600

definitive diagnosis of, 605–607

diagnosis of, 604

differential diagnosis of, 604–605

discussion on, 604–608

etiologies of, 600

introduction to, 599–600

laboratory findings with, 603–604

physical examination findings with, 600

skin lesions associated with, 604–605

histologic findings of, 605–607

summary overview of, 608

Page 14: Index

Index834

Erythema (continued )

treatment options for, 606–608

Escherichia coli, pododermatitis associated with, 717

Estrus duration, in guinea pig, ovarian cysts related to, 760–761, 812

Exophiala angulospora, in fish, 688–689

Extraovarian rete (ER), in guinea pig, 758–759

F

Feet, anatomy and physiology of, guinea pigs, dermatologic disease in, pododermatitis as,

foot anatomy and physiology and, 716–717

in pododermatitis, 716–717

of avians, 716, 779

of rabbits, 716

of rodents, 716–717

of avians, dermatologic conditions of, 777–799

anatomy of, 716, 779

environmental causes of, 779–788

avascular necrosis of distal extremities as, 785–786

avulsion fractures as, 782–783

fractures as, 781–783

treatment of, 782–784

frostbite injuries as, 781–782

leg-band injuries as, 780–781

pododermatitis as, 784–785

thermal injuries as, 781

trauma as, 779–780

functional types of, 779

idiopathic causes of, 793–797

articular gout as, 795–797

brown hypertrophy of the cere as, 797

neoplasia as, 793–794

self-mutilation as, 794–795

infectious causes of, 788–793

bacterial agents as, 792–793

fungal agents as, 792

parasitic agents as, 788–789

viral agents as, 789–791

treatment of, 791–792

introduction to, 777–778

nutritional causes of, 778–779, 793

summary overview of, 797–798

Ferrets, dermatologic disease in, cutaneous neoplasia as, 580–586

apocrine gland cystadenoma as, 572, 581, 585

basal cell tumor with sebaceous and squamous differentiation as, 572, 581–583

cutaneous lymphoma as, 572, 581, 584

epitheliotropic lymphoma as, 581, 585

fibroma as, 581, 585

fibrosarcoma as, 581, 585

frequency of common, 580–581

hemangioma as, 581, 583

Page 15: Index

Index 835

introduction to, 579–580

leiomyoma as, 581, 585

leiomyosarcomas as, 581, 585

mammary tumors as, 581, 585

mast cell tumor as, 572, 580–582

miscellaneous tumors as, 585

preputial gland tumors as, 581, 583–584

sebaceous epitheliomas as, 572, 581–583

spindle cell sarcoma as, 581, 585

squamous cell carcinoma as, 581, 585

squamous cell carcinoma in situ as, 581, 585

summary overview of, 596

dermatologic examination for, 569, 573

clinical examination in, 569

clinical history in, 569

diagnostic testing for, 569, 573

differential diagnoses of, 570–573, 575

bacterial pyoderma, 570

biotin deficiency, 572

canine distemper virus, 570

dermatophytosis, 570

ear mites, 571

ectoparasites, 571

environmental, 572

fleas, 571

fungal diseases, 570

hyperadrenocorticism, 571, 573

hyperestrogenism, 571

hypersensitivity, 571

neoplasia, 572

nutritional diseases, 572

sarcoptic mange mite, 571

seasonal alopecia, 572

telogen defluxion, 572

viral diseases, 570

ectoparasites as, 571

flea collar contraindications for, 641

mites, 614–616, 620–621

ticks, 635, 638

treatment of, 640, 650–651

erythema multiforme as, 599–609

adrenal disease associated with, 603–604

treatment of, 607–608

clinical course of, 600–604

progression variations in, 606–608

clinical history findings with, 600

definitive diagnosis of, 605–607

diagnosis of, 604

differential diagnosis of, 604–605

discussion on, 604–608

etiologies of, 600

Page 16: Index

Index836

Ferrets (continued )

introduction to, 599–600

laboratory findings with, 603–604

physical examination findings with, 600

skin lesions associated with, 604–605

histologic findings of, 605–607

summary overview of, 608

treatment options for, 606–608

skin structure and function review for, 560, 565

summary overview of, 523, 560, 575

Fibroplasia, in wound healing response, 748

Fine needle aspiration (FNA), of ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 766–767

Fipronil (Frontline), for ectoparasites, in small mammals, 641

Fish dermatology, clinical approach to, 532, 538–545

dermatologic examination for, 538–539

clinical examination in, 538–539

clinical history in, 538

diagnostic testing for, 539

differential diagnoses of, 539–545

anchor worm, 541

bacterial diseases, 541, 545

bacterial septicemia, 542

capsalids, 541

carp pox, 542

columnaris disease, 541

ectoparasites, 540

fish lice, 541

flagellated protozoans, 540–541

flukes, 541, 545

freshwater and marine velvet, 540

gas bubble disease, 544

goldfish herpesvirus, 542

guppy killer disease, 540

head and lateral line erosion, 544

husbandry-related diseases, 543–544

“ich,” white-spot disease, 540

Ichthyobodo sp., 540

idiopathic diseases, 544

koi herpesvirus, 543

koi ulcer disease, 541

lymphocystis, 542

macroparasites, 541

mycobacteriosis, 541

neoplasia, 543

poor water quality, 543

sessile ciliates, 540

viral diseases, 542–543

skin structure and function review for, 538

summary overview of, 523, 532, 575

normal skin physiology in, 689–690

viral infections in, 687–703

Page 17: Index

Index 837

aesthetic appearance and, 688–689

birnaviridae as, 694

clinical signs of, 689–690

diagnostic overview of, 690–693

herpesviridae as, 694–697

introduction to, 687–689

iridoviridae as, 694, 697–698

megalocytiviruses as, 698

normal integument vs., 689–690

other viruses in, 698

pathogen isolation for, 691, 693–694

prevention of, 693, 696, 699

quarantine for, 699

ranaviruses as, 698

rhabdoviridae as, 694

species overview of, 687–688

summary overview of, 699–700

treatment of, 693, 696

Fish lymphocystis virus disease (FLDV), 697–698

Flavivirus, in reptiles, VUND associated with, 742

Flea collars, for ectoparasites, in small mammals, 641

Fleas, in small mammals, 636–637, 639–640

Archeopsylla erinacei, 639–641

treatment of, 654–655

Ceratophyllus gallinae, 639–641

treatment of, 654

Ceratophyllus sciorum, 636, 651

Ctenocephalides spp., 636–637, 639–640

treatment of, 648–649, 651, 654

differential diagnoses of, 552, 571

ear example of, 639

excreta of, 639

ferrets, 571

hedgehogs, 639–641

in bedding, 640

microscopic view of, 640

larvae, 641

Nosopsylla spp., 636–637

treatment of, 657

Pulex irritans, 636, 651

rabbits, 552, 636, 639–640

Spilopsyllus cuniculi, 636–637

Xenopsylla spp., 636–637

treatment of, 657

Fluid therapy, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 681

for myxomatosis, in rabbits, 712

Fluorescent antibody tests (FAT), for viral infections, in fish, 693

Foam shoes, polypropylene, for pododermatitis, 727–728

Follicular cysts, in guinea pig, epidemiology of, 761

gross pathology of, 768

histopathology of, 769

Page 18: Index

Index838

Follicular (continued )

pathogenesis of, 762

Folliculogenesis, in guinea pig, 758–759

Food sources. See also Nutrition.

as Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii risk, in reptiles, 667

Formalin, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 679

Fractures, of avian beak, claws, and feet, 781–783

avulsion, 782–783

treatment of, 782–784

Frostbite, in avian claws and feet, 781–782

pododermatitis related to, 724

Fungal dermatitis, in reptiles, 527

Fungal infections, in amphibians, chytridiomycosis as, 669–685. See also

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd).

differential diagnoses of, 535–536

in avians, beak, claws, and feet conditions related to, 792

differential diagnoses of, 548

in chinchillas, 574

in ferrets, 570

in gerbils and hamsters, 562

in guinea pigs, 558

in mice and rats, 567

in rabbits, 553

in reptiles, 527

Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii as, 659–668. See also Chrysosporium

anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV).

differential diagnoses of, 527

VUND associated with, 742–743, 745

Fur chewing, in chinchillas, as behavioral dermatopathy, 810–812

G

Geckos, Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii in, 662–663

skin anatomy and physiology in, 738–740

Genetics, role of, in abnormal repetitive behaviors, 805

in barbering, 809

in ulcerative dermatitis, 813–815

Gerbils, dermatologic disease in, behavioral, barbering as, 807–808

dermatologic examination for, 569, 573

clinical examination in, 569

clinical history in, 569

diagnostic testing for, 569, 573

differential diagnoses of, 561–565, 573

bacterial pyoderma, 561

bald nose, 563

barbering, 563

Demodex aurati, 562, 565

Demodex criceti, 562, 565

Demodex meroni, 562, 649

dermatophytosis, 562

facial dermatitis, 563

Page 19: Index

Index 839

fungal diseases, 562

fur mite, 562

hair coat roughness, 563

hamster polyomavirus, 561

husbandry-related diseases, 563

hyperadrenocorticism, 563

nasal dermatitis, 563

neoplasia, 563

Notoedres notoedres, 562

papovavirus, 561

parasitic diseases, 562

tail slip, 563

Trixacarus caviae, 562

ectoparasites as, treatment of, 640, 649

skin structure and function review for, 560, 565

summary overview of, 523, 560, 575

Glands, apocrine, cystadenoma of, in ferrets, 572, 581, 585

mammary. See Mammary tumors.

preputial, tumors of, in ferrets, 581, 583–584

scent, in guinea pigs, impaction of, 559

skin, in reptiles, 739–740

sweat, stress and, 803

Glucocorticoid therapy, for erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 601–603, 606–607

Gnathotheca, of avian beak, 778

Goldfish, viral infections in, 696–697, 699

Gonadal development, in guinea pig, rete ovarii role in, 759

Gonadotropin–releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, for adrenal disease, in ferrets, with

erythema multiforme, 607–608

for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 769–771

Gout, articular, in avians, 795–797

Graafian follicle, in guinea pig, 760

Gross pathology, of ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 768

Guinea pigs, dermatologic disease in, behavioral, barbering as, 559, 812–813

cutaneous neoplasia as, 592–596

frequency of common, 592–593

introduction to, 579–580

lipomas as, 559, 592–593, 595

mammary gland tumors as, 592, 594–596

miscellaneous tumors as, 559, 592, 596

summary overview of, 596

trichoepitheliomas as, 592–594

trichofolliculomas as, 559, 592–594

dermatologic examination for, 569, 573

clinical examination in, 569

clinical history in, 569

diagnostic testing for, 569, 573

differential diagnoses of, 557–560, 573

abscesses, 557

bacterial diseases, 557

barbering, 559

cervical lymphadenitis, 557

Page 20: Index

Index840

Guinea (continued )

cheilitis, 559

cystic ovarian disease, 559–560

dermatophytosis, 558

fungal diseases, 558

husbandry-related diseases, 558

hypovitaminosis C, 558

lice, 558, 560

neoplasia, 559

otitis media/interna, 557

pododermatitis, 559

pregnancy-associated alopecia, 559

scent gland impaction, 559

staphylococcal pyoderma, 557

ectoparasites as, mites, 615–618, 627–632

treatment of, 640, 652

pododermatitis as, 715–735. See also Pododermatitis.

foot anatomy and physiology and, 716–717

nutritional factors of, 722–723

skin structure and function review for, 560, 565

summary overview of, 523, 560, 575

ovarian cysts in, 757–776

anatomy and physiology of, 758–760

ovarian follicles, 760

rete ovarii, 758–759

classification of, as periovarian vs. intraovarian, 758

diagnosis of, 762–769

cytology in, 766–767

gross pathology in, 768

histopathology in, 768–769

historical findings in, 762

imaging in, 766–768

laboratory tests in, 766

physical examination in, 762–766

sedation for, 767–768

epidemiology of, 760–761, 812

concurrent diseases in, 761

follicular cysts in, 761

neoplastic cysts in, 761

rete cysts in, influence of age, parity, and estrus duration, 760–761

prevalence of, 760

introduction to, 757–758

pathogenesis of, 761–762

follicular cysts in, 762

rete cysts in, 761–762

prognosis of, 771

summary overview of, 771

treatment of, 769–771

hormone therapy in, 769–771

percutaneous drainage in, 769

surgery in, 769–770

Page 21: Index

Index 841

H

Hair growth, stress impact on, 804

Hair pulling, as behavioral dermatopathy, 807. See also Barbering.

Hamsters, dermatologic disease in, dermatologic examination for, 569, 573

clinical examination in, 569

clinical history in, 569

diagnostic testing for, 569, 573

differential diagnoses of, 561–565, 573

bacterial pyoderma, 561

bald nose, 563

barbering, 563

Demodex aurati, 562, 565, 653

Demodex criceti, 562, 565, 653

Demodex meroni, 562

dermatophytosis, 562

facial dermatitis, 563

fungal diseases, 562

fur mite, 562

hair coat roughness, 563

hamster polyomavirus, 561

husbandry-related diseases, 563

hyperadrenocorticism, 563

nasal dermatitis, 563

neoplasia, 563

Notoedres notoedres, 562, 653

papovavirus, 561

parasitic diseases, 562

tail slip, 563

Trixacarus caviae, 562

ectoparasites as, mites, 612–614, 631, 633

treatment of, 640, 653

skin structure and function review for, 560, 565

summary overview of, 523, 560, 575

Hawks, red-tailed, pododermatitis in, 785

Health examination, for viral infections, in fish, 699

HEALx Soother Plus, for pododermatitis, 731

HEALx/AVIx Booster, for pododermatitis, 731

Hedgehogs, dermatologic disease in, ectoparasites as, drug contraindications for, 641

fleas, 639–641

mites, 621, 624–627

treatment of, 640, 654

Helminths, in small mammals, 639–640

Cuterebra spp., 553, 639–640

treatment of, 657

Dracunculus insignis, 639–640

Hypodema spp., 639–640

in rabbits, 657

Hemodynamics, central vs. peripheral, stress impact on, 804

Herpesviridae, in fish, 694–697

in reptiles, VUND associated with, 742

Page 22: Index

Index842

Histologic studies, of rete ovarii, in guinea pig, 759

Histopathology, of Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in reptiles, 664–665

of chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 670–674

of erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 601, 604

skin lesion findings of, 605–607

of myxomatosis, in rabbits, 710–711

of ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 768–769

of viral infections, in fish, 692, 696–697, 699

of VUND, in reptiles, 737–738, 740

treatment based on, 750

with bacterial infections, 743–745

History taking, for dermatologic diseases, in amphibians, 525

in avians, 546

in chinchillas, 569

in ferrets, 569

with erythema multiforme, 600

in fish, 538

in gerbils and hamsters, 569

in guinea pigs, 569

in mice and rats, 569

in rabbits, 569

with myxomatosis, 706

in reptiles, 524

with VUND, 746

in small mammals, 569

pododermatitis and, 724–725

for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 762

Homeostasis, threat to, stress response in, 803

Honey, for pododermatitis, 731

Hormone assays, for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 766, 812

Hormone therapy, for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 769–771

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 770–771

Human immunoglobulin, for erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 607

Husbandry practices, behavioral dermatopathies associated with, 805–807, 809–810,

812

treatment based on, 815–816

for disease prevention, of Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in reptiles,

667

of chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 675

of ectoparasites, in small mammals, 640

for myxomatosis, in rabbits, 711

for viral infections, in fish, 699

pododermatitis related to, 722

therapeutic strategies for, 725–726

VUND associated with, in reptiles, 741, 745–747, 749

management of, 750

Hyperadrenocorticism, in ferrets, 571, 573

erythema multiforme related to in, 603–604

treatment of, 607–608

in gerbils and hamsters, 563

Hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA), as stress axis, 803

Page 23: Index

Index 843

I

Iguanas, Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii in, 662–663

Imaging, for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 766–768

for pododermatitis, 725

Immune response, central vs. peripheral, stress impact on, 803–804

Immunity, of myxomatosis, in rabbits, 710–711

stress impact on, 803

Immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT), for viral infections, in fish, 693

Immunohistochemistry staining, for viral infections, in fish, 691, 693

Immunosuppression, from topical antibiotics, for pododermatitis, 729–730

myxomatosis-related, in rabbits, 711–712

Immunosuppressive therapy, for erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 601–603, 606–608

failure to respond to, 604

Impulse control disorders, dermatopathies related to, 804–805

Inactivity, pododermatitis related to, 721

Infectious diseases, avian beak, claws, and feet conditions related to, 788–793

bacterial agents in, 792–793

fungal agents in, 792

parasitic agents in, 788–789

viral agents in, 789–791

treatment of, 791–792

bacterial. See Bacterial infections.

fungal. See Fungal infections.

opportunistic, VUND associated with, in reptiles, 742–743

with long-term immunosuppressive therapy, in ferrets, 603–604

parasitic. See Ectoparasites; Parasite infestations.

secondary, pododermatitis related to, 724

VUND associated with, in reptiles, 742–744

viral. See Viral infections.

Inflammatory response, in dermatitis. See Ulcerative dermatitis (UD).

in stress response, 804

lymphocytes in. See Lymphocytic inflammation.

Interdigital bandage, for pododermatitis, 727–728

Internal parasites. See also Helminths.

in fish, 541

in mice and rats, 567

in reptiles, VUND associated with, 743

Intraovarian rete (IR), in guinea pig, 758–759

Iridoviridae, in fish, 694, 697–698

in reptiles, VUND associated with, 742

Itch-scratch-itch cycle, 803

Itraconazole, for Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in reptiles, 666

for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 676–678

J

Jenkins classification, of pododermatitis, 718, 721

K

Keratinizing lesions, with chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 670

with erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 600–601, 604–606

Page 24: Index

Index844

Ketoconazole, for Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in reptiles, 666

Knemidokoptes pilae, in avians, beak, claw, and feet conditions related to, 777,

788–789

Koch postulate, 660

Koi carp, viral infections in, 694–698

prevention of, 699

L

Laboratory tests, for Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in reptiles, 664

for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 672–675

for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 766

for viral infections, in fish, 690–693

species-specific pathogen isolation with, 691, 693–694

for VUND, in reptiles, 746–747

Laser therapy, for pododermatitis, 731–732

Leg-band injuries, in avians, 780–781

Lepidosaurs, skin anatomy and physiology in, 738–740

ecdysis stages of, 740

Leporipoxvirus spp., in rabbits, 705. See also Myxomatosis.

Leuprolide acetate, for adrenal disease, in ferrets, with erythema multiforme, 607–608

for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 770–771

Lice, in fish, 541

in small mammals, 633–637

differential diagnosis of, 552, 558, 560, 567, 569

Gliricola porcelli, 634, 652

Gyropus ovalis, 634, 652

Haemodipsus ventricosus, 634–635

in chinchillas, 648

in guinea pigs, 558, 560

in mice and rats, 567, 569, 633, 635–637

in rabbits, 552

Polyplax serrata, 633–636

treatment of, 655

Polyplax spinulosa, 633–636

treatment of, 655

Lizards, Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii in, 661–663

as pathogen, 660

clinical signs of, 661

diagnostic testing for, 664–665

introduction to, 659–660

summary overview of, 667

therapy for, 665–667

zoonotic potential of, 667

Lovebird, beak fractures in, 784

beak tumors in, 793–794

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT), for pododermatitis, 731–732

Lymphocytic inflammation, in wound healing response, 747

with erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 605–607

with myxomatosis, in rabbits, 710–711

with VUND, in reptiles, 743–744

Page 25: Index

Index 845

M

Macaws, beak growth abnormalities in, 786–787

beak infections in, 792–793

Macroparasites, in fish, 541

Maculopapular lesions, in ferrets, with erythema multiforme, 605–607

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), for pododermatitis, 725

Malachite green, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 679

Malpighian cells, in fish, with viral infections, 695, 697

Mammary tumors, in ferrets, 581, 585

in guinea pigs, 592, 594–596

in rabbits, 587, 590

Mandibular jaw, of avian beak, 778

Mandibular prognathism, in avians, 786–787

Maxillary jaw, of avian beak, 778

Megalocytiviruses, in fish, 698

Meloxicam, for pododermatitis, 730

Metabolic disturbances, in amphibians, with chytridiomycosis, 671

Mice, dermatologic disease in, barbering as, as behavioral, 804, 808–810

differential diagnoses of, 568

dermatologic examination for, 569, 573

clinical examination in, 569

clinical history in, 569

diagnostic testing for, 569, 573

differential diagnoses of, 566–569, 573

bacterial diseases, 566

barbering, 568, 804

dermatophytosis, 567

ectoparasites, 566–567

fungal diseases, 567

fur mite, 566–567, 569

husbandry-related diseases, 568

lice, 567, 569

neoplasia, 568

pinworms, 567

pyoderma, 566

rat range mite, 567

ring tail, 568

sialodacryoadenitis, 566

viral diseases, 566

ectoparasites as, lice, 633, 635–637

mites, 624, 627–628, 631

treatment of, 640, 655

skin structure and function review for, 560, 565

summary overview of, 523, 560, 575

Miconazole, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 678

Mink, ectoparasites in, 651

Mites, in amphibians, 534

in avians, beak, claw, and feet conditions related to, 777, 788–789

differential diagnoses of, 547

in reptiles, differential diagnoses of, 527, 530

Page 26: Index

Index846

Mites (continued )

VUND associated with, 743

in small mammals, 612–634

burrowing, 612–619

Demodex spp., 552, 562, 612–614

treatment of, 651–655, 657

Notoedres cati, 614–616

treatment of, 656

Sarcoptes scabiei, 614–616

treatment of, 650, 656

Trixacarus caviae, 562, 615–619

treatment of, 652

differentiation aid for, 615–616

drawing of, 631

in ferrets, 571

in guinea pigs, 615–618, 627–632

in hamsters, 612–614, 631, 633

in hedgehogs, 621, 624–627

in mice and rats, 624, 627–628, 631

in rabbits, 552, 556, 614, 621–624, 648

microscopic views of, 619, 621, 626–627, 629–630, 632, 634

other, 632–633

Ascarus furis, 632–633

Atricholaelaps chinchillae, 633, 648

sucking, 618, 620–628

Caparinia erinacei, 621, 654

Caparinia tripilis, 621, 624–627

treatment of, 654

Chorioptes cuniculi, 621, 654

Myobia musculi, 621, 624

treatment of, 655

Myocoptes musculinus, 621, 624, 627–628

treatment of, 655

Notoedres muris, 621

treatment of, 654–655

Otodectes cynoti, 618, 620–621

treatment of, 650

Psoroptes cuniculi, 621–623

treatment of, 656

Radfordia ensifera, 621, 624

surface, 624, 626–634

Cheyletiella parasitivorax, 552, 624, 648

treatment of, 656

Chirodiscoides caviae, 627–630

treatment of, 652

Dermanyssus gallinae, 629, 631–632

treatment of, 649

Gliricola porcelli, 627, 631–632

treatment of, 652

Gyropus ovalis, 627, 652

Leporacarus gibbus, 626

Page 27: Index

Index 847

Ornithonyssus bacoti, 629, 631–634, 640

treatment of, 649, 653–655, 657

Ornithonyssus sylvarium, 629, 631–632

treatment of, 649

Moisture, environmental, for reptiles, VUND associated with, 741, 750

Molecular methods, for viral infection diagnosis, in fish, 691, 693, 697

Mycotic skin infections. See Fungal infections.

Myxomatosis, in rabbits, 705–712

cause of, 706

cause of death from, 707–708

clinical signs of, 707–711

diagnosis of, 711

history of, 706

immunity of, 711

in North America, 706, 712

introduction to, 705

pathology of, 710–711

prevention and control of, 712

respiratory (amyxomatous), 708, 710–711

transmission of, 706

vector control for, 712

treatment of, 711–712

vaccination for, 710, 712

N

Natural remedies, for pododermatitis, 731–732

Necropsy samples, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 672

for myxomatosis, in rabbits, 711

for viral infections, in fish, 690

Necrosis, avascular, of avian distal extremities, 785–786

pododermatitis as, 717

Necrosis virus, epizootic hematopietic, 698

Necrotic dermatitis, as behavioral, 813–814

in reptiles, 737–755. See also Vesicular, ulcerative, and necrotic dermatitis (VUND).

description of, 737–738

pathogens associated with, 526–527, 530, 742–745

Neoplasia, cutaneous. See also Cutaneous neoplasia.

in small mammals, 579–598

in avians, dermatologic conditions related to, 793–794

in reptiles, VUND associated with, 741

malignant. See Carcinoma.

Neoplastic cyst, ovarian, in guinea pig, cytology of fluid of, 767

epidemiology of, 761

Nerve fibers, in stress response, 804

Nerve growth factor (NGF), in stress response, 803–804

Neurobiology/neurophysiology, of behavioral dermatopathies, 805, 815

Neuropathic itch, 807

Neuropeptides, in stress response, 803–804

Neurotrophins, in stress response, 803–804

Neutrophilic infiltration/crusting, in ferrets, with erythema multiforme, 605

Page 28: Index

Index848

Nipple presentations, with ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 765

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs), for pododermatitis, 730

for VUND, in reptiles, 750

Nucleic acid analyses, for viral infection, in fish, 691

Nutrition, dermatologic disease and, in amphibians, chytridiomycosis and, 681

in avians, 778–779, 793

in chinchillas, 574

in guinea pigs, 813

in reptiles, VUND associated with, 741, 750

pododermatitis related to, 722–723

therapeutic strategies for, 726

ulcerative dermatitis and, 815

O

Oberhautchen, in reptile skin anatomy and physiology, 738

ecdysis stages of, 740

Obesity, pododermatitis related to, 720

Obsessive-compulsive disorders, dermatopathies related to, 804–805, 807

Ocular discharge, in rabbits, with myxomatosis, 707–708, 710

Oocyte, in guinea pig, anatomy and physiology of, 758–760

Opoids, for pododermatitis, 730

Opportunistic infections, VUND associated with, in reptiles, 742–743

with long-term immunosuppressive therapy, for erythema multiforme, in ferrets,

603–604

Oronasa cavities, of small mammals, hair-induced inflammatory lesions of, 814–815

Osteomyelitis, with pododermatitis, 717–718

Osteoscute healing patterns, 749

Ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 757–776

anatomy and physiology of, 758–760

ovarian follicles, 760

rete ovarii, 758–759

classification of, as periovarian vs. intraovarian, 758

diagnosis of, 762–769

cytology in, 766–767

gross pathology in, 768

histopathology in, 768–769

historical findings in, 762

imaging in, 766–768

laboratory tests in, 766

physical examination in, 762–766

sedation for, 767–768

epidemiology of, 760–761, 812

concurrent diseases in, 761

follicular cysts in, 761

neoplastic cysts in, 761

rete cysts in, influence of age, parity, and estrus duration, 760–761

prevalence of, 760

introduction to, 757–758

pathogenesis of, 761–762

follicular cysts in, 762

Page 29: Index

Index 849

rete cysts in, 761–762

prognosis of, 771

summary overview of, 771

treatment of, 769–771

hormone therapy in, 769–771

percutaneous drainage in, 769

surgery in, 769–770

Ovarian follicles, in guinea pig, anatomy and physiology of, 760

cysts of. See Follicular cysts.

Ovariohysterectomy, for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 769–770

Overgrowth disorders, of beak, in avians, 795–797

P

Pain management, for pododermatitis, 730

for VUND, in reptiles, 750

Pain sensitivity, self-injurious behaviors related to, 806–807

Papillomas, in avians, beak, claw, and feet conditions related to, 791–792

squamous, in rabbits, 554, 587, 589–590

Papillomavirus, in reptiles, VUND associated with, 742

Parakeets, beak fractures in, 782–783

treatment of, 782, 784

Paramyxovirus, in reptiles, VUND associated with, 742

Parasite infestations, external. See Ectoparasites; specific parasite.

in amphibians, 533

in avians, beak, claws, and feet conditions related to, 788–789

differential diagnoses of, 547

in fish, 541

in gerbils and hamsters, 562

in reptiles, VUND associated with, 743

internal. See Helminths; Internal parasites.

Parity, ovarian cysts related to, in guinea pig, 760–761

Parrots, beak fractures in, 782–783

treatment of, 782, 784

beak overgrowth in, 795–797

PBFD in, 789–790

self-mutilation of foot in, 794–795

Pasteurella multocida, pododermatitis associated with, 717

PBFD (psittacine beak and feather disease), in avians, 790–791

Pekin duck, beak trauma in, 779

Perches, pododermatitis related to, 722

therapeutic strategies for, 725–726

Percutaneous drainage, of ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 769

Physical activity, pododermatitis related to, 721

Physical examination, for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 762–766

for pododermatitis, 724

for viral infections, in fish, 690–691

for VUND, in reptiles, 746

Physical therapy, for beak growth abnormalities, in avians, 787–788

Pinworms, in mice and rats, 567

Piscines, dermatologic diseases in. See Fish dermatology.

Page 30: Index

Index850

Pododermatitis, 715–735

as avascular necrosis, 717

diagnostics for, 724–725

culture and sensitivity in, 725, 729

history and physical examination in, 724–725

imaging in, 725

minimum database in, 725

foot anatomy and physiology in, 716–717

of avians, 716, 779

of rabbits, 716

of rodents, 716–717

in avians, claws and feet conditions related to, 784–785

differential diagnoses of, 547

raptor examples of, 717–720, 724

in guinea pigs, differential diagnoses of, 559

nutritional factors of, 722–723

in rabbits, ulcerative, 719, 721

differential diagnoses of, 555

introduction to, 715–716

Jenkins classification of, 718–719

Type I, 718

Type II, 719, 721

Type III, 719

most common bacteria associated with, 717, 724

pathogenesis of, 717

predisposing factors and prevention of, 719–724

anatomic or conformational abnormalities as, 722–723

behavioral, 724

lack of activity as, 721

nutritional, 722–723

perches as, 722

poor husbandry as, 722

substrate as, 721

trauma as, 724

weight as, 720

prognosis for, 718, 732–733

Remple classification of, 717–720

Type I, 717–718

Type II, 718

Type III, 718–719

Type IV, 718–719

Type V, 718, 720

summary overview of, 733

therapeutics for, 725–732

alternative strategies in, 731–732

acupuncture as, 732

natural remedies as, 731–732

therapeutic laser as, 731–732

correcting underlying causes in, 725–726

medical strategies in, 726–730

analgesia, 730

Page 31: Index

Index 851

bandaging, 727–729

systemic antibiotics, 729–730

topical medications, 729–730

wound care, 726

surgical strategies in, 730–731

ulcerative, 715–716

in rabbits, 555, 719, 721

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, for Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii,

in reptiles, 664–665

for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 672–674, 676, 680

for myxomatosis, in rabbits, 711

for viral infections, in fish, 691, 693, 696–698

for VUND, in reptiles, 747

Polypropylene foam shoes, for pododermatitis, 727–728

Poxviruses, in rabbits, 705. See also Myxomatosis.

in reptiles, VUND associated with, 742

Poxvirus-like lesions, in fish, 698

Prairie dogs, barbering in, 808

Prednisolone, for erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 601–603, 607

Pregnancy, barbering and, 809

pododermatitis related to, 720

Prevention of disease. See also Husbandry practices.

isolation for. See Quarantine.

of myxomatosis, in rabbits, 712

of pododermatitis, 719–724

activity level for, 721

anatomic or conformational abnormalities and, 722–723

behavioral, 724

husbandry practices for, 722

nutritional, 722–723

perches for, 722

substrates for, 721

trauma and, 724

weight and, 720

of viral infections, in fish, 693, 696, 699

Probiotics, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 680

Protozoan, cryptocaryon, in fish, 688

Pruritus, neuropathic, 807

psychogenic, 807

stress role in, 803–804

with viral infections, in fish, 690

Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), in avians, 790–791

Psychiatric disorders, primary, behavioral dermatopathies related to, 804–806

abnormal repetitive behaviors, 802, 804–805

self-injurious behaviors, 805–806

in sugar gliders, 813–814

Psychogenic itch, 807

Psychophysiologic disorders, dermatopathies related to, 802–804

Puncture wounds, pododermatitis related to, 724

Pyogranulomatous disease, in reptiles, withChrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii,

661

Page 32: Index

Index852

Pyrethrin-based powders, for ectoparasites, in small mammals, 641

Python, bacterial ulcerative dermatitis in, 526, 530

Q

Quarantine, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 675–676

for viral infections, in fish, 699

R

Rabbit dermatology, behavioral, barbering as, 555, 808

clinical approach to, dermatologic examination for, 569, 573

clinical examination in, 569

clinical history in, 569

diagnostic testing for, 569, 573

differential diagnoses of, 552–556, 573

bacterial diseases, 554

barbering, 555

blue fur disease, 554

cheyletiellosis, 552, 556

treatment of, 656

cutaneous asthenia, 555

cuterebra, 553, 657

demodicosis, 552–553

dermatophytosis, 553

ear mites, 552

ectoparasites, 552

fleas, 552

fungal diseases, 553

fur-clasping mite, 552

husbandry-related diseases, 554–555

lice, 552

moist dermatitis, 554

myiasis, 553

myxomatosis, 553

neoplasia, 554

scabies, 552

Shope fibroma virus, 553

Shope papilloma virus, 553

subcutaneous abscesses, 554

subcutaneous adenitis, 555

syphilis, 554

telogen defluxion, 555

thymoma-associated exfoliative dermatitis, 555

ticks, 552

ulcerative pododermatitis, 555

urine scalding, 554

viral diseases, 553

skin structure and function review for, 560, 565

summary overview of, 523, 560, 575

cutaneous neoplasia in, 586–592

basal cell carcinoma as, 587, 591

Page 33: Index

Index 853

basal cell tumors as, 586–588

carcinomas as, 554, 587, 591–592

collagen nevi as, 586–587

collagenous hamartomas as, 586–587, 589

fibrosarcoma as, 554, 587, 591

frequency of common, 586–587

introduction to, 579–580

lipoma as, 554, 587, 591

lymphoma as, 587, 592

malignant melanomas as, 554, 587, 590–591

mammary tumors as, 587, 590

miscellaneous tumors as, 554, 591–592

spindle cell sarcomas as, 586–588

squamous cell carcinoma as, 554, 587, 591

squamous papillomas as, 554, 587, 589–590

summary overview of, 596

trichoblastomas as, 554, 586–588

ectoparasites in, 552

drug contraindications for, 641

fleas, 636, 639–640

helminths, 657

mites, 614, 621–623

treatment of, 640, 656–657

pododermatitis in, 715–735. See also Pododermatitis.

foot anatomy and physiology and, 716

ulcerative, 719, 721

differential diagnoses of, 555

viral skin diseases in, 705–714

myxomatosis as, 705–712

amyxomatous (respiratory), 708, 710–711

cause of, 706

cause of death from, 707–708

clinical signs of, 707–711

diagnosis of, 553, 711

history of, 706

immunity of, 711

in North America, 706, 712

introduction to, 705

pathology of, 710–711

prevention and control of, 712

transmission of, 706

vector control for, 712

treatment of, 711–712

vaccination for, 710, 712

rabbitpox as, 713

Shope fibroma virus as, 553, 713

Shope papilloma virus as, 553, 712–713

Rabbitpox, in rabbits, 713

Radiographs, for Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in reptiles, 664

for pododermatitis, 725

for VUND, in reptiles, 746, 748

Page 34: Index

Index854

Ranaviruses, in fish, 698

Raptors, pododermatitis in, 717–720, 724

bandaging cautions for, 728–729

Rats, dermatologic disease in, behavioral, barbering as, 568, 808

dermatologic examination for, 569, 573

clinical examination in, 569

clinical history in, 569

diagnostic testing for, 569, 573

differential diagnoses of, 566–569, 573

bacterial diseases, 566

barbering, 568

dermatophytosis, 567

ectoparasites, 566–567

fungal diseases, 567

fur mite, 566–567, 569

husbandry-related diseases, 568

lice, 567, 569

neoplasia, 568

pinworms, 567

pyoderma, 566

rat range mite, 567

ring tail, 568

sialodacryoadenitis, 566

viral diseases, 566

ectoparasites as, lice, 633, 635–637

mites, 624, 627–628, 631

treatment of, 640, 655

pododermatitis as, 715–735. See also Pododermatitis.

foot anatomy and physiology and, 716–717

skin structure and function review for, 560, 565

summary overview of, 523, 560, 575

Remple classification, of pododermatitis, 717–718

Renal disease, in reptiles, VUND associated with, 740–741

as treatment consideration, 750

Repetitive behaviors, abnormal, body-focused, 815

dermatopathies related to, 802, 804–805

“Replaceable cap” method, of wound care, for VUND, in reptiles, 751

Reptile dermatology, Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii in, 659–668

as pathogen, 660

clinical signs of, 661

crocodilians, 664

diagnostic testing for, 664–665

epidemiology of, 660, 667

introduction to, 659–660

lizards, 661–663

risk factors for, 667

snakes, 663–664

species found to be infected with, 661–662

summary overview of, 667

therapy for, 665–667

zoonotic potential of, 667

Page 35: Index

Index 855

clinical approach to, 523–531

dermatologic examination for, 524

clinical examination in, 524

clinical history in, 524

diagnostic testing for, 524–525

differential diagnoses of, 525–529

abscesses, 527

bacterial dermatitis, 526, 530

bacterial ulcerative dermatitis in python, 526, 530

blister disease, 526

burns, 529

cheilitis, 528

chiggers, 527

cutaneous neoplasia, 528

dysecdysis, 528

fungal dermatitis, 527

husbandry-related diseases, 523–524, 529–530

hypovitaminosis A, 529

leeches, 527

mites, 527, 530

secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism, 529–530

septic cutaneous ulcerative disease, 526

shell rot, 526, 530

trauma, 529

viral fibropapillomas, 528

yellow fungus disease, 528

skin structure and function review for, 524, 738–740

summary overview of, 523–524, 575

dermatitis as, 737–755. See also Vesicular, ulcerative, and necrotic dermatitis

(VUND).

bacterial ulcerative, 526, 530

clinical anatomy and physiology in, 738–740

pathogens associated with, 526–527, 530, 742–745

Respiratory myxomatosis (amyxomatous), in rabbits, 708, 710–711

Rete cysts, in guinea pig, cytology of fluid of, 767

epidemiology of, influence of age, parity, and estrus duration, 760–761

prevalence of, 760

gross pathology of, 768

histopathology of, 768

pathogenesis of, 761–762

Rete ovarii, in guinea pig, anatomy of, 758–759

cysts of. See Rete cysts.

physiology of, 758–759

secretory function of, 759

Rhabdoviridae, in fish, 694

Rhamphotheca, of avian beak, 778

Rhinotheca, of avian beak, 778

Rodents. See also specific rodent.

pododermatitis in, 715–735. See also Pododermatitis.

foot anatomy and physiology and, 716–717

Rubber band technique, for beak growth abnormalities, in avians, 788

Page 36: Index

Index856

S

Sarcoma virus, walleye dermal, 698

Scissor beak deformity, in avians, 786–787

Secondary infections, pododermatitis related to, 724

VUND associated with, in reptiles, 742–744

Sedation, for ovarian cyst evaluation, in guinea pig, 767–768

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), for self-mutilating sugar gliders, 813

Self-injurious behaviors (SIB), dermatopathies related to, 805–806

in sugar gliders, 813–814

Self-mutilation, dermatopathies related to, in avians, 794–795

in sugar gliders, 813–814

Semiocclusive dressings, for pododermatitis, 727

Sensory disorders, cutaneous, behavioral dermatopathies related to, 802, 806–807

Septic cutaneous ulcerative disease, in reptiles, 526

Serologic testing, for viral infections, in fish, 691, 693, 697

for VUND, in reptiles, 747

Serotonin, ulcerative dermatitis and, 815

Shampoo, for ectoparasites, in small mammals, 640

Shell disease, chronic, in chelonians, as VUND presentation, 743–744, 746–747

Shell fractures, VUND with, 751

Shell healing patterns, 749

Shope fibroma virus, in rabbits, 553, 713

Shope papilloma virus, in rabbits, 553, 712–713

Silver sulfadiazine, for pododermatitis, 729

Skin anatomy and physiology, in amphibians, 525

in avians, 545–546

feather types and properties, 546

of beak and claws, 778–779

of feet, 716, 779

in chelonia, 738–740

in fish, 538

in geckos, 738–740

in reptiles, 524, 738–740

in small mammals, 560, 565

of feet. See Feet.

Skin biopsy, for Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in reptiles, 664

for erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 601

for viral infections, in fish, 690, 692

for VUND, in reptiles, 746

Skin conductance, as sympathetic nervous system arousal measure, 803

Skin fragments, shedded, for chytridiomycosis diagnosis, in amphibians, 672

Skin glands, in reptiles, 739–740

Skin infection/inflammation. See Dermatitis.

Skin lesions, with Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in reptiles, 661, 663–664

with erythema multiforme, in ferrets, categorization based on severity of, 605

histologic findings of, 605–607

most common associated with, 604–605

with myxomatosis, in rabbits, 707, 709, 711

immune response and, 710–711

with pododermatitis, Jenkins classification based on, 718–719, 721

Page 37: Index

Index 857

with viral infections, in fish, 689–690

examples of, 695–698

secondary causes of, 691

wound healing of, shell and osteoscute patterns of, 749

stages in, 747–748

thyroid hormone role in, 748–749

Skin picking, 815

Skin scraping, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 672–674

for opportunistic infections, in ferrets, with erythema multiforme, 604

for viral infections, in fish, 690–692, 699

Skin swabs, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 674–675

Small mammal dermatology. See also specific mammal.

behavioral, 807–815

alopecia as, 807–808

in guinea pigs, 812–813

barbering as, 807–808

in mice, 804, 808–810

fur chewing in chinchillas, 810–812

self-mutilation in sugar gliders, 813–814

ulcerative dermatitis as, 813–815

clinical approach to, dermatologic examination for, 569, 573

clinical examination in, 569

clinical history in, 569

diagnostic testing for, 569, 573

differential diagnoses of, 573, 575

in chinchillas, 574–575

in ferrets, 570–573, 575

in gerbils and hamsters, 561–565, 573

in guinea pigs, 557–560, 573

in mice and rats, 566–569, 573

in rabbits, 552–556, 573

skin structure and function review for, 560, 565

summary overview of, 523, 560, 575

ectoparasites as, 611–657. See also Ectoparasites.

erythema multiforme as, in ferrets, 599–609. See also Erythema multiforme (EM).

Snakes, bacterial VUND in, 743, 745, 749

Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii in, 662–664

as pathogen, 660

clinical signs of, 661

diagnostic testing for, 664–665

introduction to, 659–660

summary overview of, 667

therapy for, 665–667

zoonotic potential of, 667

skin anatomy and physiology in, 738–740

Snowshoe splints, for avian fractures, 784

Social factors, of behavioral dermatopathies. See Environment.

Squamous cell carcinoma, in avians, 793–794

in ferrets, 581, 585

in situ, 581, 585

in rabbits, 554, 587, 591

Page 38: Index

Index858

Staphylococcus aureus, pododermatitis associated with, 717

self-trauma and ulcerative dermatitis associated with, 815

Stereotypy, behavioral dermatopathies related to, 804–806, 813

Stratum germanativum, in reptile skin anatomy and physiology, 738–739

ecdysis stages of, 740

Stratums, epidermal, in reptile skin anatomy and physiology, 738–739

ecdysis stages of, 740

Stress, in behavioral dermatopathies, 802–804, 809

Stress response, to homeostasis threat, 803

Sturgeon, white, viral infections in, 695–696

Substance P, in stress response, 803–804

Substrate, for VUND management, in reptiles, 750

pododermatitis related to, 721

therapeutic strategies for, 725

Supportive treatments, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 681–682

antibiotics as, 681

fluid therapy as, 681

nutrition as, 681–682

for myxomatosis, in rabbits, 711–712

Surgery. See also Debridement.

for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 769–770

for pododermatitis, 730–731

Swamp tortoises, bacterial-associated skin disease in, 745

Sweat glands, stress and, 803

Sympathetic axis (SA), as stress axis, 803

Sympathetic nervous system, arousal of, skin conductance as measure of, 803

Systemic disease, with Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in reptiles, 661

with dermatologic diseases, in reptiles, 739

with pododermatitis, 717

with viral infections, in fish, 698

Systemic infections, in reptiles, VUND associated with, 743–745

as treatment target, 750

T

Temperature, enclosure, for reptiles, VUND associated with, 741, 750

Temperature therapy, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 680

Tenosynovitis, with pododermatitis, 717–718

Terbinafine, for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 679

Thalli of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in amphibians, 672

Thermal injury, in avians, beak, claws, and feet conditions related to, 781–782

in reptiles, VUND associated with, 740

pododermatitis related to, 724

Thyroid hormone, wound healing role of, 748–749

Ticks, in amphibians, 534

in reptiles, VUND associated with, 743

in small mammals, 635–636, 638

Dermacentor variabilis, 635–636

differential diagnoses of, 552

Haemaphysalis erninacei, 635–636

treatment of, 654

Haemaphysalis leporisplalustris, 635–636

Page 39: Index

Index 859

in ferrets, 635, 638

in rabbits, 552

Ixodes dentatus, 636

Ixodes hexagonus, 635, 654

Ixodes ricinus, 635–636, 638

treatment of, 654, 657

Ripicephalus sanguineus, 635–636

Tophi, with articular gout, in avians, 795–796

Topical medications, for pododermatitis, 729–730

for ulcerative dermatitis, 814

for VUND, in reptiles, 750–751

Topical solutions, for ectoparasites, in small mammals, 640

contraindications for, 641

Tortoises. See also Chelonia.

desert, bacterial-associated skin disease in, 744–745

swamp, bacterial-associated skin disease in, 745

water, bacterial-associated skin disease in, 745, 747–748

Toucan, beak trauma in, 779–780

Transmission, of myxomatosis, in rabbits, 706

vector control for, 712

zoonotic, of Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in reptiles, 667

Trauma, fractures as. See Fractures.

in avians, beak, claws, and feet conditions related to, 779–780

frostbite as, 781–782

leg-band injury as, 780–781

thermal injury as, 781–782

in reptiles, VUND associated with, superficial, 744–745

thermal injury as, 740

pododermatitis related to, 724

Tree frogs, chytridiomycosis in, 671, 675, 677, 680

Triazoles. See Azoles.

Trichophagia, in guinea pigs, as behavioral, 812–813

Trichotillomania, barbering vs., 803–804, 809

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS), for pododermatitis, 730

U

Ulcerative dermatitis (UD), as behavioral dermatopathy, 813–815

bacterial, in python, 526, 530

self-trauma associated with, 815

in reptiles, 737–755. See also Vesicular, ulcerative, and necrotic dermatitis (VUND).

description of, 737–738

pathogens associated with, 526–527, 530, 742–745

Ulcerative disease, septic cutaneous, in reptiles, 526

Ulcerative pododermatitis, 715–716

in rabbits, 719, 721

differential diagnoses of, 555

Ulcers, hair loss progression to, in guinea pigs, 813

Ultrasonography, for ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 766–768

Urticarial lesions, with erythema multiforme, in ferrets, 604–605

Uterine diseases, concurrent, with ovarian cysts, in guinea pig, 761

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Index860

V

Vaccination, for myxomatosis, in rabbits, 710, 712

Vector control, for myxomatosis transmission, in rabbits, 712

Vesicular dermatitis, in reptiles, 737–755. See also Vesicular, ulcerative, and necrotic

dermatitis (VUND).

description of, 737–738

pathogens associated with, 526–527, 530, 742–745

Vesicular, ulcerative, and necrotic dermatitis (VUND), in reptiles, 737–755

clinical anatomy and physiology of, 738–740

diagnosis of, 746–749

ecdysis and, 740

infectious causes of, 742–745

bacterial, 743–745

fungal, 742–743, 745

parasitic, 743

viral, 742

introduction to, 737–738

noninfectious causes of, 740–741

autoimmune disease as, 741

enclosure temperature as, 741

environmental contamination as, 741, 743

environmental moisture as, 741

husbandry practices as, 741, 745–747, 749

management of, 750

neoplasms as, 741

nutritional dyscrasias as, 741

renal disease as, 740–741

thermal injury as, 740

prognosis for, 751

summary overview of, 752

treatment of, 750–752

wound healing for, 747–749

Vesiculobullous lesions, in ferrets, with erythema multiforme, 605, 607

Viral infections

in avians, beak, claws, and feet conditions related to, 789–791

treatment of, 791–792

differential diagnoses of, 548–549

in ferrets, 570

in fish, 687–703

aesthetic appearance and, 688–689

birnaviridae as, 694

clinical signs of, 689–690

diagnostic overview of, 690–693

herpesviridae as, 694–697

introduction to, 687–689

iridoviridae as, 694, 697–698

megalocytiviruses as, 698

normal integument vs., 689–690

other viruses in, 698

pathogen isolation for, 691, 693–694

Page 41: Index

Index 861

prevention of, 693, 696, 699

quarantine for, 699

ranaviruses as, 698

rhabdoviridae as, 694

species overview of, 687–688

summary overview of, 699–700

treatment of, 693, 696

in mice and rats, 566

in rabbits, 705–714

myxomatosis as, 705–712

amyxomatous (respiratory), 708, 710–711

cause of, 706

clinical signs of, 707–711

diagnosis of, 711

history of, 706

immunity of, 711

in North America, 706, 712

introduction to, 705

pathology of, 710–711

prevention and control of, 712

transmission of, 706

vector control for, 712

treatment of, 711–712

rabbitpox as, 713

Shope fibroma virus as, 553, 713

Shope papilloma virus as, 553, 712–713

in reptiles, 528, 742

Vitamin A, VUND associated with, in reptiles, 741, 747

Vitamin C deficiency, pododermatitis related to, 722–723

supplementation for, 726

Vitamin E, VUND associated with, in reptiles, 741, 747

Voriconazole, for Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in humans, 667

in reptiles, 666–667

for chytridiomycosis, in amphibians, 678

Vosmaeri eclectus, frostbite injuries in, 780–781

VUND. See Vesicular, ulcerative, and necrotic dermatitis (VUND).

W

Walleye dermal sarcoma virus, 698

Water tortoises, bacterial-associated skin disease in, 745, 747–748

Water-quality analysis, for viral infections, in fish, 690

Weight, body, pododermatitis related to, 720

Weight-bearing, pododermatitis related to, abnormal force and, 722

pressure reducing strategies for, 725–726

Wet-to-dry dressings, for pododermatitis, 728

for VUND, in reptiles, 751

Whisker trimming, in mice, 808, 810

Wound care, for pododermatitis, medical, 726

surgical, 730–731

for VUND, in reptiles, 750–751

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Index862

Wound dressings, for VUND, in reptiles, 751

nonadherent, for pododermatitis, 727

Wound healing, in pododermatitis, bandaging choices based on, 727–728

in skin lesions, shell and osteoscute patterns of, 749

stages in, 747–748

thyroid hormone role in, 748–749

ulcerative, 813–815

WSHV-2, in fish, 695–696

Z

Zoonotic potential, of Chrysosporium anamorph Nannizziopsis vriesii, in reptiles, 667


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