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India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported...

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Page 1: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side
Page 2: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

India – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr

Crude Oil 220 85% 190

Coal 200 75% 150

Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6

Demand Side Response

• Reduce energy requirement (enhance efficiency)

• Reduce carbon requirement (non-carbon energy e.g.

solar, wind, geothermal)

Supply Side Response

Find about 350 MMT of domestic carbon (on current

basis) to replace our fuel carbon imports

Need energy security solutions that ALSO reduce GHG Emissions

Page 3: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

Domestic Carbon Sources (estimates)

• India – Second most populous nation ~18% of World population

• Population growth and rapid urbanization drive increased MSW

• Sewage and wet wastes offer a rich potential source of bio-gas

• Land limitations in India constrain availability of landfill space and supply-demand economics of urban land planning

Commodity Scope, MMT/yr % C, approx Potential C, MT/yr

Agri-residue (surplus) 120 40% 48

Forest residue 150 42% 63

Bio-gas excl. landfill 800 45% 360

MSW 40 25% 10

UCO 5 85% 4

485 MMT of carbon excluding Landfill / Industrial emissions

All the carbon we need is available within our borders

Page 4: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

A BASKET OF POSSIBILITIES INCUMBENT REPLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES

Diesel Biodiesel, Green Diesel, Bio-based alcohols and Ethers

Esterification, Hydroprocessing, Fermentation, Syngas-derived

Scalable Feedstock Supply

Gasoline Bio-based alcohols and ethers, green gasoline

F-T, Fermentation, Alcohol-to-gasoline, Hydroprocessing, Pyrolysis/FCC, Catalytic Pyrolysis Bio-coking

Handling and blending infrastructure, feedstock variation

Aviation Fuel Drop-in Bio-jet Hydroprocessing, Sugar conversion, alcohol-to-jet, F-T

Scalable Feedstock Supply

CNG / PNG Bio-CNG/Bio-PNG, HCNG, Bio-H2

Fermentation Purification, Supply chains

Low-sulfur Bunker Fuel

Green heavy distillate, biomass-derived oils

Hydroprocessing, Pyrolysis/FCC, HTL, MSW-thermochemical processing

Economic value relative to alternatives

A: Centralized, leverage existing hydrocarbon supply chain infrastructure B: New Hub-and-Spoke Distributed-and-Decentralized Models

Page 5: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

CSIR-IIP Offerings

Supply Side Solutions

• Bio-jet Fuel and Green Diesel / HVO

• Used Cooking Oil to community-level biodiesel

• Waste Plastic to Transport-Grade Diesel

• Bio-gas to Piped Natural Gas

Demand-side Solutions

• PNG Burners for City Gas Distribution

• Energy-efficient Jaggery Production (Gur Bhatti)

• Retrofit of end-of-life IC Engine vehicles

Page 6: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

First Developing Country to Fly First Biofuels Flight with Indigenous Fuel

Military Flights Antonov-32 Indian Air Force Republic Day Parade 26 January 2019

Civilian Flight Bombardier Q400 Operated by SpiceJet Dehradun-Delhi 27 August 2018

Page 7: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

Process for Bio-Jet Fuel

Biomass Derived oil

Deoxygenation / Isomerization Light Gases

Diesel Acid Gas

Removal

Vegetable

Oil

Reactor

Separator

H20

CO2

+ Gas Oil

Make up

Hydrogen

Propane &

Light Ends

Naptha or Jet

Diesel Product

Deoxygenation / Selective Cracking / Isomerization

CSIR-IIP Pilot Plant

Capacity: 20 L Bio-jet product/day.

Meets all the Major Specifications for Aviation Fuel as per ASTM D1655, and all parameters of !S:1571 except “petroleum origin” clause

Light Gases

Naphtha

Bio-Jet Fuel

Diesel

Single-reactor catalyst system; tunable aromatics

Page 8: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

Scalable Supply Chain for Lipid Feedstocks

Supply Chains are more challenging than Technology Development

Tree Borne Oils > 1 MMT

Rotation Crops > 5 MMT

Used Cooking Oil > 2 MMT

Biomass-derived lipids - ??

Page 9: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

Ambient catalytic conditions

No heating or mechanical stirring

After separation of glycerine, FAME biodiesel purified by water wash/distillation.

Especially suitable for small scale distributed operations

Can be used as distributed sourcing for bio-jet/HVO plants

“Drop and drive” rural community model enabled

CSIR- IIP Room Temperature Biodiesel Process

School-level UCO collections to supplement national RUCO initiative

Page 10: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

Diesel (850 ml) + LPG

Gasoline (700 ml) + LPG

Petrochemicals (500 ml) (Benzene,Tolune, Xylenes) + LPG

1 Kg waste (PE+PP)

CSIR-IIP- GAIL Technology

Waste polyolefins to fuel and aromatics

• Exclusive production of either gasoline or diesel or aromatics alongwith LPG from polyolefinic wastes (e.g. HDPE, LDPE, PP etc)

• Liquid fuel meeting Euro IV/VI specifications., Aromatics rich in BTX

Page 11: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

Properties Indian Diesel BS-IV Specifications

Diesel from waste plastics

Density @ 15°C, Kg/m3

820-845 821

Distillation 95 % vol at °C, max

360 350

Cetane index 46 52

Cetane number 51 61

Viscosity @ 40°C, cst 2.0 – 4.5 2.2

PAH, max; % mass 11 6

Pour Point, °C (Sum:12/win:3) +3

CFPP, °C (Sum:18/win:6) +6

Flash point, °C 35 >70

Diesel from waste polyolefins

1 metric ton per day plant due to be

commissioned by end-March 2019, 800L

diesel target output

Plant will deploy ~5% of collectible polyolefin waste of Dehradun city

Page 12: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

Production of high purity CH4 with purity and recovery >90 mol%

Simpler VSA cycle based on low cost commercial adsorbent

Low energy required, high productivity

Product biogas suitable for

Combined heat and power generation

Transportation fuel

Industrial and domestic usage

Suitable for rural and urban application

Alignment to National Missions

Pressure/Vacuum Swing Adsorption (PVSA) Process for Biogas Up-gradation to CNG/PNG

Highlights

50

60

70

80

90

100

40 50 60

CH

4 P

uri

ty (

mo

le%

)

Adsorption time as % of CO2 Breakthrough Time

CH4 Purity in Adsorption Product

CMS-3K

Z10-04

K-Z10-04

Na-USY

Demonstration Plant to make Bio-PNG from Raw Biogas of 500 Nm3/Day now operational at Katraj Municipal Dump, Pune

Page 13: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

Development of Improved PNG Burner

-

Project Outcome:

Improved PNG burners of four different output capacity designed

Prototype PNG burners fabricated and experimentally evaluated

Overall 15% improvement in thermal efficiency observed

A standard facility for the evaluation of PNG burners established

Evaluation procedure designed to help BIS to formulate Indian standard on PNG burners

PNG Burner

PNG Burner Evaluation Facility

(Sponsored by PCRA)

– Modifying LPG burner by increasing supply gas

injector holes reduces the thermal efficiency of

the burner

– Interchangeability between LPG and PNG is

poor as “Flame Lift” phenomena is observed

– Changing supply pressure affects the flame

characteristics in self aerated burners

Page 14: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

- Multi-pan Gur Bhatti for UP and Uttarakhand states (over 50 installations)

- Nearly 23% increase in daily Gur production (and product quality)

- At least 12% savings in fuel consumption

- Reduction in emissions (smoke)

Development & Popularization of Improved

Jaggery Unit

CSIR-IIP improved Gur bhatti installed near Meerut, U.P. Hon’ble CM U’khand Sh. T.S. Rawat inaugurates 40th unit

Enormous scope for improvement in rural energy efficiencies

Page 15: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

• Development/Selection and System Integration of Electric Powertrain Sub-systems

• Rigorous component testing

• Real-World Performance Testing Pre- and Post-Conversion

Post-conversion EV Performance Test

Pre-conversion IC Vehicle Performance Test

Retrofit Kit for conversion of IC Engine Vehicles into EVs

Page 16: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

CONCLUSION

• The Indian Energy Scenario can be effectively addressed by a strategy that combines

– demand management with

– domestic carbon resource deployment

• Demonstration sites and mobile units to establish operating parameters and optimize outcomes

• Training for entrepreneurs and workforce

• Partners required at every step of the value chain

We can reduce fuel imports and emissions at the same time

Page 17: India - European CommissionIndia – Carbon Imports (approx) Commodity Import, MMT/yr % C Imported C, MMT/yr Crude Oil 220 85% 190 Coal 200 75% 150 Natural Gas 15 77% 11.6 Demand Side

Thank you


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