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Indian Diaspora (Indians Outside India)

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    India Diaspora

    Analysis

    Schemes related to Indian Diasporao Pravasi Bhartiya Bima Yojana, 2006o Know India Programo Efforts by Indian Government to look after NRIso India Millenium Deposit Schemeo Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs

    o Nodal Agency to deal with Issues of Indians abroad.o Under what conditions are NRIs permitted to deposit in India any currency of their choice.o Significance of Pravasi Bhartiya Divas in modern India.o Why January 9 was chosen to observe Pravasi Bhartiya Diwas.o Categorize the People of Indian Origin.o References made to the NRI in Union Budget 2004.

    General Questions/Miscellaneouso Why do NRIs retain their emotional attachment to India.o Problems faced by NRIs if they decide to settle in India.o Distinguish between NRI & PIO.o Brain Drain.

    o Reverse Migrationo Differences between Jewish & Indian Diaspora.

    Indian Groups Abroado Madhesis in Nepalo All India Women Contingent to Liberiao Future of Indians in Fiji

    o Exodous of Persons of Indian Origin from Ugandao Idi Amin & his atrocities on Indians in his country.o Indians in Chinao Future of Indian Expatriates in the Gulf

    Contribution of Indian Diasporao Contribution of NRIs to GCC countrieso Contribution of Indians in Silicon Valleyo Indians in the House of Lords, U.K.o Mention Few Important NRIs.o Role of NRIs in Liberalization process

    o The Fields in which NRIs have excelled in developed countrieso In which specialities are Indians are wanted most abroado Impact of Gulf Remittances on Indias economy.

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    Famous NRIs

    Amitav Ghosh India born Amitav Ghosh is a world renowned novelist and author. He was born inCalcutta. He completed his graduation from St. Stephens College, Delhi University.Amitav's latest work of fiction, The Hungry Tide was published in April 2004.Other prominent works of Amitav are - The Shadow Lines (1990), In An AntiqueLand (1994), The Circle of Reason (1986), The Calcutta Chromosome (1995), and

    The Glass Palace (2000).Vinod Khosla The India born Venture Capitalist, Vinod Khosla is one of the most influential

    persons of the Silicon Valley. Vinod Khosla is in Forbes magazine's list ofAmerica's richest 400 people. Vinod Khosla is a world renowned venture capitalist.Vinod is revolutionizing communications. He rose into fame at the age of 27 whenhe co-founded the Sun Microsystems. He is an alumnus of IIT, Delhi.

    Vinod Dahm Vinod Dahm and the Pentium chip are synonymous with each other. It is so becauseVinod Dahm is the creator of the Pentium chip, which runs almost 90% of thecomputers today. He is suitably known as the father of the Pentium processor.Vinod was born in Pune, India in 1950. He received his initial education at Pune.Vinod earned his bachelor's degree from the Delhi College of Engineering

    Anita Desai Indian novelist and short story writer, Anita Desai is specially noted for herinsightful depiction of the inner life of the female characters in her writings. Inmany of her works Anita Desai has highlighted the tensions among the familymembers and estrangement of middle-class women. Anita Desai marked her debutas a novelist in the year 1963 with the Peacock. It was followed by Voices of theCity; Fire on the Mountain (set in Kasuli, a hill station), "In Clear Light of Day,Where Shall We Go This Summer, and The Zigzag Way. Anita Desai's works wereshort listed for the Booker prize 3 times.

    Lord Swaraj Paul Lord Swaraj Paul is a Britain based business magnate a philanthropist. He was bornin 1931 in Jalandhar, India. Swaraj Paul founded the multinational companyCaparo- the UK-based steel and engineering group. He was knighted by the British

    Queen in the year 1978 and became the Lord Paul of Marylebone and a member ofthe House of Lords.

    Deepak Chopra The world famous motivational speaker and best selling author, Deepak Chopra wasa successful endocrinologist at Boston. Dr. Deepak Chopra has written best-sellingbooks like Ageless Body, Timeless Mind (1993) and The Seven Spiritual Laws ofSuccess (1995). Applying his innovative mind and medical techniques, DeepakChopra became a successful motivational speaker, with a series of multi-mediaprogrammes for healing mind, body and spirit.

    Arun Netravali Arun Netravali is an international scientist of Indian origin. Arun Netravali hasmade many fundamental contributions in the areas of digital communicationstechnology. Presently Dr Arun Netravali is the President of the Bell Labs.

    BalmuraliAmbati

    Balamurali Ambati of India is the world's youngest doctor. Ambati graduated fromthe New York University at the age of 13. Ambati received his degree from MountSinai School of Medicine in New York in May 19, 1995. A National Merit Scholarand a winner in the Westinghouse Science Talent Search & the International Science& Engineering Fair, Balamurali Ambati Balamurali continued his education atHarvard, specializing in ophthalmology. Ambati developed plans and strategies toreverse corneal angiogenesis. Presently Balamurali Ambati is completing fellowshipin cornea & refractive surgery at the Duke University.

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    Bhikhu Parekh Lord Bhiku Parekh is a Britain-based political scientist. Lord Parekh is a member ofthe House of Lords and has made significant contribution to the study of politicalsystems in Britain and India. His service as the vice-chancellor of BarodaUniversity, Gujarat, India reflects his deep and undying love for India.

    Chittaranjan S.

    Ranawat

    Dr. Ranawat is one of the world's leading orthopedic and knee surgeons. Dr.Ranawat is Chairman, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Lenox Hill Hospital,USA. He was awarded the Padma Blushan by the President of India (2001) for

    outstanding meritorious excellenceGurinder Chadha Gurinder Chadha is an international filmmaker of Indian heritage. Gurinder started

    off from the BBC and later went on to make documentaries. Then Gurinder Chadhadecided to enter the world of films. She has made some great films that SouthAsian-Americans could relate to.

    Dipak C Jain India born Dipak C. Jain is the dean of the Kellogg School of Management since2001. Dipak C. Jain had joined the Kellogg School of Management faculty in 1986as an associate professor and later became an associate dean. In 1994 Dipak wasnamed Kellogg school's Sandy and Morton Goldman Professor of EntrepreneurialStudies and professor of marketing.

    Gururaj

    Deshpande

    Dr. Gururaj Deshpande is the co-founder and chairman of the Sycamore networks

    Inc. He is a powerful technology entrepreneur and futurist.Hinduja Brothers The Hinduja Brothers include Prakash, Srichand, Gopichand and Ashok. Srichand

    and Gopichand are based in Britain while Prakash resides in Geneva and Ashok inMumbai. The Hindujas are Great Britain's one of the richest families and among theten richest people in the country. The business empire of the Hinduja brothers isworth billion of dollars. Initially the Hinduja brothers set up their business in Iranand then they moved to London in 1979. The Hindujas are firm believers intraditional family values and all through their journey they have striven to instill thefamily concept in their business enterprises.

    Ismail Merchant Born in India, Ismail Merchant is a director and producer of international repute.The Duo of Ismail Merchant and James Ivory have made several internationally

    acclaimed movies. The Merchant Ivory Productions has continued as one of themost productive collaborations in cinema. It has produced films such as TheEuropeans, Quartet, Heat and Dust, A Room with a View, Mr. and Mrs. Bridge,Howard's End, The Remains of the Day Jefferson in Paris and Surviving Picasso.Besides, Merchant has also directed two films for TV, "Mahatma and the Mad Boy"and "The Courtesans of Bombay" for Britain's Channel Four.

    Jagdish N

    Bhagwati

    Jagdish Bhagwati is a renowned professor of economics and is regarded as one ofthe foremost international trade economist of modern times. Widely tipped as afuture Nobel laureate, Prof Bhagwati enjoys immense reputation among hiseconomist friends. Jagdish N. Bhagwati is presently University Professor at theColumbia University and Senior Fellow in International Economics at the Council

    on Foreign Relations.Madhur Jaffrey One of the versatile Indians abroad, Madhur Jaffrey is an actress, culinary expert,

    TV presenter, movie script and cook book writer. But it is for her cookery thatMadhur is best known. She was born in Delhi.

    M. Arunachalam M. Arunachalam is a Hong Kong-based businessman. M. Arunachalam has playedan important role in promoting trade and investment between Hong Kong and Indiaas also between China and India. M. Arunachalam has held the post of chairman,Indian Chambers of Commerce and president of the Asia Pacific Indian Chambers

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    of Commerce and Industry.

    M. Night

    Shyamalan

    Manoj Night Shyamalan is a US based and internationally acclaimed Hollywooddirector, screenwriter and actor. Shyamalan was born in Pondicherry, India.

    Rajiv Gupta India born Rajiv Gupta is presently the GM of Hewlett Packard.

    Rohinton Mistry Rohinton Mistry is a renowned novelist and author. Rohinton was born in India andpresently settled in Canada. His Such a Long Journey and A Fine Balance wereboth short listed for the Booker Prize for Fiction, and Family Matters was short

    listed for the 2002 Man Booker Prize for Fiction.Sam Pitroda Satyanarayan Gangarm Pitroda, better known as Sam Pitroda was born in Titlagarh,

    Orissa, India. The name, Sam Pitroda can better be explained by the yellow phonebooths all across India. Yes, it was mainly because of the efforts of this inventor,technocrat, and social thinker that telecom revolution started in India. Currently, Mr.Pitroda is the Chairman and CEO of World-Tel Limited, an International TelecomUnion (ITU) initiative. Mr. Pitroda lives in Chicago, Illinois

    Shashi Tharoor Shashi Tharoor is prolific writer and UN Diplomat. Shashi has been with the UNsince 1978 when he joined the UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) inGeneva. Shashi Tharoor served the UN in various capacities before assuming theoffice of the Under-Secretary-General for Communications and Public Information

    of the United Nations in 2001. In this capacity, he is responsible for thecommunication strategy, enhancing the image and effectiveness of the UN. In 2003,the Secretary-General appointed him United Nations Coordinator forMultilingualism.

    Vikram Seth The world famous writer and poet Vikram Seth was born in Kolkata, India. VikramSeth possesses the art of creating a living and breathing world that keeps the readersfocused and engaged. Vikram Seth has published 6 books of poetry and 3 novels.Vikram Seth's latest work is "Two Lives" (2005), a memoir of the marriage of hisgreat uncle and aunt.

    Navnit Dholakia Navnit Dholakia, Baron Dholakia OBE (born 4 March 1937) is a British Liberal

    Democrat politician. From 1997 to 2002 he served as a Liberal Democrat whip inthe Lords, and since 2002 he has been a Home Affairs Spokesman. He was electedPresident of the party in 1999 and re-elected for a second term in 2002, inNovember 2004 he was elected joint Deputy Leader in the House of Lords.

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    NRIs/PIOs in News (2007-08)

    Khalid Hameed The appointment of this Lucknow born leading NRI doctor to the House of Lordshas kicked up a row in London with a probe sought into the alleged donations madeto the Liberal Democratic Party by Alpha Healthcare, which is linked to him.Leading NRI doctor Lord Khalid Hameed has been adjudged Asian of the Year2007 for his outstanding work in various walks of life, including his contribution to

    health service.Shantanu

    Narayen

    Indian American Shantanu Narayen has been appointed President and ChiefExecutive Officer of Adobe System Incorporated from December one next replacingBruce Chizen.

    Kiran Pande An Indian engineer, who was fired by her company (Chevron) after she complainedof her senior's racist conduct, has been awarded $5.5 million (about Rs 22 crore) bya San Francisco federal jury.

    Neville Joseph

    Roach

    Mr Neville Joseph Roach AO - a humble paragon, currently Chairing a largenumber of high profile organisations such as, Fujitsu Australia Ltd, Australia IndiaBusiness Council and Smart Internet Technology CRC. Honoured at 6th PravasiBharatiya divas 2008.

    Karan Bilimoria Karan Faridoon Bilimoria is an entrepreneur and a life peer. He is best known as thefounder and chief executive of Cobra Beer. Honoured at 6

    thPravasi Bhartiya Divas,

    2008.

    Harvinder

    Takhar

    Minister of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Canada

    Ravi Pillai Dr Ravi Pillai, the Bahrain-based tycoon is presiding over a business empire that isvalued at 2.5 million US dollars and also generating employment for 28,000 Indians,thus becoming the single largest employer of Indians in the Gulf. But what makesDr Pillai stand out in the legion of NRIs who ave struck it rich in their adoptedcountries is not merely his taggering wealth but also his emotional bonding with hisparent country. Awarded at the 6th Pravasi Bhartiya Divas.

    Renu Khator Indian American to lead prestigious university of HoustonS.R. Nathan Sellapan Ramanathan is the sixth and current President of the Republic of

    Singapore.

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    Pravasi Bhartiya Divas

    6th

    Pravasi

    Bhartiya Divas,

    2008

    The 6th edition of the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas saw over 1,500 Non Resident Indiansfrom various parts of the globe. This time around NRIs from the Gulf were seen inlarge numbers. They had much to share and also an equal amount to complain about.

    The Indians settled in the Gulf had much to complain about. The horrific incident inwhich over 200 workers in the Gulf had to return to India was still fresh in theirminds. Clearly they were asking for more from the Indian government -- a welfare

    fund for the returnees, more protection from the government of India, just to name afew. Apart from this, Indians from the Gulf complained extensively about the poorair connectivity between the two countries, which was causing a major problem forthem. They said they had a major problem with Air India and also brought this to theissue of the Indian government. Although they had so many complaints, they clearlyseemed to have the upper hand when compared to the rest of the NRIs.On Tuesday, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh had said that at least 50 per cent ofthe funds that roll into India from the NRIs is from the Gulf. It was evident that theNRI from the Gulf was no longer interested in taking the back seat and beingpreferred over the NRI from the West. They clearly were more outspoken anddemanded for their rights with authority. He assured them of better air connectivity.He told a media conference later that a private airline will start flying into the Gulfsoon and this would sort out the problem. Regarding the Government carrier, he saidthat the issue will be taken up. Ravi also said that a welfare fund for those who hadto come back under difficult circumstances from the Gulf is awaiting the Cabinetnod.

    Pravasi Bhartiya

    Awards 2008

    Mauritius Prime Minister Navinchandra Ramagoolam was among the 11 peoplehonoured with the sixth Pravasi Bharatiya Samman Awards by President Pratibha

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    Patil at New Delhi, 2008.Two Indian Americans Dr Thomas Abraham and Dr Joy Cherian figure amongthe 12 distinguished Pravasi Bharatiyas who were honored by President PratibhaPatil with the Pravasi Bharatiya Samman Award for outstanding contributions totheir home countries and to relations with India at the end of the two-day 6th PravasiBharatiya Divas here.

    Dr Thomas Abraham, presently Chairman of Global Organization of People ofIndian Origin (GOPIO), organized the first convention of People of Indian Origin inNew York, and helped establish a number of NRI/PIO community organizations.

    Dr Joy Cherian received the honor for guiding US business missions to India and forpublic service. He was the first Asian to be appointed to a sub-cabinet position in theUS Government.

    Among other winners of the PBD award are: Dr Navinchandra Ramgoolam, PrimeMinister of Mauritius, was cited as a leader with genuine concern for thedisadvantaged sections of society and for nurturing and strengthening the bonds

    between Mauritius and India. Neville Joseph Roach, chairman of TCS-FNS, washonored for effectively advocating the cause of India and PIO in Australia. Dr RaviPillai was conferred the award for being one of the largest employers of Indiansabroad and for welfare projects in India.

    APS Mani was recognized for his pioneering work in community welfare in Japan.Judge Ajit Swaran Singh received the honor for actively facilitating new migrantsfrom India to settle in New Zealand. Rafiudin S. Fazulbhoy was awarded for hiswork in the field of education in Jeddah for children of Indian origin and service toHaj pilgrims. Bicky Chakraborty was honored for his work in India and Sweden as aphilanthropist.

    NRI & PIO A non-resident Indian (NRI) is an Indian citizen who has migrated to anothercountry, a person of Indian origin who is born outside India, or a person of Indianorigin who resides outside India. Other terms with the same meaning are overseasIndian and expatriate Indian. In common usage, this often includes Indian bornindividuals (and also people of other nations with Indian blood) who have taken thecitizenship of other countries.

    A Person of Indian Origin (PIO) is usually a person of Indian origin who is not acitizen of India. For the purposes of issuing a PIO Card, the Indian governmentconsiders anyone of Indian origins up to four generations removed, to be a PIO. [1].

    Spouses of people entitled to a PIO card in their own right can also carry PIO cards.This latter category includes foreign spouses of Indian nationals, regardless of ethnicorigin. PIO Cards exempt holders from many restrictions applying to foreignnationals, such as visa and work permit requirements, along with certain othereconomic limitations.

    The NRI and PIO population across the world is estimated at over 30 million (notincluding Pakistan, Bangladeshi and Sri Lankan diasporas).

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    The Indian government recently introduced the "Overseas Citizenship of India(OCI)" scheme in order to allow a limited form of dual citizenship to Indians, NRIsand PIOs for the first time since independence in 1947. It is expected that the PIOCard scheme will be phased out in coming years in favour of OCI.

    PIO Card Person of Indian Origin Card (PIO Card) is a form of identification issued to aPerson of Indian Origin who hold a passport in another country other than Pakistan

    and Bangladesh.Other conditions are:

    1. person at any time held an Indian passport or;2. person's parents or grand parents or great grand parents were born in and

    permanent residents in India, but not moved to Pakistan and Bangladesh or;3. person is spouse of a citizen of India or a person of Indian origin as per

    above.It came into force with effect from 15 September 2002.Benefits:

    The various benefits available to a PIO cardholders are:1. No visa required for visiting India during the period of validity of PIO Card.

    2. Exemption from the requirement of registration if stay in India does not exceed 6months. Should the continuous stay exceed six months, registration will berequired within 30 days of the expiry of six months with the concernedForeigners Registration Officer.

    3. Parity with non-resident Indians in respect of facilities available to the latter ineconomic, financial and educational fields.

    4. All facilities in the matter of acquisition, holding, transfer and disposal ofimmovable properties in India except in matters relating to the acquisition ofagricultural/plantation properties.

    5. Facilities available to children of NRIs for getting admission to educationalinstitutions in India including medical colleges, engineering colleges, Institutes

    of Technology, Institutes of Management etc. under the general categories.6. Facilit ies available under the various housing schemes of LIC, State

    Governments and other Government agencies.Limitations:

    Persons with a PIO are not1. allowed to vote2. eligible for an inner line permit. They have to apply for a Protected area permit.

    Overseas

    Citizenship of

    India

    A foreign national, who was eligible to become a citizen of India on 26.01.1950 orwas a citizen of India on or at any time after 26.01.1950 or belonged to a territorythat became part of India after 15.08.1947 and his/her children and grand children, iseligible for registration as an Overseas Citizen of India (OCI). Minor children of

    such person are also eligible for OCI. However, if the applicant had ever been acitizen of Pakistan or Bangladesh he/she will not be eligible for OCI.

    There is no plan to issue Indian passports to Overseas Citizens of India, although theregistration certificate will be in the form of a passport-like booklet (similar to thePerson of Indian Origin (PIO) Card mentioned below). The Cabinet has also directedthe Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs to work on a proposal to give biometricsmart cards to registered Overseas Citizens of India.

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    An Overseas Citizen of India will enjoy all rights and privileges available to Non-Resident Indians excluding the right to invest in agriculture and plantationproperties. There is no visa requirement for travel to India. The person has to carryhis existing foreign passport along with Registration Certificate. Alternatively, theOverseas Citizen of India can apply for a new type of visa called U visa which is amulti-purpose, multiple-entry, life-long visa for those that wish to acquire it. It will

    entitle the Overseas Citizen of India to visit the country at any time for any length oftime and for any purpose.

    An Overseas Citizen of India will not enjoy the following rights even if resident inIndia: (i) the right to vote, (ii) the right to hold the offices of President, Vice-President, Judge of Supreme Court and High Court, Member of Lok sabha, RajyaSabha, Legislative Assembly or Council, (iii) appointment to Public Services(Government Service). Also Overseas Citizens of India are not eligible for an innerline permit, they have to apply for a Protected area permit if they want to visit certainareas in India.

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    NRI PIO PIO Card holder OCI

    What benefits

    one is entitled

    to?

    Allbenefitsasavailabl

    e toIndiancitizensubjecttonotificationissued bytheGovernment from

    time totime.

    No specificbenefits.

    (1)Shall not require a separatevisa to visit India. (2) Willbe exempt from therequirements of registration if

    his/ her stay on any singlevisit in India does not exceed180 days.(3) In the event of continuousstay in India exceeding 180days, he/she shall have to gethimself/herself registeredwithin 30 days of the expiryof 180 days with the concernedFRRO/FRO.(4) Parity with NRIs in respect

    of all facilities available to thelater in the economic,financial andeducational fields excepts inmaters relating to theacquisition of agricultural/plantation properties. No parityshall be allowed in the sphereofpolitical rights.

    (1)A multiple entrymultipurpose life longvisa for visiting India.(2)Exemption from

    registration with localpolice authority for anylength of stay in India.(3)Parity with nonresident Indians (NRIs) inrespect of economicsfinancial and educationalfields except in relation tothe acquisition ofagricultural or plantationproperties. No parity shall

    be allowed in the sphere ofpolitical rights.Any other benefit to OCIswill be notified by theMinistry of OverseasIndian Affairs (MOIA)under section 7B (1) ofthe Citizenship Act 1955.

    Does

    he/she

    requirevisa for

    visiting

    India?

    No Yes and ofspecific

    typedependingon his /herpurpose ofvisit.

    Can visit India without visafor 15 year from the date of

    issue of PIO card.

    Can visit India withoutvisa for life long.

    What

    activities

    can be

    under

    taken in

    India?

    Allactivities

    Activity asspecified inthe visa

    All activities exceptmountaineering,missionary and researchwork and existing PAP/RAP which require specificpermit.

    All activities exceptmountaineering,missionary and researchwork and existing PAP/RAP which requirespecific permit

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    Various Schemes/Features

    NRI Accounts NRIs/OCBs (Overseas Commercial Bodies) can open the following types ofaccounts with banks in India, which hold authorised dealer licences, as also otherbanks, specifically authorised by the Reserve Bank to maintain accounts in thenames of NRIs/OCBs.

    Rupee Accounts:-1. Non-Resident (Ordinary) Account - NRO A/c.2. Non-Resident (External) Rupee Account - NRE A/c.3. Non-Resident (Non-Repatriable) - [(NRNR) discontinued since 01/04/2002]4. Non-Resident (Special) Rupee - [(NRSR) discontinued since 01/04/2002]

    Foreign Currency Accounts:-

    Non-Resident (Foreign Currency) Account - FCNR A/c.(in Pounds, Sterling, US Dollars, Japanese Yen and Euro).

    A person, resident in India, who is earning foreign exchange, is also permitted tomaintain a Foreign Currency account in India with an authorised dealer bank, to theextent of 50% of such foreign exchange earnings, under the Exchange Earners

    Foreign Currency Account (EEFC) Scheme.Q: What are the special features of each account?The special features are as under:NRO A/c.: The funds, standing to the credit of this account, cannot be repatriatedoutside India in foreign exchange, without prior permission of the Reserve Bank ofIndia. Interest, earned on these accounts, is, however, eligible for repatriation outsideIndia, net of Indian taxes. The remittance of interest (net of taxes) will be permittedby the authorised dealer, where the account is maintained, if the account holdermakes an application to the authorised dealer, in the prescribed form. No RBIpermission is required for remittance of interest.

    NRE A/c.: The funds, standing to the credit of this account, as well as interest earnedthereon, are remittable outside India in free foreign exchange, without permission ofthe RBI. The interest income is not subject to Indian Income-tax. Credits to theaccounts should be in the form of remittance in foreign exchange from outside India,as well as other funds, which are eligible to be remitted outside India, in free foreignexchange. Funds, emanating from local sources, are not eligible to be credited tothese accounts, unless these funds are otherwise remittable outside India, in terms ofthe existing Exchange Control Regulations.

    FCNR A/c.: These accounts can be opened in four foreign currencies: Pounds Sterling;

    US Dollars; Japanese Yen; Euro.

    For the purpose of opening an account, remittance in foreign exchange, in the samecurrency, should be received in India. The accounts can be opened only as fixeddeposits, with a minimum maturity of one year and, a maximum maturity of threeyears. The principal, as well as interest, earned on these accounts, is remittableoutside India, in the same currency or, in other convertible currency, as desired by

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    the account holder. The interest, earned on these deposits, is exempt from IndianIncome-tax.

    Know India

    Program

    Earlier known as Internship Programme for Diaspora Youth (IPDY), it is a three-week internship programme for diaspora youth conducted by the Ministry ofOverseas Indian Affairs with a view to promote awareness on India, its socio-culturaldiversity, its all round development, its emergence as an economic powerhouse, itbeing a centre of higher education and the ongoing developments in various fields

    including infrastructure, Information technology etc.Pravasi Bhartiya

    Divas

    As per the recommendation of High Level Committee on Indian Diaspora (HLCID),the Government of India decided to celebrate Pravasi Bharatiya Divas inrecognition and appreciation of the constructive, economic and philanthropic roleplayed by the Indian Diaspora, on the 9th day of January every year. January 9 hasbeen chosen because it was on this day that Mahatma Gandhi, a Pravasi Bharatiya inSouth Africa for almost 2 decades, returned to India in 1915.

    Key Outcomes of PBD 20081) Prime Ministers Global Advisory Council of People of Indian Origin2) India Development Foundation Empowerment of Rural Women3) Council for the Promotion of Overseas Employment

    4) India Diaspora Knowledge Network5) PIO University6) Mini-PBD in different parts of the world

    E-remittance

    gateway

    Overseas Indians have limited choice of either using the fast but expensive facility orthe economic but relatively slow facility to remit money back home. Keeping this inview, the ministry has partnered with the UTI bank to develop an integrated,universal, electronic remittance gateway that combines the virtues of economy,speed and convenience. The remittance gateway is targeted to be fully operational inthe GCC countries, to begin with by January 2007.

    AAPI India

    Health Initiative

    A MOU was signed with the American Association of Physicians of Indian Originduring the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas 2006. The main objective of the scheme is to

    promote, establish and operate primary health care project through public privatepartnership with AAPI.

    Pravasi Bhartiya

    Bima Yojana

    A compulsory Insurance Scheme for the emigrants going abroad for employmentknown as Pravasi Bharatiya Bima Yojana (PBBY) 2003 came into force from25.12.2003. The PBBY, 2003 has now been upgraded as the Pravasi Bhartiya BimaYojana, 2006 to provide broader coverage to the emigrant workers. The PBBY, 2006has come into effect from 01.02.2006. The emigrant workers will now get aminimum insurance cover of Rs. 5 lakhs (instead of Rs. 2 lakhs) and the policy willbe for the entire period of employment contract

    Predeparture

    Orientation &

    SkillDevelopment

    The scheme of Pre Departure Orientation & Awareness programme for workers andskill upgradation of Indian Workers is started by the Ministry of Overseas Indian

    Affairs to impart orientation training and to upgrade the skills of Indian Workersintended to go abroad to give them competitive edge over the workers from othercountries

    Scholarship

    Program for

    Diaspora

    Children (SPDC)

    Under the proposed Scholarship Scheme, Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs(MOIA) provides 100 scholarships to Indian students each year starting from 2006-07. The students are selected on the basis of an entrance test conducted by M/sEducational Consultants India Limited (Ed.CIL), an autonomous body under MHRDwith whom the Ministry is working on a partnership basis

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    DASA Scheme DASA stands forDirect Admission to Students Abroad. This Government of Indiahas designated the Educational Consultants of India Limited (Ed.CIL) as thecoordinating agency for carrying on the DASA Scheme. Under this scheme,deserving foreign nationals/ Persons of Indian Origins (PIOs) and Non-ResidentIndians (NRIs) are given direct admission to undergraduate Programmes offered bythe National Institutes of Technology and other centrally funded institutes (other thanIITs) and Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh .

    New Scheme forDeserted Indian

    Women

    The objective of the scheme is to provide some financial assistance to needy womenin distress who have been deserted by their overseas Indian spouses for obtainingcounseling and legal services. The term Overseas Indian would include NRIs andforeign citizens of Indian origin. The counseling and legal services would beprovided through credible Indian Womens Organizations/Indian CommunityAssociations and NGOs identified for providing such services and empanelled withthe Indian Missions in the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and theGulf. The scheme is a welfare measure to support women of Indian origin indistress, through the mobilization of the local Indian community in the endeavor andwith some financial assistance from the Government.

    PIO University Indian Government has approved a policy framework to establish a NRI/PIO

    University in India in the Special Economic Zone (SEZ) as a Deemed University de-novo under Section 3 of the UGC Act as an Institution of Excellence

    Trace Your

    Roots Program

    A program which helps members of the Diaspora to establish the identity of theirancestral villages & to re-establish the social link that was snapped in the distantpast. It works through interactive mode by developing a database through aquestionnaire, transmission of the data to the administrative unit in the relevantdistrict in India.

    Indian Diaspora in Various Contries

    Indians in UK According to the April 2001 UK National Census. There are 1,051,800 people ofIndian origin in the UK. Hindus comprise 45% of the population, Sikhs 29%,

    Muslims 13%, and Christians nearly 5%. 2005 Estimates state 2.41% of England'spopulation as being Indian (not inc. Mixed race) which is around 1,215, Followingcontinuous trend (including those of mixed Indian ancestry), in 2008 there are likelyto be well over 1,600,000 Indian people in the UK.

    Indians in

    Australia

    The total number of student visa's granted to Indian students for the year 2006-2007were 34,136 a significant rise from 2002-2003 when 7,603 student visa's weregranted Indian students. Many in the community are Hindu and Sikh, while therealso smaller number of Christians and Muslims. Their are about 260,000 Indiansliving in Australia

    Indians in

    Middle East/Gulf

    There is a huge population of Indians in the Middle East, most coming from Keralaand other south Indian states, especially in the oil rich countries neighboring the

    Persian Gulf. Most moved to the Gulf after the oil boom to work as labourers and forclerical jobs. Indians - all foreigners, in fact - in the Gulf do not normally becomecitizens however. They retain their Indian passports since most of the countries in theGulf do not provide citizenship or permanent residency. One of the major reasonswhy Indians like to work in the Gulf is because it provides incomes many times overfor the same type of job back in India and its geographical proximity to India. TheIndian Diaspora makes up a good proportion of the working class in the GCC. In2005, about 40% of the population in the United Arab Emirates were of Indian

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    descent.

    Indians in

    Mauritius

    Outside of India itself, Mauritius is the only country where people of Indian Originform the vast majority (not including Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago where Afro-Trinidadiand and Indo-Trinidadians have equal populations, or Fiji where the Indo-Fijians once formed the majority but not today). The people are known as Indo-Mauritians, and form about 70% of the population. The majority of them are Hindu(77%) and significant groups are Muslims (22%).

    Indians in SouthAfrica

    Most Asians in South Africa are descended from indentured Indian labourers whowere brought by the British from India in the 19th century, mostly to work in what isnow the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). The rest are descended from Indiantraders who migrated to South Africa at around the same time, many from theGujarat area. The city of Durban, has the largest Asian population in sub-SaharanAfrica, and the Indian independence leader Mahatma Gandhi worked as a lawyer inthe city in the early 1900s. South Africa in fact has got the largest population ofpeople of Indian descent outside of India in the world ie: born in South Africa andnot migrated, compared to the U.S. Most of them are fourth to fifth generationdescent. They mainly belong to the Hindu (the largest) and Muslim religiousgroupings. Most of them speak English as a first language (due to the British rule of

    the Natal colony), although some elders do speak Indian languages as a firstlanguage.

    Indians in E.

    Africa

    Indian migration to the modern countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania startednearly a century ago when these were part of British East Africa. Most of thesemigrants were of Gujarati or Punjabi origin. Indian-led businesses were (or are) thebackbone of the economies of these countries. After independence from Britain inthe 1960s, the majority of Asians, as they were known, moved out or were forced outfrom these countries. Most of them moved to Britain, or India, or other populardestinations like the USA and Canada.

    Indians in the

    Carribean

    From 1838 to 1917, over half a million Indians from the former British Raj or BritishIndia, were brought to the British West Indies as indentured servants to address the

    demand for labour following the abolition of slavery. Indo-Caribbeans are the largestethnic group in Guyana, Suriname, and Trinidad.

    Few Famous

    NRIs

    Amartya Sen, Lord Swaraj Paul, Vinod Khosla, Laxmi Mittal, Salman Rushdie,Sabir Bhatia & Zubin Mehta (Musician, Conductor).

    Indians in the

    House of Lords

    Due to the contributions & influence of British Indians, a number of them have beennominated or elected in the house of lords like Lord Swaraj Paul, Bhikhu Parkekh(political scientist), Navnit Dholakia (politician), Khalid Hameed (Doctor) amongothers.

    Related

    Abbreviations

    ECR- Emigration Check RequiredFIPB- Foreign Investment Promotion BoardKIP- Know India Programme

    MEA- Ministry of External AffairsMHA- Ministry of Home AffairsMOIA- Ministry of Overseas Indian AffairsOCB- Overseas Corporate BodyOCI- Overseas Citizenship of IndiaPBD- Pravasi Bharatiya DivasJCI- Joint Commission International

    Girimata Girmitias as people of Indian Origin taken as indentured labourers in ships by the

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    Countries British during the colonial times like Mauritius, Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana,Surinam, Fiji, South Africa & Jamaica.

    Problems NRIs

    face in India

    Following are the problems1. Sea change in the work culture2. Lack of infrastructure3. Bureaucratic hurdles.4. Lack of technology.

    Fields whereNRIs have

    excelled

    NRIs have excelled in Information Technology, Medical sciences, Engineering,Academics & Trade & Commerce. We have examples of Vinod Khosla, KhalidHameed, Hinduja Brothers, Salman Rushdie, N.C. Choudhary, V S Naipaul, ProfAmartya Sen etc.

    Fields in which

    Indians are most

    wanted

    Indians are wanted as both skilled & unskilled labour in the field of IT, Medicalscience, Egnineering, Teaching, Scientific research & as plumbers & labour.

    Effort by GoI for

    NRIs

    It includes measures like1. Relaxation in Stay period2. Special Treatment in Investment in different fields3. Special treatment in interest payment.

    4. Both Rupee & Foreign Currency Accounts.5. Reservation in Education institutes for Diaspora Children.

    NRIs

    Contribution to

    Indias Devp

    NRIs have not only contributed in economic liberalization by investing in India butthey also play important role as pressure groups in International forum & inupgrading bilateral relations between various countries.

    Reverse

    Migration

    Indians abroad are returning home, and offering the country a "brain gain" that couldhelp solve some of India's crushing social problems. Drawn by a booming economy,in which outsourcing is playing a crucial role, and the money to buy the lifestyle theyhad in America/Europe, Indians are returning in large numbers

    Gulf Remittances Worldwide, remittances reached $318 billion in 2007. India topped the list ofrecipients with $27 billion, followed by China with $25.7 billion and Mexico with

    $25 billion. More than 70 % of the remittances come from Gulf countries.Interestingly, India received the highest inbound remittances with only 22 millionnon-resident Indians, while there are about 40 million Chinese residing outsideChina. This was primarily due to the social and family structure in India.

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