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Indirect Evaporative Cooling

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1 A.T.E. ENTERPRISES PRIVATE LIMITED Business Unit: HMX v1.0– updated 17 th Feb ‘15 A Seminar on: Innovative Cooling Solutions with: “Indirect Evaporative Cooling” By: Sunil Tiwari Sanjiv Sachdeva
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A.T.E. ENTERPRISES PRIVATE LIMITED

Business Unit: HMXv1.0– updated 17th Feb ‘15

A Seminar on:Innovative Cooling Solutions with:

“Indirect Evaporative Cooling”By:

Sunil Tiwari

Sanjiv Sachdeva

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Introduction

To

PSYCHROMETRICS

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PSYCHROMETRIC

PROCESSES

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SENSIBLE HEATING OR COOLING:

The addition or removal of heat, without any change in the moisture content (AH), resulting in the change in DBT.

The status point will move horizontally to the left (cooling) or to the right (heating).

Note that while the AH does not change, the change in temperature means the relative humidity (RH) changes. It increases if the temperature lowers and vice versa.

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If, as a result of cooling, the point moving towards the left reaches the saturation line, some condensation will start. The DBT corresponding to this point is referred to as the dew-point temperature of the original atmosphere. If there is further cooling, the status point will move along the saturation line and condensation will occur.

DEHUMIDIFICATION BY COOLING:

The reduction in the vertical ordinate (on the AH scale) represents the amount of moisture precipitatied, ie, condensed out. This process will reduce the absolute humidity, but will always end with 100% RH.

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If moisture is evaporated into an air volume without any heat input or removal (this is the meaning of the term 'adiabatic'), the latent heat of evaporation is taken from the atmosphere.

The sensible heat content - thus the DBT -is reduced, but the latent heat content is increased. The status point moves up and to the left, along a WBT line. This is the process involved in evaporative cooling.

ADIABATIC HUMIDIFICATION

(EVAPORATIVE COOLING):

Note that by this process, the relative humidity is increased. It increases only until it hits the saturation line, at which it becomes 100%. Beyond it there is no decrease in sensible temperature. This is the reason why during hot and humid months, evaporative cooling is ineffective and uncomfortable.

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If the air is passed through a chemical sorbent material (eg, silica gel), some of the moisture is removed and the latent heat of evaporation is released.

There will be an increase in sensible heat content, thus in the system (ie, if the process is adiabatic), the state point will move down and towards the right along an enthalpy line.

This process, in effect is the reverse of the previous one.

ADIABATIC DEHUMIDIFICATION

(BY SORBENTS):

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If two air streams are mixed, having:

-mass flow rates m1 and m2,-dry bulb temperatures t1and t2,-enthalpies H1and H2,

the result will be: m1t1 + m2t2 = [m1 + m2]t3,m1H1 + m2H2 = [m1 + m2]H3

Therefore:t3 = (m1t1 + m2t2) / m1 + m2

H3 = (m1H1 + m2H2) / m1 + m2

MIXING:

The psychrometric chart can be used to establish the value of t3 and H3. The two state points are connected by a straight line, which is then divided in inverse proportions of m1 and m2. If the mass flow rate m1 is the greater, the resulting point P will represent the state of the combined air stream.

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1 →→→→ 2 Return air duct gains

2 →→→→ 4 Outside air load

3 →→→→ 4 Energy recovery

4 →→→→ 5Cooling / Dehumidification

5 →→→→ 6 Fan motor gains

6 →→→→ 7 Reheat coil input

7 →→→→ 8 Supply duct gains

Conventional Refrigeration System

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Points on the chart

1 Room condition 25°CDB 50%RH

2 Return air to unit 25.5°CDB 18.2°CWB

3 Outside air 35°CDB 24°CWB

4 Mixed air into coil 26.5°CDB 18.8°CWB

5 Air off coil 12°CDB 11°CWB

6 Air off fan 12.7°CDB 11.3°CWB

7 Air off reheat coil 14.3°CDB 12°CWB

8 Air into room 14.8°CDB 12.2°CWB

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What is ‘Comfort Conditioning’?

Comfort conditioning relates to human comfort. Thesurrounding air needs to be treated so that the personoccupying the place feels fresh & comfortable.

Factors that directly affect human comfort:

� Temperature

� Relative humidity

� Air motion

� % of fresh air

� Personal activity

� Clothing

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Adaptive Model of Comfort

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Cooling Solutions -(For people comfort & process requirements)

COOLING TECHNOLOGIES

Conventional – Refrigerant Based Technologies

Vapor Compression

Type

Vapor Absorption

Type

Non-refrigerant Based (Eco-friendly) Technologies

Free CoolingEarth

CoolingNight

Ventilation

Evaporative Cooling

Technology

DEC

(Direct Evaporative

Cooling)

IEC

(Indirect Evaporative

Cooling)

IDEC(Indirect Direct

Evaporative Cooling)

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Evaporative cooling: Two approaches

Direct Evaporative Cooling (DEC): Water evaporates directly into the air stream, thus reducing the air temperature while humidifying the air.

Indirect Evaporative Cooling (IEC):Primary air is cooled sensibly with a heat exchanger, while the secondary air carries away the heat energy from the primary air as generated vapor.

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Evaporative cooling continued …

� Principle of IDEC (indirect direct evaporative cooling)

� Two-stage evaporative air cooling

Dry bulb temp: D1Wet bulb temp: W1Enthalpy: h1

Dry bulb temp: D2Wet bulb temp: W2Enthalpy: h2

Dry bulb temp: D3Wet bulb temp: W2Enthalpy: h2

In IDEC process:D3<D2<D1W2<W1h2<h1

Cooling effectiveness (Є): D1-D3D1-W1

IDEC process Є is always >100%; nearly120% for summer

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Psychrometry : Dubai Conditions DBT-46°C / Rh-30%

Outdoor (Ambient): DB 46⁰C, WB 29.4⁰C, Sp Humidity 19.33 g/Kg

DEC Outlet : DB 30.2⁰C, WB 29.44⁰C, Sp Humidity 26.10 g/Kg

IDEC Outlet : DB 26.7⁰C, WB 26.4⁰C, Sp Humidity 21.90 g/Kg

3.5°c more cooling

Low moisture

addition -

60% less

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HMX, a business unit of the A.T.E. Group

A.T.E. has a legacy of over 75 years, operates in the domains of:

• Textile Engineering• Cooling• Wastewater Treatment• Energy Efficiency

• Value Enhancing Systems• Machine-to-Machine Solutions• Flow Technology• Print and Packaging Equipment

HMX, a business unit of A.T.E., designs and manufactures unique, energy efficient and eco-friendly products for space and process cooling for the industrial and commercial sectors. The core of every HMX product is DAMA (Dry Air Moist Air), a new generation patented sensible heat exchanger.

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SO FAR…

Solutions with Indirect Evaporative Cooling

• Stand-alone cooling: Two Stage Evaporative Cooling System

• Pre-cooling: Treated Fresh Air System

• Fresh air air-conditioning: IDEC + Air conditioning

HMX – AMBIATORHMX – PCU – F HMX – FAAC

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Stand-alone cooling units….. HMX Ambiator

• These cooling units are a next-generation indirect direct evaporative cooling solution

• This patented technology provides 100% fresh, clean, cool air – which is an excellent upgrade over air-washers & ventilation systems which are commonly used for cooling in industrial and commercial sector

• Can be integrated with other air handling systems and air conditioning systems to optimize power consumption

• Available in various capacities

Small up to 10000 CFM

Medium 10000 to 30000 CFM

Large 30000 CFM onwards

Energy saving potential upto 60% with regard to conventional air-conditioner

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Indirect Direct Evaporative Cooling (IDEC)

With indirect/direct evaporative cooling, the primary air stream is cooled first with indirect evaporative cooling and then cooled further with direct evaporative cooling.

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Psychrometric representation

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CASE STUDY-1:IDEC helps a global company improve indoor air quality

Sr. no. Challenges faced by the company Solutions suggested by HMX

1Possible hazard to health of workers from fumes

generated by carbide grinding wheels

100% fresh, clean and cool air to be supplied to

improve indoor air quality

2Sensible heat load generated inside was 400000

BTU/hr (117 kW)

40,000 CFM of cool air to be supplied to the shop

floor

3Extremely hot summer in Hyderabad when the

ambient temperature touches 42°C

Supply air to be cooled by indirect direct

evaporative cooling technology

4Temperature on the shop floor to be maintained at

29±2°C

Temperature of supply air to be lower by 3-4°C

compared to conventional air-washer systems

• This is an engineering giant, a high technology global industrial group with world-wide operations• The group has a carbide grinding facility in Hyderabad, South India

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CASE STUDY-1:IDEC helps a global company improve indoor air quality

Sr. No. Date Time Ambient temperature °C Room °C

DBT WBT DBT WBT

1 16/4/14 1.30 pm 36 24 25 22

2 16/4/14 2.30 pm 38 24 26 22

3 16/4/14 3.00 pm 38 24 26 21

• The HMX-Ambiator was installed and commissioned at this plant in January 2014

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CASE STUDY-1:IDEC helps a global company improve indoor air quality

• The fumes and the heat generated by the carbide grinding machines is carried away by the air supplied by HMX-Ambiator

• This has improved the indoor air quality and is also maintaining comfortable working conditions inside

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CASE STUDY-2:IDEC helps Mahindra& Mahindra, Nagpur to improve productivity

Sr. no. Challenges faced by the company Solutions suggested by HMX

1Extremely hot summer in Nagpur when ambient

temperature goes up to 47°C

Indirect direct evaporative cooling suggested

keeping in mind the excellent WBD during

summer

2 Hot conditions around the tractor assembly lineDedicated HMX-Ambiator of 32,000 CFM for

people working on the tractor assembly line

3Cooling provided by installed chiller system

proving to be inadequate for worker comfort

HMX-Ambiator to work in tandem with chiller

system

4 Installing a cooling system with a good product lifeHMX-Ambiator of blow through design to

eliminate possibility of blower rusting

• Mahindra & Mahindra is the largest tractor manufacturing company in the world (by volume)• The manufacturing plant at Hingana Road, Nagpur rolls out 90,000 tractors per year

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CASE STUDY-2:IDEC helps Mahindra& Mahindra, Nagpur to improve productivity

Sr. No. Date Time Ambient temperature °C Room °C

DBT WBT DBT WBT

1 24/3/14 1.00 pm 38 22 25 21

2 24/3/14 2.30 pm 40 22 26 22

3 24/3/14 4.00 pm 39 23 27 23

• The HMX-Ambiator was installed and commissioned at this plant in February 2014

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CASE STUDY-2:IDEC helps Mahindra& Mahindra, Nagpur to improve productivity

• Rusting of moving parts eliminated as a result of blow through design

• Filtered secondary air ensured more robust operations

• Excellent performance eliminated the need of the chilled water system

• Reduced carbon footprint

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Pre-cooling units

• Pre-cooling units are an excellent option to supply cooled fresh air to improve indoor air quality while simultaneously reducing the load on the compressor of the installed air conditioning system.

• Uses the heat exchanger to pre cool fresh air being supplied to air conditioned spaces or air handling units in the most economical manner.

• Also an excellent option where the entire fresh air load is handled by the chiller or a DX system. Retrofitting of the existing fresh air handling unit is also possible with Pre-cooling units.

• Can be modified to use the room return air to pre-cool the fresh air being supplied.

Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) is more than 15

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Pre-cooling (IEC + DX/CWC)

The primary air stream is cooled first with indirect evaporative cooling. This cools theprimary air stream to the desired temperature. When more cooling is required,

the supplemental DX/CWC module cools the air further to reach the desired temperature.

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Psychrometric representation

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Air Conditioning in commercial spaces

SO FAR…SO FAR…SO FAR…SO FAR…SO FAR…

Conditioned space

Retu

rn D

uct

Supply

Duct

Mix

ing B

ox

Filt

er

Coolin

g C

oil

Exhaust Air

Fresh Air

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Schematic of pre-cooling unit

SO FAR…SO FAR…SO FAR…SO FAR…SO FAR…

Conditioned space

Retu

rn D

uct

Supply

Duct

Mix

ing B

ox

Filt

er

Coolin

g C

oil

Exhaust Air

Coolin

g C

oil

DA

MA

Filt

er

Fresh Air

Secondary Air to Atm.

PCU – F AHU

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Retrofitting PCU to conventional HVAC

Office Complex, 50,000 ft2

Space temperature 24 ˚C

Occupancy 1000 people

Ventilation requirement 10000 cfm

Sensible Heat Exchanger: HMX’s

proprietary “DAMA” inside the PCU - F

Energy Consumption

08.00 – 18.00 h 08.00 – 24.00 h 24 h operation

BenchmarkWith

PCU - FBenchmark

With PCU -F

BenchmarkWith PCU

- F

Total energy consumption,MWh / year

126 93 186 144 246 198

Energy savings,MWh / year

33 42 48

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Case Study: HMX PCUBilcare saves chiller opex

• Bilcare is an innovation-led solutions provider that is a global leader in the field of pharmaceutical packaging.

• The Rajgurunagar plant of Bilcare had set up a new triplex laminating line with a raw material storage area.

• The temperature inside was to be maintained at 26 ± 0°C throughout the year with a RH level of 55 ± 5%.

• Two Air Handling Units (AHUs) with chilled water coils, one with 26,000 CFM and the other with 13,000 CFM were used.

• The summer months the fresh air coming into the chilled water AHUs was at 40-45°C

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Case Study: HMX PCUBilcare saves chiller opex

Two fresh air pre-cooling units HMX-PCU-F without blowers were installed for the two chilled water AHUs

Airflow AmbientDBT

Ambient WBT

WBD After HE-1 DBT

After HE-1 WBT

Savings–

Sensible cooling

Savings –Sensible cooling

Power consumption

/ TR

Power saved

CFM °C °C °C °C °C kW TR kW/TR kW/h

26000 33 21 12 24 16.5 136.5 39 1.2 46.8

13000 33 21 12 23.5 16.5 68.25 20 1.2 23.4

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Fresh Air Air-conditioning (FAAC)

Different modes of operation to suit prevailing ambient conditions

1. Ventilation mode: only fresh air

2. Indirect evaporative cooling mode: only DAMA (sensible heat exchanger)

3. Ambiator mode: indirect + direct evaporative cooling

4. Fresh air pre-cooling mode: DAMA + cooling coil

5. Air-conditioner mode: cooling coil with re-circulated air

6. Heating with humidification mode: cooling pad + heater with re-circulated air

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Case Study: FAAC For Himalaya Drug’s Stores

• The Himalaya Drug Company is a leading multinational medicinal drug company. It produces health care products under the name Himalaya Herbal Healthcare.

• Its existing finished goods warehouse of approximately 16,000 square feet area faced issues of high temperature during the summer season and high humidity during the monsoon season.

• The ideal environment to store the manufactured goods was to maintain temperatures under 26°C throughout the year and humidity levels between 55% and 60% in the monsoon season.

• The HMX-Ambiator was sufficient to deliver these temperatures 70% of the time in a year. For the balance 30% time of the year, air-conditioning of the warehouse was the ideal solution.

• As a result an air-conditioning system of only 25 TR was required instead of the originally planned 80 TR.

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Case Study: FAAC For Himalaya Drug’s Stores

Time Ambient – DBT

°C

Ambient –WBT

°C

Room – DBT °C Room –WBT °C

1:30 PM 27°C 23°C 25°C 22°C

3:30 PM 26°C 23°C 25°C 22°C

Time Ambient –DBT °C

Ambient –WBT °C

Room – DBT °C

Room – WBT °C

1:30 PM 36°C 22°C 25°C 18°C

3:30 PM 34°C 22°C 25°C 18°C

Temperature recordings taken during the when the unit was running in 100% fresh air mode

Temperature recordings taken during the when the unit was running in air-

conditioning mode

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Markets served

Auto/auto ancillaries Commercial Engineering FMCG

Print & Packaging Rubber & mouldingPharmaceuticalFood & Beverages

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Applications

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SO FAR…

Organizations using and recommending these sustainable technologies

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Why is Middle East one of the largest HVAC market?

• Extreme climatic conditions of the desert

• Ongoing drive towards diversified businesses away from the traditional petro based economy

• Growing capital investment in infrastructure development

• Rising population with high standards of living

Moving ahead, smart buildings and environmentally sustainable HVAC systems across commercial, residential, hospitality and retail user segments in this region will aid in further driving the HVAC market

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Cooling performance: Supply Air Temp profile

IDEC supply air temperatures spread for a complete year

(8760 Hrs) for Abu Dhabi

VENTILATION DIRECT INDIRECT - DIRECT

No of Hrs in % No of Hrs in % No of Hrs in %

S A Temp ≤ 20 1655 19% 3374 39% 4609 53%

S A Temp 20.01 - 22.00 724 8% 1315 15% 1416 16%

S A Temp 22.01 - 24.00 812 9% 1234 14% 904 10%

S A Temp 24.01 - 26.00 719 8% 1102 13% 805 9%

S A Temp 26.01 - 28.00 827 9% 1059 12% 701 8%

S A Temp 28.01 - 30.00 864 10% 605 7% 314 4%

S A Temp 30.01 - 32.00 812 9% 71 1% 11 0%

S A Temp 32.01 - 34.00 644 7% 0% 0%

S A Temp 34.01 - 36.00 557 6% 0% 0%

S A Temp 36.01 - 38.00 469 5% 0% 0%

S A Temp≥ 38.01 677 8% 0% 0%

8760 8760 8760

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Questions?

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THANK YOU

Contact:Mail: [email protected] / [email protected]: www.hmx.co.in / www.gessuae.ae


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